TUKI ENGLISH-SWAHILI DICTIONARY
KAMUSI YA  KIINGEREZA-KISWAHILI

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

 

D, d herufi ya nne katika alfabeti ya Kiingereza. 2 (Roman numeral) 500/ 'd (abbrev. of had, should, would) I'd rather go today ningependa kwenda leo.

dab1 vt, vi 1 tona; tonea. ~ with a sponge tona kwa sifongo. 2 pangusa kidogo. 3 ~ at gusia, gusa n kutona.

dab2 n also ~ hand (colloq) bingwa (katika michezo n.k.).

dabble vt,vi 1 chovyachovya. 2 ~ at/in (art, politics etc) fanyafanya, jifunza juujuu, jifanyia. ~r n.

dactyl n (lit) silabi tatu (ndefu zikifuatiliwa na mbili fupi).

dad; ~dy n (colloq) baba. ~long legs n aina ya mdudu (mwenye miguu mirefu).

dado n 1 kiweko cha ukuta (chenye rangi tofauti).

daemon n see demon.

daffodil n ua la rangi ya manjano.

daft adj -pumbavu, bozibozi.

dagger n 1 hanjari; sime; (curved) jambia. at ~s drawn tayari kupigana. look ~s tazama kwa chuki/uadui sana. 2 (printing) alama ya kurejea.

Dail Eireann n Bunge la Ireland.

daily n 1 gazeti la kila siku. 2 (colloq) mtumishi wa nyumbani (ambaye hakai pale anapofanya kazi) adj -a kila siku. one's ~ bread riziki. ~ dozen n mazoezi ya maungo (ya kila siku) adv kila siku.

dainty n kitafunio, kitafunwa; (pl) mapochopocho adj 1 -rembo,

tanashati. 2 (fastidious) -teuzi; chaguzi, -enye machagu; -enye kidomo. 3 (of things) zuri, laini; rahisi kuharibika. 4 (of food) ladhidhi, tamu, tamanishi. daintiness n.

dairy n 1 banda la kuhifadhi maziwa na kutengenezea bidhaa za maziwa. 2 duka la kuuzia maziwa na bidhaa zake. 3 kiwanda cha maziwa na bidhaa zake. ~ farm n shamba la kufugia ng'ombe wa maziwa. ~

damn

cattle n ng'ombe wa maziwa. ~maid n mwanamke anayefanya kazi kwenye banda la ng'ombe wa maziwa. ~man n mwuza maziwa na bidhaa zake; mfanyakazi katika shamba la kufugia ng'ombe. ~ products n bidhaa za maziwa.

dais n kikwezeo.

dale n (esp in N. England and in poetry) bonde. ~sman n mkazi wa mabondeni.

dally vt,vi 1 ~(with) chezacheza, tongozatongoza, fanya ubembe. 2 ~ with an idea fikiriafikiria. 3 poteza wakati (kwa uvivu, uzembe), chelewa, kawia, faitika. dalliance n utongozaji (wa mzaha/utani).

dam1 n lambo, bwawa, boma la kuzuia maji (mtoni, baharini n.k.); (of irrigation channels) kuko vt ~ (up) tengeneza bwawa; zuia maji; (fig) zuia (hisia n.k.)

dam2 n mvyazi (hasa mnyama).

damage n 1 hasara; madhara. cause ~s to somebody tia hasara. 2 (pl leg) fidia vt haribu; hasiri; vunja. be ~d haribika; vunjika.

dame n 1 (arch) mwanamke (hasa aliyeolewa). 2 (US sl,) mwanamke. 3 (GB) cheo cha heshima ya juu cha mwanamke. 4 mke au binti wa Lodi. 5 jina (la kitu kinachofananishwa na mwanamke). D~ Nature n Asilia. D~ Fortune n Bahati.

damfool adj (also damned fool) pumbavu kabisa/sana.

dammit; damnit interj al-la!; potelea mbali! as near as ~ karibu sawa kabisa!

damn vt 1 laani, apiza. 2 (of God) hukumu kwenda motoni, tia/takia adhabu ya milele. 3 sema kuwa kitu fulani ni hafifu; shutumu; puuza, toa thamani a book ~ed by the critics kitabu chapwa (kwa maoni ya wahakiki) ~ with faint praise sifu kidogo (kiasi cha kuonyesha kuwa hupendi). 4 (as interj to express strong emotion) I'll be ~ed if I accept your order sikubali kamwe/ng'oo! maagizo/amri zako ~ you mshenzi we! ~ his impudence

Damocles

ufidhuli wake ulaaniwe n 1 matusi. 2 I don't give/care a ~ hainiumi sikio wala ndewe; sijali kabisa. not worth a ~ bila thamani. ~able adj (also ~ed) 1 -a kuchukiza mno; (colloq) baya sana sana he spoke ~ well aliongea vizuri sana you 'll get ~ all hupati kitu. 2 -a kustahili laana, -enye kulaaniwa milele; maluuni. ~ation n 1 kulaani/kulaaniwa, ulaanifu. 2 laana: adhabu ya kutengwa na Mungu. eternal ~ation n laana ya milele.

Damocles n sword of ~ tishio (linaloweza kutokea wakati wowote).

damp vt,vi (also ~en). 1 fifiza kazi/nguvu ya kitu; punguza mbembeo polepole hadi kusimama kabisa. 2 tilia gesi yenye sumu; palia kooni. 3 fanya kuwa na unyevunyevu ~ somebody's spirits punguza ari ya mtu ~ down a fire punguza mwako wa moto (kwa kutia majivu); (fig) punguza (furaha, raha, n.k.). 4 (of voice or musical instrument) punguza sauti. 5 ~ off (of plants) oza kwa unyevu mwingi n 1 unyevu, umajimaji. 2 harufu mbaya ya hewa au gesi yenye sumu (hasa katika mgodi wa makaamawe). 3 hali ya kukatisha tamaa adj 1 pwetepwete, -a majimaji, chepechepe kidogo; -bichi kidogo. ~ clothes n nguo zenye unyevunyevu. 2 -enye ari ndogo; -enye hali ya kupombogea/kutia majonzi/masikitiko. cast a ~ over (fig) tia mashaka/masikitiko/ wasiwasi; punguza matumaini. 3 (also fire ~) -a gesi ya sumu/hatari. ~ness n unyevunyevu, umajimaji, upwetepwete

damper n 1 valvu ya kudhibiti uingizaji wa hewa katika moto. 2 put a ~ on punguza furaha/starehe. 3 kizingiti.

damsel n kijana mwanamke, msichana; mwanamwali.

dance vt,vi 1 dansi, cheza

ngoma. 2 chachawa; rukaruka the children ~ed for joy watoto

dapper

walichachawa. 3 (of a child) vinyavinya, chezesha. ~ attendance upon somebody sikiliza na fuata (matakwa ya mtu) kwa makini. ~ to somebody's tune tii. ~r n mcheza ngoma n 1 (series of movements and steps) dansi. lead somebody a (pretty) ~ endesha mtu; -pa mtu matatizo. 2 mkusanyiko wa wacheza dansi. ~ing. adj ~ing-master n mweledi wa kudansi/ mwalimu wa dansi. dancing place n batobato.

dander n (colloq only) get one's ~up

pandisha hasira. get somebody's ~ up kasirisha mtu, udhi. 2 (of hair) mba; magamba (madogomadogo kutoka kwenye ngozi au manyoya ya ndege).

dandle vt 1 vinyavinya. 2 chezesha (k.m. mtoto mikononi).

dandruff n mba.

dandy n 1 mlimbwende, mmbuji, mtanashati, mfuauji adj (sl) bora sana, safi sana. dandified adj -lovalia kitanashati/kimaridadi. dandify vt fanya maridadi.

danger n 1 hatari, janga, baa. 2 jambo/ kitu kisababishacho hatari. put in ~ hatarisha, tia hatarini he is out of ~ ameanza kupona, amenusurika. 3 alama/rangi ya hatari. the signal is at ~ ishara inaonyesha hatari. ~ point n sehemu ya hatari. ~ zone n eneo la hatari. ~ money n malipofidia: malipo ya ziada yatolewayo kwa ajili ya kazi ya hatari. ~ous adj. ~ ous (to/ for) -a hatari; -enye kudhuru. be on ~ous ground -wa mahali pa hatari. ~ously adv.

dangle vt,vi 1 ning'inia; ning'iniza keep someone dangling mwache mtu hewani. 2 (fig) shawishi. 3 ~ round/about nyemelea.

Daniel n 1 hakimu mwadilifu. 2 mtu mwenye busara nyingi.

dank adj -enye unyevunyevu unaotia

kinyaa.

dapper adj (usually of a small person) nadhifu; chapuchapu.

dappled

dappled adj -enye madoadoa, -enye mabaka, paku vt tia madoadoa ya mviringo ya rangi mbalimbali. ~grey n (horse) farasi mwenye rangi ya kijivu na madoadoa yaliyoiva.

Darby and Joan n (married couples) wazee (mke na mume) wapendanao.~ club n klabu ya wazee.

dare vi,vt thubutu, jusuru, jasiri; (defy challenge) pinga I wont ~ do that again sitathubutu kufanya hivyo tena. I ~ say bila shaka! nathubutu kusema. ~ devil n jasiri, jahili (asiye mwangalifu). daring adj hodari, jasiri, -sio na hofu n ujasiri.

dark n 1 giza. ~ room n chumba cha kusafishia picha. 2 utusitusi, weusi; mazimbwe-zimwe; (fig) ujinga. be in the ~about something -tokukijua kitu; -wa gizani. 3 machweo. before ~ kabla ya kuchwa. after ~ baada ya kuchwa adj 1 -a giza. The ~ Continent n Bara la Giza, -a zama za giza. a ~ horse mtu asiyetegemewa kushinda. 2 -eusi. 3 (of colour) -sio na mwanga mkali, -nayokaribia nyeusi. ~ blue n buluu nzito, buluu iliyokoza. 4 (secret) -a siri -a mafambafamba. keep something ~ tunza, sitiri. 5 (difficult to understand) -a fumbo, -gumu. 6 (wicked) -ovu. 7 (unenlightened) -jinga; -shenzi look on the ~ side of things ona mabaya tu. ~en vt,vi 1 tia giza; fifiza, tia kivuli, tanda (mawingu). ~en somebody's door (facet) tembelea mtu. 2 (sadden) huzunisha. ~y; ~ey (derog) mtu mweusi.

darling n mahabubu, mpenzi, kipenzi adj -penzi.

darn vt tililia, shona (kufuata nguo namna ilivyofumwa) n 1 mtililio, mshono wa kutililia. 2 kiraka. ~ing -ball/ ~ing-egg n dopa. ~ing needle n sindano ya utililiaji. ~er n

dart vi 1 kupuka, (toka, enda) upesi

kwa ghafula. ~ in kupukia ndani. ~ out kupukia nje, tokeza kwa

date

ghafula kama ulimi wa nyoka). 2 tupa (piga, vurumisha) kwa ghafla na haraka n 1 kigumba (hasa kitumiwacho katika mchezo wa datsi). 2 mruko, mchupo wa ghafula. ~s n mchezo wa datsi. ~s board n (of game) ubao wa datsi.

dash n 1 mvumburuko: mwendo wa kukurupuka; mfyatuko make a ~ for shelter (safety) kimbilia kivulini/ mahali pa salama. 2 mwatuko. 3 mshindo wa mawimbi yakatikapo. 4 (small quantity) kiasi kidogo (lakini muhimu). add a ~ of pepper ongeza kiasi kidogo cha pilipili. 5 (line) kistari, dashi. 6 (vigour) bidii; ujasiri; nguvu; wepesi; hima. cut a ~ onyesha uhodari/ufundi n.k. 7 the ~n mbio fupi (hasa meta 100). 8 (W. Africa) rushwa, mlungura vt 1 (throw violently) fyatua/tupa/gea kwa nguvu. 2 (destroy) haribu ~ a person's hopes vunja matumaini ya fulani. 3 tia kwa haraka; fanya kwa haraka. ~ along pita mbio. ~ away toweka haraka, kurupuka. 4 (usu a/the ~ of) (sound of waves) pigapiga; rukaruka. ~ing adj 1 changamfu, -enye uhai. 2 mtanashati. cut a ~ing vutia sana. ~ed adj 1 -liovunjika moyo. 2 see damned. ~-board n 1 kinga matope/maji/upepo/theluji/ n.k.; kioo (cha mbele). 2 dashibodi: ubao/paneli ya gari inayoshikilia mita na vipimo vingine.

dastard n (arch) mwonevu; mwoga, (afanyaye ukatili mahali ambapo yu salama). ~ly adv.

data n data: habari, vitu, n.k. vitumiwavyo katika kufikia hitimisho fulani.

date1 n 1 tarehe what ~ is it tarehe ngapi. 2 kipindi maalumu (cha jambo fulani). out of ~ -a zamani, -a kale. up to ~ -a siku hizi, -a sasa, -pya, -enye kwenda na wakati his books are up to ~ mahesabu yake hayakucheleweshwa. to ~ hadi leo. 3 miadi. make a ~ weka miadi vt,vi

date

1 tia tarehe, andika mwaka, mwezi na siku ya jambo fulani. 2 ~ from anzia (enzi, karne, mwaka). bring up to ~ fanya kuwa -a kisasa/kileo. dating from tangu. it ~s from -lianzia. ~ back to a period rejea kipindi. 3 anza kupitwa na wakati. be out of ~ -wa -a zamani. 4 -pa miadi, weka miadi. ~ less adj 1 sio na tarehe, (siku, mwezi na mwaka). 2 -sio na mwanzo, -isiyokumbukwa chanzo chake. ~ed adj -lopitwa na wakati. ~ line n mstari wa tarehe. international ~line n mstari wa tarehe wa kimataifa, (mstari unaogawanya dunia katika sehemu mbili za kuhesabu siku na tarehe).

date2 n tende. ~palm n mtende.

datum n (see data)

daub vt,vi 1 kandika, paka, siriba (ovyoovyo). 2 chora picha zisizo nzuri. 3 tia uchafu, chafua n 1 picha iliyochorwa ovyovyo. 2 msiribo, mkandiko. ~er n mkandikaji, mpakaji rangi, mchoraji asiye na ujuzi.

daughter n binti, mtoto wa kike. ~ly adj -a binti; kama binti. ~-in-law n mkwe; mke wa mwana wa kiume.

daunt vt 1 katisha tamaa. 2 ogofya, tia kitata, tisha, tia hofu. nothing ~ed bila kukata tamaa. ~less adj hodari, jasiri, siyo na hofu, -shupavu. ~lessly adv.

davenport n 1 (GB) dawati dogo lenye saraka.2(US) sofa kubwa (linaloweza kufanywa kitanda), kochi refu.

davit n (naut) manjanika, winchi (hasa ya melini ya kupandishia na kuteremshia mashua).

Davylamp n taa ya wachimba migodi (iliyozingirishwa wavu wa waya).

Davy-Jones n chini (ya bahari) go to Davy Jones's locker zama chini ya bahari.

dawdle vt,vi kawia, poteza wakati (kwa kuchezacheza/kwa uzembe); ajizi, enda polepole, piga ubwete, susurika. ~er n.

day

dawn n 1 mapambazuko, alfajiri, mawio, macheo; weupe wa alfajiri. 2 (fig) (beginning) mwanzo, asili chimbuko vt,vi 1 pambazuka. 2 (begin) anza. 3 ~ (on/upon somebody) (fig) fahamika polepole. it ~ed upon me nilianza kufahamu, ilinielea. ~ing n 1 kupambazuka, kucha. 2 (on/upon) (fig) kuanza kufahamu/kuelewa.

day n 1. siku. ~ off n siku ya kupumzika kazi. 2 (time of daylight) mchana, kutwa. 3 wakati, muda all ~ mchana kutwa. ~ by ~ kila siku. the ~ after tomorrow kesho kutwa. the ~ before yesterday juzi. this ~ week siku kama leo baada ya juma moja. ~ after ~; from ~ to ~ siku kwa siku. daily siku hadi siku. ~ in ~ out siku nenda rudi. good ~ (formal) (greeting) hujambo. one of these ~s katika siku za karibuni /usoni. the other ~ juzi juzi. call it a ~ gotoka let's call it a ~ tugotoke. that will be the ~ kamwe siku hiyo haitatokea. not to be one's ~ siku ya ndege mbaya. win/ lose the ~ shinda/shindwa we have won the ~ tumeshinda. better ~s n siku za fanaka. evil ~s n siku za nuksi. fall on evil ~s pitia wakati mgumu; pata mkosi. in our ~s katika enzi yetu. to end one's ~s kufa; kupitisha siku za mwisho za uzeeni. 4 kazi (ya kibarua cha kutwa). work by the ~ kufanya kazi za kibarua. 5 tarehe which ~ of the month is it? ni tarehe ngapi? 6 mwisho, ukomo everything has its ~ kila kitu kina siku yake the theory etc has had its ~ umaarufu wa nadharia umegota. ~-boarder n mwanafunzi (asiyekaa boda lakini hupata chakula cha mchana shuleni). ~-book n 1 shajara: kitabu cha kumbukumbu za kila siku. 2 (comm) kitabu (cha mahudhurio ya kutwa). ~ break n mapambazuko, alfajiri, macheo. ~-care centre n kituo cha chekechea,

daze

mahali pa kutunza watoto wadogo mchana. ~light n 1 macheo, mchana; mwangaza wa mchana. in broad ~light mchana; hadharani adj 1 mchana kutwa, kutwa mzima 2 siku nzima adv kwa siku nzima. ~ school n shule ya kutwa. ~spring n (poet) macheo. ~time n mchana in the ~time wakati wa mchana. ~work n 1 kazi ya mchana. 2 kazi ya kutwa, kazi ya siku.

daze tunduwaza, tia bumbuwazi; changanyikiwa. in a ~ -liotunduwaa. ~dly adv.

dazzle vt fanya kutoona vizuri kwa

sababu ya mwanga mwingi n mng'ao/mng'aro.

deacon n 1 shemasi. 2 mhudumu wa kanisa. ~ess n mhudumu wa kike.

dead adj 1 (of plants, persons)

-liokufa. the ~ n wafu, marehemu. D ~ men tell no tales ya kale hayanuki. wait for a ~ man's shoes subiri kurithi cheo. rise from the ~ fufuka. ~ march n wimbo wa mazishi ~ as a doornail kufa fofofo. 2 (matter) -siowahi kuwa na uhai (k.m. jiwe). 3 kimya tuu, -liotulia kabisa. the ~ hours of the night usiku wa manane be at/come to/reach a ~ end fikia mwisho kabisa, kwama. 4 (of languages, customs etc.) -liokufa, -siotumika sasa (k.m. lugha ya Kiyunani). ~ letter n sharti/kanuni ambayo imepuuzwa, isiyo na nguvu tena; barua iliyowekwa na posta baada ya kumkosa mpelekewa na kushindika na kumrudishia mpelekaji. 5 (of hand etc.) -liopooza; -liokufa ganzi kwa baridi; (colloq) ~ to the world; -liolala fofofo. 6 kamili, kabisa. ~ calm n utulivu kamili. ~ shot n -enye shabaha kali. ~ sleep n usingizi wa pono. ~ silence n kimya kabisa. ~ heat n suluhu katika shindano, sare. go into/be in a ~ faint zimia kabisa. ~ loss bila fidia; hasara tupu; (sl) (mtu) asiye na msaada wotewote. ~ centre n katikati

deal

kabisa, kitovu. 7 -sioweza kutumika tena. a ~ match n njiti ya kibiriti iliyokwishatumika. 8 (of sounds) -zito; (of colours) -siong'ara sana, -liochujuka. 9 (various uses) ~ ahead mbele. ~ fall n mtego wa gogo. ~ slow polepole kabisa. ~ sure n hakika kabisa. ~line adj muda wa mwisho wa kutenda jambo. ~ pan n (of face) adj -enye kujikausha; -sioonyesha hisia. ~ weight n uzito wa jumla (wa chombo na mizigo). ~ wood n mti mkavu; (fig) mtu mjinga; -sioweza kitu; -liokwisha (vunyenge). ~lock n 1 mkwamo; kushindwa kabisa (kufikia maafikiano). break the ~lock fanya hali ya kutokuafikiana itoke. ~en vt,vi 1 punguza; (of feelings) tuliza; fifisha drugs to ~en pain dawa za kutuliza maumivu. ~ly adj 1 -a kufisha; uaji, angamizi; -a kudhuru sana, -a kutilifu mwili, -a kuhatarisha. 2 chushi. 3 apizi/laanifu. 4 -a kama kifo. 5 (colloq) kali, -liozidiana. (of aim) ~ly shot n dango kali. ~liness n.

deaf adj 1 -ziwi, -sioweza kusikia vizuri/kabisa a ~ person kiziwi. 2 -a kuziba masikio; -siotaka kusikiliza. turn a ~ ear to something -pa kisogo jambo fulani the ~ viziwi. ~ness n. ~mute n bubukiziwi adv kama kifo, mno. ~en vt 1 hanikiza. 2 zuia msikiko/vishindo. ~ening adj.

deal1 n ubao wa msonobari ~ furniture samani ya msonobari. ~ table n meza ya msonobari.

deal2 n 1 (portion) sehemu. 2 (quantity) kiasi, kiwango a great ~ of kiasi kikubwa sana, kiwango kikubwa, tele. a good ~ of kiasi fulani, -ingi kidogo that's saying a good ~ inatosha, umesema vya kutosha.

deal3 vt,vi 1 (of cards etc) gawa/ gawanya. ~ out gawa, gawanya (kwa watu kadhaa) ~ out cards gawa karata (kwa wachezaji). 2 ~

dealt

somebody a blow/ ~ a blow at/to somebody piga; (fig) umiza; tafrisha. 3 ~ in something uza the market ~s in assorted goods soko linauza bidhaa za aina mbalimbali; tumia muda katika kufanya jambo do not ~ in gossip usishiriki umbea. 4 ~ with somebody/at a place fanya biashara (na). (treat) ~ with kuwa na muwasala na, lahiki; (of affairs) shughulikia; jihusisha na; (of a book) ongelea, husu. 5 ~ well/badly by somebody tendea/fanyia vyema, vibaya n 1 mgawo. 2 mpango, haki. a new ~ mpango mpya wenye manufaa. a square ~ n haki halali. 3 mapatano (katika biashara), maafikiano. it's a ~ tumekubaliana do a ~with somebody weka/fikia mapatano na. n a raw/rough ~ maonevu. ~ing n. ~er n 1 mchuuzi, mfanyibiashara ~er in a commodity muuza bidhaa. 2 mgawa karata.

dealt vt see deal3.

dean1 n bonde (jembamba lenye kijito na miti).

dean2 n 1 paroko (mkuu wa makasisi wa parokia). 2 (of faculty) mkuu wa kitivo. 3 (of students) mshauri. 4 mkuu wa mabalozi (katika nchi moja). ~ery n 1. ofisi/ nyumba ya padre mkuu. 2 parokia zilizo chini ya paroko mmoja.

dear adj 1 (expensive) ghali, -a thamani nyingi, -enye wakifu. that's too ~ ni ya wakifu mkubwa; ni ghali mno 2. ~ (to) (beloved) -penzi, mahabubu, -a kupendeza. hold somebody ~ penda sana 3. (form of address) ~ friend rafiki mpendwa. ~ Amina mpendwa Amina. ~ Sir Bwana (exclamation) oh ~ maskini! ~ me!; ~ ~! masalale! mama wee! n mpenzi, kipenzi, mhibu. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ~y; ~ie n (colloq) kipenzi (hasa mtoto kwa mama yake).

dearth n ~ (of) upungufu, ukosefu, uhaba, uchache a ~ of food upungufu wa chakula.

death

deary n see dearie.

death n 1 mauti, kifo, ufu. at ~'s door chungulia kaburi. he's working himself to ~ anafanya kazi sana. bore somebody to ~/stiff chosha mtu. sick to ~ of somebody choshwa na mtu. ~-bed n kitanda cha mauti on his ~-bed karibia kufa. ~-bed confession n maungamo ya mwisho. ~ duties n ushuru wa mirathi. ~ rate n kiwango cha vifo; idadi ya vifo kwa mwaka. 2 kuua/kuawa, kifo. accidental ~ n kifo cha ajali. ~ by misadventure kifo cha bahati mbaya. ~ sentence n hukumu ya kifo. die a natural ~ -fa kipinda/kibudu; (of person) -fa kawaida. be in jaws of ~ -wa hatarini, ingia kwenye mdomo wa mamba. be in at/the ~ shuhudia kifo; (fig) shuhudia mwisho wa amali. put somebody to ~ ua. stone somebody to ~ rujumu. ~roll n orodha ya watu waliouawa vitani. ~ trap n mazingira ya kifo; machinjioni. ~ -warrant n hati inayoruhusu kuua mhalifu. 3 be the ~ of sababisha kifo/ajali. catch one's ~ (of cold) pata mafua makali. ~ blow n pigo la kufa; (fig) that was a ~-blow to my hopes hilo lilikuwa pigo la wisho la matarajio yangu. (of 14th c.) the Black D~ n tauni. (a fate) worse than ~ a kutisha mno. 4 (fig) kuharibika, mwisho the ~ of our plans kuharibika kwa mipango yetu. ~ chamber n chumba cha waliohukumiwa kifo. ~-cap n uyoga wa sumu. ~ -house n; ~'s head n fuvu (la kichwa) lenye mifupa iliyokingama ikiwa ni ishara ya hatari. ~rattle n mkoromo (wa kifo). ~toll n idadi ya watu waliokufa katika ajali. ~ watch n kukesha na mgonjwa aliyekaribia kufa. ~less adj -a milele, -siyo na mwisho, -siokufa; -a azali/aushi. ~less fame n sifa isiyokufa. ~like

debacle

adj kama kifo, kama mauti.

debacle n 1 mbio za kuhangarara, ghuma, haikahaika. 2 kuvunja kivangaito; maafa makubwa. 3 anguko (k.m. la serikali); gharika ya ghafula.

debag vt vua suruali kwa nguvu.

debar vt ~ somebody from pinga, zuia, kataza (mtu) kwa sheria.

debark vt,vi ~ation n see disembark debase vt 1 shusha hadhi, cheo, thamani; vunja bei. ~ currency shusha thamani ya fedha za nchi. ~d adj ilioshushwa hadhi, cheo au thamani. ~ment n.

debate vt,vi jadili; jadiliana; fanya mdahalo. (consider) ~ upon fikiri, zingatia n mjadala, majadiliano; (official) hoja; mdahalo. ~r n mjadili; mdahili. debatable adj -a mashaka, -sio thabiti; -a kuweza kujadiliwa.

debauch vt potosha; fisidi; zaini, rairai, (haribu) kwa zinaa/ uasherati/ulevi n kipindi cha ufisadi. ~ed adj. ~ee n fisadi. ~ery n.

debenture n 1 stakabadhi ya mkopo, hati ya malipo ya kurejeshewa kodi iliyokatwa kwenye bidhaa zilizotengenezwa/zilizozalishwa au zilizoingizwa nchini. 2 karadha (iliyokopeshwa kwa dhamana ya raslimali). 3 dhamana ya ushirika. ~ bond n karadha ya dhamana ya ushirika. ~ issued at discount karadha yenye turuhani/kipunguzo. ~ issued at premium mikopo yenye ziada. ~ stock n jumla ya mikopo.

debilitate vt dhoofisha, ondolea nguvu, fanya dhaifu, sawijisha. debility n.

debit n mtoe, mdaiwa; hesabu (iliyoandikwa upande wa madeni katika daftari) (kinyume cha mpe). ~ balance n baki katika hesabu ya mtoe enter a sum to the ~ side ingiza fedha upande wa mtoe vt rajisi madeni. ~ somebody with a sum sajili mtu na deni lake. debt n deni be in ~ wiwa, -wa mdeni, daiwa have in one's debits wia. run/get

decarbonize

into debt wiwa, pata madeni. bad debt (written off) deni lisiloweza kulipwa. debt or n mdeni, mwiwa; mdaiwa. debtor-creditor relationship n uhusiano wa mwiwa na mwia.

debonair adj -a bashasha, -kunjufu;

-changamfu; -cheshi.

debouch vi 1 tokeza. 2 toka mafichoni na ingia hadharani.

de-brief vt uliza, hoji kupata taarifa

(kutoka kwa mtu uliyemtuma).

debris n kifusi, mabaki ya mvunjiko, mabaki ya nyumba.

debt n (see debit)

debug vt 1 tafuta na ondoa kasoro,

matatizo kwenye kompyuta au mashine. 2 tafuta na ondoa vinasa sauti kwenye kuta, chumba, nyumba n.k.

debunk vt (sl) 1 fichua maringo/ majivuno, dhihirisha ukweli kwa kuonyesha mambo yasiyo ya kweli yanayopamba kitu au mtu . 2 (unmask to disclose, to renounce) umbua.

debut n limbuko vt tokea/jitokeza/fanya kwa mara ya kwanza. 2 uingiaji rasmi katika chama. ~ ant(e) n limbukeni.

deca pref. kumi.

decade n muongo: kipindi cha miaka kumi.

decadence n kufifia, kushuka kiwango, kuharibika, uoza (kwa sanaa, fasihi, maadili). decadent adj.

decalcify (chem) vt 1 ondoa chokaa; ondoa chokaa kwa kemikali. decalcification n.

Decalogue n the D~ n Amri kumi za Mungu.

decamp vi 1 vunja (kambi, chama, ago). 2 ~ (with) ondoka ghafla na kwa siri. ~ment n.

decant vi chingirisha, gida. ~er n kigida (chupa au chombo cha kugidia divai n.k).

decapitate vi kata kichwa (hasa ikiwa ni adhabu). decapitation n.

decarbonize vt ondoa kaboni.

decasyllable

decarbonization n.

decasyllable n. silabi kumi.

decasyllabic adj (poetic) -enye silabi kumi.

decathlon n seti ya michezo kumi katika riadha.

decay vi 1 oza. 2 anguka. 3 dhoofu n

uozo. 2 kuanguka. 3 kudhoofika.

decease vi (formal) (of a person) -fa, fariki dunia n kifo, mauti; kufa. the ~d n (legal) marehemu, hayati. deceit n see deceive decedent n (US) marehemu.

deceive vt ~ (in/into) danganya, hadaa, ghilibu, laghai. ~ oneself jidanganya. ~r mdanganyifu, ayari. deceiving adj. deceivingly adv. deceit n ughushi; udanganyifu, ulaghai, kengo. deceitful adj. deceitulness n. deceitfully adv. deception n udanganyifu; kudanganya; hila. deceptive adj -a kudanganya; -a hila; -a kutia mashaka, -danganyifu.

decelerate vt,vi punguza; pungua mwendo, punguka mwendo. deceleration n upunguzaji mwendo.

December n Desemba, mwezi wa

kumi na mbili.

decennial adj -a kila mwaka wa kumi.

decent adj 1 -a adabu, -a heshima dress nguo ya heshima. 2 -zuri, -a kupendeza; stahifu, -a kufaa; ~ weather hali ya hewa inayofaa ~ meal chakula kizuri; (colloq) -a kupendeka, -a wastani. ~ly adv kwa adabu, kwa heshima. decency n 1 adabu, heshima; ustahifu; mwenendo mwema have the decency to stahi, onyesha heshima. 2 (pl) the decencies n kanuni za adabu.

decentralize vt gatua madaraka; (of govt.) toa madaraka mikoani. decentralization n.

deci- (pref) -a sehemu ya kumi.

decibel n kizio cha kupimia kiwango cha sauti.

decide vt,vi 1 kata shauri, amua ~ a

dispute amua ugomvi, amua mabishano. 2 hukumu. ~d adj (in all

deck

senses) 1 (determined, resolute) thabiti, imara, -a nguvu, -enye nia. 2 (clear) dhahiri, wazi. ~dly adv bila shaka, kwa vyovyote. decision n 1 uamuzi, hukumu, maamuzi, mkataa. binding decision n hukumu ya mkataa come to decision fikia uamuzi, azimia final decision uamuzi wa mwisho. 2 (resolution) uwezo wa kukata shauri, kuamua, kuhukumu lacking decision -siokuwa na uamuzi thabiti. decisive adj 1 (clear) -enye uwezo wa kuamua, -a mkataa a decisive battle vita vya kuamua mshindi na mshinde, mapambano ya mkataa, -a kukata shauri/maneno. 2 -enye uamuzi a decisive man mtu mwenye uamuzi. 3 -a wazi a decisive victory ushindi wa wazi. decisively adv. decisiveness n.

deciduous adj (of trees) -a kupukutika majani yake; (of ants) -a kupukutika mbawa zake.

decimal adj -a miongo; -a sehemu za kumi, -a desimali ~ number numerali ya desimali, ushuria n sehemu ya kumi, ushuria.

decimate vt 1 (hist) ua kila mtu wa

kumi. 2 angamiza, ua idadi kubwa ya watu. decimation n.

decimetre n desimita.

decipher vt fumbua (fasiri) maandiko ya siri/ya fumbo; tambua maana ya maandishi yasiyosomeka. ~able adj.

deck n sitaha after ~ sitaha tezi. clear the ~s (for action) jitayarisha kwa jambo au mapambano ~ hand muhudumu sitahani. 2 (US) jozi ya karata. 3 (comm) mkusanyo wa kadi zenye matobo katika faili moja. ~-cargo n shehena, mizigo iliyowekwa sitahani. ~- chair n kiti cha stahani. ~- house n kibanda, kijumba kilicho kwenye sitaha katika meli, kijumba cha sitahani. ~ passenger n abiria wa sitahani. ~er n (in compounds) -enye ghorofa maalumu ya sitaha. a double ~er bus n basi

declaim

la ghorofa. ~ (with/out in) vt 1 pemba, remba, pamba ~ oneself out in fine clothes jipamba kwa mavazi mazuri. 2 funika, tia sitaha chomboni.

declaim vt 1 sema kwa ukali. ~

against kemea, kengemeka, shambulia kwa maneno. 2 (practise speaking) jifunza usemaji, tongoa (mashairi), tongoa; hubiri. declamation n 1 usemaji; kuhutubia. 2 makelele, ugomvi; hotuba kali. declamatory adj.

declare vt,vi tangaza, tamka, arifu.~ (to be) innocent toa hatiani. ~ war (on/against) tangaza vita. 2 nena kwa nguvu/uthabiti. 3 (to customs officials) onyesha mali mpya. 4 ~ for/against unga mkono/pinga. 5 (int) onyesha mshangao well I ~ loo!! ~d adj -a wazi. ~dly adv kwa nguvu sana. declarable adj. declaration n 1 azimio, tamko, tangazo. Arusha Declaration n Azimio la Arusha. 2 taarifa declaration of the polls taarifa ya matokeo ya uchaguzi. 3 hati ya kujulisha/kueleza habari. declarant n mtamkaji.

declassify vt tangua (agh habari

iliyokuwa siri na kuifanya bayana). declassification n.

decline vi,vt 1 (refuse) kataa, kana. 2 (slope) inama. 3 (go down) shuka a declining birthrate kushuka kwa kima cha uzazi. 4 pungua, punguka. 5 (decay) dhoofika; fifia n 1 mteremko. mwinamo. 2 kushuka, kupungua nguvu; kudhoofu; kufifia (hasa kwa kuugua kifua kikuu) go into ~ dhoofika. declination n 1 mkengeuko wa mshale wa dira. 2 mwinamo. 3 (US) kukataa. declinometer n kipimo-mwinamo.

declivity n mteremko. declivitious adj. declutch vi tengua klachi (ya motokaa), kanyaga klachi.

decoct vt pata vijenzi halisi vya kitu kwa kukichemsha ili kuondoa vingine visivyo muhimu. ~ion n.

decrease

decode vt simbua. ~er n chombo cha kufasiria maandishi ya siri. see code.

decoke vt see decarbonize.

decolonize vt ondoa katika ukoloni,

toka katika ukoloni, toa uhuru. decolonization n.

decompose vt, vi 1 (analyse) changanua, vunja; changuka; geuza hali ya asili. 2 (rot) oza; ozesha; haribu; haribika. decomposition n.

decompress vt ondosha kani, punguza

msukumo, gandamua. ~ion n. ~or n chombo cha kupunguzia msukumo (kipunguza msukumo).

deconsecrate vt tangua wakfu. decontaminate vt ondoa uchafu n.k., twahirisha. decontamination n.

decontrol n ondoa udhibiti, acha huru.

decor n nakshi/mapambo, marembo na vitu vyote vinavyokamilisha (sura; mandhari, chumba, jukwaa n.k.). ~ate vt 1 pamba, remba, tia nakshi. 2 paka rangi; (with badge or medal) visha/tunuku nishani. ~ate with an order tunukia nishani. ~ator n mpaka rangi, mtia nakshi, mpambaji. ~ation n 1 pambo; kupamba; urembo; kuremba. 2 (medal) nishani; cheo cha heshima. ~ative adj -a kufaa kwa kupamba, -a mapambo, -a urembo. ~ative stitches n mishono ya mapambo, mishono nakshi (urembo); darizi.

decorticate vt ponoa, ambua gamba. sisal is ~d to get fibre katani huponolewa ili kupata nyuzi zake. decorticator n furutile.

decorum n adabu, heshima, staha. with due ~ kwa adabu zote. decorous adj -a adabu, -a heshima, stahifu.

decoy n mtego; (bait) chambo vt tega, nasa, (kwa kudanganya, werevu) vuta ~ somebody into doing something tega mtu afanye jambo.

decrease vt,vi 1 punguza; pungua, punguka, fifia n upunguaji, kupungua. crime is on the ~ uhalifu unapungua.

decree

decree n amri, agizo, makataa, hukumu. ~ absolute n makataa. ~nisi n hukumu maalum ya talaka vt toa amri, amuru, agiza, tangaza mkataa.

decrepit adj -dhaifu (kwa sababu ya uzee au kuchakaa), -kuukuu, -kongwe, -chakavu. ~ude n ukongwe; udhaifu; uchakavu; mtambariko.

decry vt tweza; laumu, tuzua, paka matope.

decumbent adj -a kulala chini. dedicate vt, vi ~ to 1 weka wakfu, (weka) kwa matumizi mema au kusudi jema (kama vile matumizi ya dini au utukufu wa Mungu); tabaruku, zindua. 2 (devote) toa (weka, funga kabisa) kwa ajili ya kusudi fulani maalumu. 3 andikia ukumbusho au heshima ya mtu (au kusudi maalumu) this book is ~d to my children kitabu hiki ni kwa heshima ya watoto wangu. 4 toa hidaya; tunukia. 5 ~ oneself to jitolea kwa dhati. dedication n. ~d adj.

deduce vt fikia hitimisho (kutokana na ithibati iliyopo). deducible adj.

deduct vt toa, punguza, ondosha; kata. ~ion n 1 kutoa; kukata, kukatia; kuchukua. 2 (of salary) makato. 3 mambo yaliyofasiriwa (au kukisiwa hivyo). ~ive adj -liopatwa kwa kufasiri mambo mengine yalivyo. ~ively adv.

deed n 1 tendo, kitendo be rewarded for one's good ~s pewa tuzo kwa kitendo chema great ~ tendo kuu (la ushujaa, la ujasiri) a foul ~ tendo ovu. 2 hati rasmi ya makubaliano/ mkataba. ~ poll n hati (inayotiwa sahihi ya mtu mmoja) ya kumgawia mwingine ardhi, hati ya kubadilisha jina. title ~ n hati ya kumiliki. ~ box n kasha mnamowekwa hati hizi.

deem vt (formal) ona kuwa, chukulia kuwa, fikiria kuwa, amini kuwa ~ it an honour to do something chukulia kuwa jambo la heshima kufanya

deface

kitu.

deep adj 1 -a kwenda chini, -enye kina, -enye uketo. ~ water n kina, lindi ten feet ~ in water kina cha futi 10 majini ~ river mto wenye uketo. in ~ water(s) (fig) -wa na matatizo makubwa. 2 -liowekwa ndani sana; -liokuwa nyuma sana; -a ndani. 3 -pana. 4 -sana, kabisa ~ red -ekundu sana ~ secret siri sana. (be) ~ in thoughts (study etc.) zama katika mawazo, -wa mbali kimawazo. 5 (of voice) -zito, nene, -a chini. 6 (of feeling etc.) -ingi; -zito; -kuu, kubwa ~ sorrow majonzi makuu ~ mourning huzuni kubwa ~ sleep usingizi mzito. 7 (fig) -gumu kueleweka a ~ mystery fumbo kubwa. 8 (fig) -enye kuzama, -siyo ya juujuu a woman with ~insight mwanamke mwenye mawazo yaliyozama. 9 siri. he is a ~ one msiri. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ~en vt,vi 1 enda chini; -wa na kina; ongeza uketo. 2 zidisha adv chini sana; ndani. still waters run ~ (prov) kimya kingi kina mshindo. ~ freeze vt gandisha chakula n.k. ili kuhifadhi. ~ freezer n jokofu gandishi. ~ mined adj (of coal) -a kutoka machimboni. ~ drawn adj pumzi iliyoshushwa kwa nguvu. ~ rooted adj -siyo rahisi kutolewa; enye mizizi imara. ~ seated adj -iliyojijenga, -enye nguvu n (poet) the ~ n bahari.

deer n mbawala, paa, kulungu. ~ skin n ngozi ya mbawala iliyohifadhiwa. ~ stalker n mwindaji wa mbawala; kofia ya kitambaa yenye mikia miwili (mmoja mbele mwingine nyuma). ~ stalking n mchezo wa kuwinda mbawala kwa kuwanyemelea.

de-escalate vt punguza eneo au nguvu

ya vita n.k.

deface vt 1 umbua, (kwa kuandika/ kuchora juu yake), fuja. 2 fanya maandiko yasisomeke (k.m. juu ya jiwe la kaburi). ~ment n.

defacto

defacto adj -siopingika, -enyewe, halisi adv kenyekenye: bila kupingwa, moja kwa moja.

defalcate vi fuja/badhiri amana. defalcation n budhara, ubadhirifu wa amana.

defame vt kashifu, haribu jina. defamation n. defamatory adj.

default n 1 kushindwa kufanya jambo; kupuuza. 2 kosa (la kutofanya ipasavyo), mwepuza. win a case (a game) by ~ shinda kesi (au mchezo) kwa kuwa washindani wamepuuza. be in ~ kosekana. ~ of bila, kwa kukosa vi 1 shindwa kutekeleza wajibu/kufuata mkataba. 2 shindwa kulipa madeni. 3 shindwa kufika mahakamani. ~er n 1 mwenye kosa la kutoonekana, kutolipa deni. 2 askari aliyehukumiwa kijeshi.

defeat vt 1 shinda, zidi nguvu, vota. 2 vunja, angamiza n 1 ushinde; kushindwa. 2 maangamizo. ~ist n mtu anayetegemea kushindwa tu. ~ism n hali ya kutazamia kushindwa tu.

defecate vi (med) kunya, -enda choo/ haja kubwa. defecation n.

defect1 n dosari; kasoro; walakini; upungufu. inherent ~ n dosari ya kimaumbile. latent ~n dosari iliyofumbika. patent ~dosari dhahiri. ~ive adj -enye kasoro/ upungufu. mentally ~ive adj -enye upungufu wa akili.

defect2 vi ~ (from/to) asi; saliti. ~or n mwasi; msaliti. ~ion n uasi; usaliti.

defend vt ~ (against/from) 1 (guard) linda, kinga, hami. 2 (speak for) tetea. 3 (sport) linda (goli). ~er n mlinzi; mtetezi. defence n 1 ulinzi, hali ya kulinda/kujihami/kujikinga. 2 kulinda usishambuliwe. 3 (anything which protects) ngome, ngao, kinga; (pl military defences) 1 defences silaha, ulinzi 2 defence area ngome. 3 (legal) utetezi 4 defence counsel wakili wa utetezi. defenceless adj bila ulinzi/kinga; bila utetezi.

define

defencelessly adv. ~lessness n. ~ant n mshitakiwa; mdaiwa. defensible adj 1 -a kulindika. 2 (capable of vindication) -a kuthibitika. defensive adj 1 -enye mwelekeo wa kujilinda/ kujitetea; -a kujikinga defensive weapon silaha za kujikinga/kujilinda. 2 (often derog) -tetezi why is he always so defensive? kwa nini anajiteteatetea. n be/act on the defensive -wa katika hali ya kujilinda/jikinga/jihami/jitetea. defensively adv.

defer1 vt~ ahirisha payment on ~red terms kulipia kidogo-kidogo, kununua kwa kubandika. ~ment n.

defer2 vi ~ (to) kubali kushindwa (hasa kwa sababu ya kuonyesha heshima); ridhi kwa kustahi, stahi. ~ence n kukubali kushindwa (kwa kuonyesha heshima); ridhaa (ya kustahi); staha. in ~ence to kwa staha; kwa kustahi. ~ential adj -enye kuonyesha staha. ~entially adv.

defiance n uasi; ufidhuli; kutojali; ujasiri (wa wazi). defiant adj.

deficiency n upungufu, uchechefu, kasoro. ~ disease n utapiamlo. mental ~ n upungufu wa akili. deficient adj. deficit n hasara; upungufu, (hasa kwa fedha au mali); nakisi, kasoro.

defilade vt (mil.) jilinda dhidi ya mashambulizi ya maadui, jihami, jikinga n mashambulizi, mapambano ya kivita.

defile1 vt,vi najisi; chafua, tia taka;

baka. ~ment n.

defile2 n 1 ushoroba, njia nyembamba ya mlimani. 2 korongo vi (of troops) enda katika mlolongo/msururu.

define vt 1 (explain meaning) fasili;

(duties etc.) eleza wazi kabisa, baini, fafanua. 2 weka mpaka ~ a country's boundaries weka mipaka ya nchi. 3 eleza sifa bainifu (za kitu). definable adj. definite adj 1 -enye mpaka. 2 wazi. 3 -enye msimamo. definitely adv 1 -a

deflate

waziwazi. 2 ndio! haswa! kabisa! definition n 1 fasili, ufafanuzi. 2 udhahiri/udhihirishaji wa umbo. 3 ubainifu wa taswira (katika lenzi, picha n.k.). definitive adj 1. -a mkataa, -a kumalizia, -a hakika 2. bora kabisa.

deflate vt 1 (of tyre) toa upepo. 2 (fig)

punguza majivuno. 3 punguza jumla ya fedha zitumiwazo ili kudhibiti bei. deflation n. deflationary adj.

deflect vt,vi ~ (from) vuta upande, kengeusha; enda upande. ~ion n. ~or n.

deflower vt (liter or old use) bikiri.

defloration n.

defoliate vt teketeza majani; pukuta.

defoliation n. defoliant adj.

deforest vt fyeka/kata miti ya mwituni; haribu mwitu.

deform vt kashifu; haribu umbo/sifa; umbua. ~ed adj -enye kwenda kombo; -lioumbuka; -enye kasoro. ~ation n ugeuzi (kuwa baya); kilema; kombo, upotovu. ~ity n ulemavu.

defraud vt 1 danganya; fanya hila, laghai, ghilibu.

defray vt lipa gharama, lipia, gharimia.

defrost vt yeyusha barafu; ondoa ukungu. ~er n (tech) kiyeyusha barafu; kiondoa ukungu.

deft adj stadi. ~ness n.

defunct adj 1 -fu, marehemu. 2

-liovunjwa, -liotenguliwa, -liofishwa. 3 -siotumika siku hizi, -lioachwa n marehemu, hayati, mfu.

defuse vt toa fyuzi; (of a bomb) tegua bomu; (fig) lainisha, tuliza.

defy 1 kataa katakata; taka shari; taka vita I ~ you to do it thubutu! fanya uone! 2 dharau; asi, -totii; -toogopa. 3 (provoke) chokoza, tolea ujuvi; kaidi; fanyia kiburi. ~ somebody to do something taka mtu afanye jambo ambalo ni muhali kwake/hatokubali kulifanya. 4 shinda, leta shida zisizoweza kuondolewa; shindikana kutatuliwa. her boldness defies competition/description

deictic

ujasiri wake hauna kifani. defier n.

degauss vt tengua nguvu za sumaku.

degenerate vi,vt ~ (into) haribika tabia, sawijika; potoa adj -lioharibika tabia; pungua (kiafya), -liosawijika, -liopotoka n mpotovu, asherati. degeneration n degeneracy n 1 upotovu, mtenguko wa maadili, ugeukaji vibaya, uharibifu wa tabia. 2 upungufu. 3 udhoofu.

degrade vt,vi 1 shusha daraja/cheo au hadhi. 2 ~ oneself jivunjia heshima/hadhi. degradation n.

degree n 1 (for angles, temperature) nyuzi, digrii. 2 (rank) cheo; hadhi; daraja; manzili. 3 hatua, daraja (ya maendeleo), kiasi. by ~s hatua kwa hatua. to a high ~ sana, mno. to what ~ (kwa) kiasi gani; hatua ya uzito (kwa jambo). third ~ n ulazimi- shaji wa mtu kukiri (wa mateso makali). 4 (academic) digrii, shahada. Ph.D ~ n shahada ya Udaktari wa Falsafa. 5 (gram) kiwango cha ulinganisho wa vivumishi na vielezi (k.m. thin, thinner, thinnest) 6. kiwango they differ to a certain ~ wanatafautiana kwa kiwango fulani.

dehorn vt ng'oa pembe (ya mnyama).

dehumanize vt toa (ondoa) utu, dunisha, umbua, dhalilisha. dehumanization n.

dehumidify vt ondoa unyevunyevu.

dehydrate vt kausha, pweza. ~d adj --liopwezwa, -lionyauka. ~d eggs n mayaipwea. dehydration n kuishiwa/kukausha maji.

de-ice vt ondoa barafu; zuia kufanyika kwa barafu. ~r n kiondoa barafu.

deicide n 1 muuaji wa mungu; mwangamizaji wa viwakilishi vya mungu. 2 tendo la kuua/au kuharibu sanamu ya mungu.

deictic n (gram) kionyeshi bainishi.

deify fanya mungu; abudu au heshimu kama mungu. deification n kufanya (kitu au mtu) Mungu, kuabudu au kuheshimu (kitu au mtu) kama Mungu.

deign

deign vi ~ to do something kubali, ridhia, jidhili. ~ to listen -wa na idhilali ya kusikiliza he did not ~ to answer hata/wala hakujibu.

deism n (rel) imani ya uungu bila kukubali ufunuo wala mizengwe yake. deist n muumini asiyekubali ufunuo. deity n 1 uungu, umungu. 2 mungu. the D~ n Mwenyezi Mungu.

deject vt huzunisha, vunja moyo, tia majonzi. ~ed adj -enye huzuni. ~edly adv. ~ion n huzuni, majonzi, moyo mzito. he left in ~ion aliondoka na huzuni kubwa.

de jure adv,adj kwa sheria; -a halali; kisheria.

dekko n (sl) deku. to have a ~ kudeku, kutupia jicho.

delate vt (arch) laumu; suta, sengenya, aili. delation n aili, lawama. delator n mtesi; mbea; mchonge.

delay vt,vi 1 kawiza/kawisha, chelewesha; kawia, chelewa. 2 ahirisha, faitisha n kukawia; ucheleweshaji, usiri; taahira without ~ bila kukawia make no ~ in doing something usichelewe kufanya kitu.

delectable adj 1 -a bashasha, anisi. 2 tamu. delectation n furaha, anasa, bashasha, burudani for the delectation of his guests kwa ajili ya kuwafurahisha wageni wake.

delegate n mjumbe, mwakilishi vt 1 wakilisha. 2 tuma; agiza ~ authority naibisha mamlaka ~ to wekea; agizia. delegation n 1 ujumbe. 2 uwakilishi, uwakilishaji lead a delegation ongoza ujumbe. delegacy ujumbe, uwakilishi.

delete vt~ (from) futa, ondoa (herufi, neno, maandiko). deletion n.

deleterious adj (formal) -haribifu, -a

kudhuru, -a kuumiza.

delft (also delf) ~-ware vyombo vya udongo (vya Uholanzi) vyenye nakshi za buluu.

deliberate vt,vi ~ (over/on/upon) fikiri sana, taamali; shauriana, jadiliana adj 1 -a kusudi. 2 -angalifu, -a hadhari, bila haraka. ~ly adv kwa

delineate

makusudi/kudhamiria. deliberative adj -a kufanya shauri. deliberation n 1 (discussion) mashauriano, majadiliano. 2 (consideration) fikira; uangalifu, hadhari; taamuli.

delicate adj 1 laini, -ororo, -epesi her skin is ~ ngozi yake ni nyororo. 2 -zuri, -a kuvutia, -a kupendeza. 3 -epesi kudhuriwa, dhaifu, -epesi kuugua he is in ~ health hana afya nzuri a ~ looking child mtoto dhaifu (anayehitaji matunzo zaidi). 4 -a kutaka uangalifu mkubwa. 5 (of colours) -a kupendeza; -siokoza. 6 (of the senses or instruments) -kali, -a kuweza kupima tofauti ndogo sana a ~ sense of smell hisia nyingi za kunusa. 7 angalifu sana; -a adabu, -a kujali wengine; -a kutafakari. 8 (of food, its flavour) -tamu, -sio na ladha kali. ~ly adv. delicacy n 1 uzuri, ulaini, wororo, mtiririko. 2 (refinement) adabu; malezi mema, murua. 3 (care) unyeti, uangalifu. 4 (nice dish) chakula kitamu, mapochopocho. delicatessen n 1 duka la vitoweo; duka linalouza vyakula vilivyopikwa tayari; duka la mapochopocho.

delicious adj -a kupendeza sana (hasa kwa ladha, harufu n.k.), -tamu; -zuri. ~ly adv.

delight vt,vi 1 pendeza sana; anisi, furahisha sana; teremesha. 2 ~ed with furahishwa, pendezwa na. 3 (take) ~ in furahia she ~s in criticizing people anafurahia kukosoa watu n 1 furaha; nderemo give ~ to somebody furahisha. 2 kitu kiletacho furaha javelin is my chief ~ kutupa mkuki kunanifurahisha. ~ful adj. ~edly adv. ~fully adv.

Delilah n (of a woman) 1 Delila (Mwanamke katika Biblia aliyemshawishi na kumsaliti Samson). 2 shawishi na habithi.

delimit/delimitate vt wekea mpaka.

delimitation n.

delineate vt 1 onyesha kwa kuchora/

kusawiri/kueleza; chora, sawiri. 2

delinquency

fafanua kwa maneno, eleza kinaganaga. delineation n.

delinquency n 1 ukosaji, uhalifu;

kutowajibika. 2 kosa, hatia juvenile~, uhalifu wa vijana. delinquent n mkosaji, mwenye hatia, mhalifu juvenile delinquent mtoto mhalifu adj -kosaji, -enye hatia; siowajibika. delinquently adv.

deliquescent adj -lioyeyuka kuwa majimaji. deliquescence n mmumunyisho maji. deliquesce vi (chem) -wa majimaji kwa kuvuta maji hewani.

delirious adj zezeta, -a kupagawa,

-enye kupayuka- payuka/kuweweseka kwa ugonjwa au ulevi, -a kupayuka; -a kuchachawa be ~ with joy jawa na furaha, pagawa kwa furaha. delirium n mapayo, weweseko; wazimu, mazezeta. ~ tremens n mapayo ya ulevi.

deliver vt 1 peleka (barua, vifaa n.k.), wasilisha; (fig) ~ the goods tekeleza wajibu. 2 ~ from okoa, ponya, opoa, fanya huru (tokana na hatari, utumwa, kifungo, maumivu, mauti, dhambi n.k.). 3 toa ~ oneself of an opinion toa mawazo ~ a speech/ lecture toa hotuba/mhadhara ~ an order toa amri. 4 (give birth to) zaa, jifungua; zalisha. 5 ~ up/over (to) kiri, toa, kabidhi. 6 anzisha (mpango); peleka dhidi ya. (fig) ~ a blow piga. ~er n mwokozi, mkombozi. ~ance n 1 ~ance from wokovu, ukombozi, uhuru. 2 afua, nusura. 3 (utterance) kutoa mahubiri/ hotuba. 4 (leg) (sentence) hukumu. ~ancy n 1 uokoaji, ukombozi, kuopoa, kufanya huru. 2 kupeleka, kukabidhi, kuwasilisha, kutoa (barua bidhaa n.k.). 3 uwasilishaji. on ~y wakati wa kuwasilisha. take ~y of pokea. ~y note n hati ya kuwasilisha/kupokea. ~y van n gari la ugawaji. 4 kuzaa; kuzalisha. 5 namna ya kuongea/kutoa hotuba n.k. 6 pigo. 7 (mode of speaking) jinsi ya kusema.

demand

dell n bonde; kibonde kilichopamba

msitu.

delouse vt ondolea chawa.

Delphian; Delphic adj -tata,

-siyoeleweka, -a fumbo.

delta n 1 herufi d ya alfabeti ya

Kigriki. 2 (of a river) delta. 3 ~ rays miali delta ~ metal madini ya delta.

deltoid adj -a pembetatu ~ muscle musuli wenye pembe tatu n umbo la pembe tatu.

delude vt ~ with/into danganya; laghai; tia mchanga wa macho ~ somebody with promises -pa mtu ahadi za uongo; (refl) ~ oneself jidanganya. delusion n 1 kudanganya; kudanganywa. 2 madanganyo, ghiliba. 3 maono/imani za uwongo (hasa kama dalili ya wazimu) he is a victim of delusion anadanganyika sana, amerukwa na akili; majinuni. delusive adj danganyifu, -a kudanganya, -a uwongo.

deluge n gharika, mafuriko ya maji; mvua kubwa sana. the D ~ n gharika wakati wa Nuhu vt ~ (with) gharikisha; funikiza; nyeshea sana.

de luxe adj -a hali ya juu sana, -a fahari; -a anasa tupu.

delve vt,vi 1 (old use) chimba. 2 ~ into chungua/chunguza sana (kitabu, elimu, masomo).

demagnetize vt sumakua, ondoa nguvu za sumaku. demagnetization n.

demagogue n 1 mhemshaji/mhisishi, msukumizi: kiongozi wa kisiasa anayeshawishi watu kwa kutumia hisia badala ya fikra zao. 2 mfitini. demagogic adj. ~ry/demagogy n.

demand vt 1 dai, taka (kwa nguvu au kwa haki). 2 (require) hitaji this work ~s great care kazi hii inahitaji uangalifu mkubwa n ~ (for) 1 dai, madai, kutaka kwa nguvu; kudai. 2 on ~ itakapohitajiwa payable on ~ (-a kulipwa) idaiwapo. ~ (note) n hati ya madai. in ~ -enye kutafutwa/kupendwa sana. This ~

demarcate

is fair dai hili la haki. 2 (need) mahitaji, matilaba, tamaa. ~ curve n mchirizo wa mahitaji. ~ schedule n jedwali la mahitaji. (pl) ~s matakwa. 3 ~s on somebody's good nature kumhitajia mtu kwa wema wake I have many ~s on my time nina mambo mengi muhimu ya kutimiza. ~ing adj -a kuhitaji uangalifu mkubwa/bidii nyingi.

demarcate vt 1 aua, weka mpaka/mipaka. 2 tenga. demarcation n 1 kuaua, kuweka mpaka/mipaka. 2 mpaka/mipaka; mwauo line of demarcation mpaka. 3 mtengano.

dèmarche n (F) 1 hatua au taratibu za kisiasa (hasa za kuanzisha sera mpya). 2 ujumbe wa kidiplomasia wa kutoa malalamiko.

demean vi,vt 1 (debase) ~ oneself jitweza, jidharau, jidhalilisha. ~our n mwenendo; mazoea; adabu.

demented adj -enye wazimu, kichaa. be ~ fadhaika; (med) -a kiendawazimu. ~ly adv. demential n kichaa; ukichaa.

demerara n demerara: guru (kutoka Guyana). ~ sugar n sukari-guru.

demerit n 1 kosa. 2 upungufu, kasoro, dosari, hitilafu.

demesne n 1 (leg) umilikaji ardhi hold in ~ -wa mwenye ardhi. 2 milki, shamba kubwa.

demi (prefix) nusu.

demijohn n chupa kubwa (iliyotiwa ndani ya mfuko wa mianzi).

demilitarize vt ondoa majeshi; kataza mambo ya kivita/ kijeshi. ~d zone n ukanda usio na majeshi, ukanda uliokatazwa mambo ya kivita/ kijeshi.

demise n 1 (leg) mauti; kufa; kifo. 2 uhawilishaji vt hawilisha.

demist vt ondoa unyevu (katika madirisha ya gari n.k.). ~er n.

demit vt,vi ng'atuka, acha kazi, jiuzulu, demision n.

demo n (colloq) see demonstration. demobilize/demob vt changua (askari, manowari); ruhusu askari kwenda kwao (baada ya vita). demobilization

demonstrate

n.

democracy n 1 demokrasia: mfumo wa serikali unaoshirikisha wananchi kupitia wabunge (waliochaguliwa). 2 nchi yenye kuhimiza na kuruhusu haki za uraia kama uhuru wa kusema, kuabudu, kutoa maoni na kushiriki, kusisitiza utawala wa sheria, utawala wa walio wengi, pamoja na kuheshimu haki za wachache. 3 jamii ambamo watu wote ni sawa na hakuna hisia za kitabaka. democratic adj 1 -a demokrasi, -enye kuunga mkono demokrasi; -a kidemokrasi. democrat n 1 mwanademokrasia; mpenda demokrasia. Democrat n (US) mwanachama wa Chama cha Democrat. democratize vt fanya iwe -a kidemokrasi; fanya -a demokrasi. democratization n.

démodé adj -a kale, -a zamani it is ~siyo ya kisasa, ni ya zamani, imepitwa na wakati.

demography n demografia: taaluma ya takwimu ya kima cha uzazi, vifo, maradhi n.k. kuonyesha hali ya jamii fulani.

demolish vt 1 (of buildings) bomoa, vunja. 2 (of arguments) tilifu, angamiza; bomoa; (jocular) -la. demolition n.

demon n 1 pepo mbaya; jini mbaya; shetani. 2 mtu katili/mwovu/ mharibifu/mwangamizi; (colloq) -enye juhudi, shababu ~ for work hodari wa kazi. ~ic adj. ~ism n. ~ology n. ~iac adj 1 -enye pepo mbaya. 2 -a shetani. 3 katili, -ovu sana. ~iacal adj. ~ iacally adv.

demonetize vt 1 ondolea fedha thamani. 2 acha kutumia madini fulani kama sarafu.

demonstrate vt, vi 1 fafanua kwa kutoa sababu dhahiri (mifano); thibitisha. 2 onyesha wazi, dhihirisha; (manoeuvre) onyesha mbinu (katika jeshi). 3 andamana. demonstrator n. demonstrable adj -a kuthibitishika, -a kudhihirika it is demonstrable that

demoralize

inathibitishika kwamba. demonstration n 1 (proof) uthibitisho, ushahidi; mafafanuzi. 2 (certainty) uthabiti, hakika. 3 (show) maonyesho. 4 (also demo) maandamano. demonstrative adj 1 -a kuonyesha wazi, -a kuashiria (maono, upendo, furaha, chuki, n.k.). 2 -a kuainisha. 3 (gram) kionyeshi. demonstrative pronoun n kiwakilishi kionyeshi. demonstratively adv. demonstrativeness n.

demoralize vt 1 vunja moyo (k.m. wa askari vitani). 2 chafua, haribu moyo/tabia/hali. demoralization n.

demote vt teremsha/shusha cheo, demotion n.

demotic adj (of languages) -a kila siku, -a kawaida, maujudi, -a umma, -a mitaani.

demur vt ~ (to/at) kinza, bisha; kataakataa; sita; onea shaka n makinzano, kani, ubishi, kusita obey without ~ tii bila kusita make no ~ usisite, usikaidi, usibishe.

demure adj 1 -nyamavu; -pole, -enye kumakinika, -kimya. 2 taratibu. 3 -enye haya. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

demurrage n 1 fidia ya kuchelewa. 2 faini ya kuchelewesha kukomboa mizigo; haka ya meli (kwa kuchelewa gatini).

demystify vt fichua, weka wazi, umbua.

den n 1 tundu (la mnyama wa mwitu); kitundu, pango. 2 majificho/makutano ya waovu, (wevi n.k.). 3 chumba cha faragha cha kazi.

denary adj see decimal.

denationalize vt 1 ondoa utaifa. 2 rudisha kwa watu binafsi kilichotaifishwa. denationalization n. denaturalize vt 1 geuza desturi za asili. 2 ondoa haki ya mtu kuwa na taifa (au nchi) fulani, nyima uraia. denaturalization n

denatured adj -siofaa kwa kula au kunywa; -lioharamishwa.

denature vt badilisha tabia;

nyang'anya asili.

dentist

denrology n elimu (ya) miti.

dengue n (med.) kidingapopo, homa ya vipindi.

denier n denyi (kipima uzito agh. wa sufi, nailoni n.k. katika kitambaa).

denigrate vt paka matope, vunjia ulua, aziri. denigration n.

denim n denimu: kitambaa cha pamba

kigumu agh. hutumiwa kushonea ovaroli, dangirizi.

denizen n (of persons) mkazi, mwenyeji; mlowezi. 2 (of animals and plants) kiselea.

denomination n 1 madhehebu. 2 (currency) kima, kiwango. money of small ~s fedha za kichele reduce to the same ~ badili fedha kwa kima kile kile. ~al adj. denominate vt taja, ita, -pa jina. denominative adj.

denominator n (Math) asili: namba ya chini ya mstari katika hesabu za sehemu , .

denote vt 1 maanisha; onya; onyesha,

-wa ishara ya. 2 -wa dalili ya, -wa ishara ya maana fulani. 3 -wa jina la. denotation n 1 maana halisi ya neno. 2 jina. denotative adj.

denouement n 1 sehemu ya mwisho ya hadithi/mchezo baada ya kilele (ambapo mambo yanawekwa wazi). 2 sehemu ya mwisho ya shani; mfululizo baada ya kilele.

denounce vt 1 shutumu; kana hadharani, suta. 2 tangaza kusudi la kufuta mkataba/mapatano. ~ment n. denunciation n masuto, shutuma. denunciator n. denunciatory adj.

dense adj 1 (of liquids, vapor) -nene, -zito. 2 (of people and things) -ingi; -liosongamana. 3 (colloq) -pumbavu, -enye uzito wa kuelewa. ~ness n. density n msongamano, uzito ~ of water msongamano, uzito wa maji. 2 upumbavu, uzito wa kuelewa.

dent n kibonyeo vt bonyeza vi bonyea.

dentist n daktari wa meno. ~ry n utaalamu wa meno. dental adj -a meno. dentifrice n dawa ya mswaki. dentition n 1 mpango wa meno. 2

denude

kuota meno. denture n meno bandia.

denude vt acha wazi, acha rabana a

tree ~d of leaves mti uliopukutika majani a hill ~d of trees kilima kisichokuwa na miti. 2 (deprive) twalia. denudation n.

deny vt 1 kana, kanusha. 2 (refuse)

kataa. 3 (withhold) nyima, hini. deniable adj. denial n 1 kanusho give a flat denial kanusha, kataa kabisa. 2 (withholding) denial (of) kunyima, kuhini; hiana.

deodorant n kiondoa harufu (agh. kutuzi/kikwapa). deodorize vt ondoa harufu.

depart vi 1 ~ (from) uka, ondoka, enda. 2 (die) fariki dunia, -fa, shikwa na faradhi ~ this life fariki dunia. 3 (deviate from) acha, kengeuka ~ from old customs acha desturi za zamani ~ from truth sema uongo. the ~ed n marehemu (aliyefariki hivi punde). ~ure n 1 kuondoka, kwenda take one's ~ure ondoka. ~ure platform n mahali pa kuondokea. 2 kuacha, kubadilika, mkengeuko ~ ure from a law ukengeukaji sheria. a new ~ure n jambo jipya, a new ~ure in mathematics mwelekeo/mtazamo mpya katika hesabu. 3 (death) kifo.

depasture vt chunga, peleka malishoni; (of cattle) -la/lisha majani.

depend vi ~ on/upon 1 tegemea that~s; it (all) ~s inategemea; -fungamana na, fuatana; inamia; elekea. 2 amini; tumainia; -wa na hakika juu ya. ~ upon it usiwe na shaka the old man still ~s on his son mzee bado anatumainia mwanae. ~able adj -a kutegemea. ~ant; ~ent n 1 mtegemea mtu, anayelelewa (mtoto, mtumishi). 2 mfuasi; pl watu wanaotegemea kulelewa na mtu mwingine. ~ence n (on/upon) 1 (hali ya) kutegemea (mtu au kitu). 2 imani I have a lot of ~ence on her nina imani sana naye. 3 (addiction) uraibu. ~ency n 1 koloni. 2 kitegemea. ~ent adj 1

deposit

tegemezi. ~ent clause n kishazi tegemezi. ~ent economy n uchumi tegemezi. ~ent on/ upon -a kutegemea victory is ~ent on the weather ushindi unategemea hali ya hewa.

depict vt 1 onyesha kwa mchoro, picha n.k.; sawiri. 2 eleza, fafanua. ~ion n.

depilate vt ondoa nywele. depilatory

adj -a kuondoa nywele, -a kunyonyoa nywele n dawa ya kunyonyoa nywele.

deplane vt (usu of troops) toka, chupakutoka kwenye ndege.

deplete vt 1 ~ (of) punguza sana, tumia hadi karibu kumaliza. 2 (rare) maliza kabisa, toa vitu vyote hadi pasibaki kitu. depletion n.

deplore vt sikitikia, jutia; laani; laumu. deplorable adj. deplorably adv.

deploy vt mil.) eneza, sambaza, panga (tayari kwa mapigano); (fig) tumia he ~ed his arguments alitumia hoja zake. ~ment n.

deplume vt nyonyoa, toa manyoya;

(fig) uzua, vua nishani n.k.

deponent n (leg) shahidi wa maandishi. depopulate vt 1 punguza sana idadi ya watu, angamiza watu AIDS is depopulating some villages ukimwi unaangamiza watu katika baadhi ya vijiji. depopulation n.

deport1 vt fukuza nchini (mtu

asiyetakiwa). ~ation n. ~ee n.

deport2 vt ~ (oneself) -wa na tabia/

mwenendo (wa namna fulani maalum) ~ oneself with dignity -wa na adabu, jiheshimu, jichunga, jistahi. ~ment n mwenendo; mwendo.

depose vt,vi uzulu, ondosha madarakani. ~ (to + gerund) (leg) toa ushahidi (hasa baada ya kuapa kortini), shuhudia, thibitisha (kwa kiapo). deposition n.

deposit vt 1 weka ~ the papers on the table weka karatasi mezani ~ money in a bank weka fedha benki. 2 (of a river) acha mashapo/tope the river

~s mud on the fields mto huacha matope katika mashamba. 3 lipa sehemu ya fedha kama amana/ rubuni, weka amana/rubuni. n 1 amana; uwekaji amana ~ account hesabu ya amana. ~ slip n stakabadhi ya amana. 2 arbuni he put a ~ on the car aliliwekea gari arbuni. 3 (sediment) mashapo. 4 (of drink) machicha. ~or n fig hazina. ~ory n (store) depo, ghala, bohari.

depot n 1 (store) depo, ghala, bohari. 2 (mil.) kambi la kuruta. 3 (US) stesheni ya garimoshi au basi.

deprave vt haribu tabia; potosha, kengeusha. depravation n. depravity n upotovu, uharibifu wa tabia, mkengeuko.

deprecate vt (formal) lalamika, pinga. deprecation n. deprecating adj. deprecatory adj 1 -a kulalamika. 2 -a kujihami dhidi ya lawama. a deprecatory smile n tabasamu la kinafiki.

depreciate vt,vi 1 chakaa; chakaza; pungua thamani; punguza thamani. 2 (disparage) kashifu, shusha hadhi, dhalilisha. depreciative/ depreciatory adj. depreciation n uchakavu, upunguzaji thamani.

depredation n (usu pl) 1 uharibifu mkubwa (wa mali). 2 unyang'anyi, ujambazi.

depress vt 1 (lower) inamisha; sukuma/vuta chini, kandamiza, bonyeza. 2 (make dejected) huzunisha, sikitisha, fadhaisha. 3 punguza nguvu, dhoofisha. 4 shusha (bei, mishahara n.k.). ~ed adj -enye huzuni. ~ed classes n tabaka za chini (za watu wanaokandamizwa). ~ive adj. ~ing adj -a kufadhaisha/ kuvunja moyo. ~ion n 1 huzuni; (psych) majonzi; mfadhaiko. 2 bonde; mwinamo, mbonyeo. 3 mdororo wa shughuli za uchumi, mdodo. 4 upunguaji wa kanieneo ya angahewa. deprive vt ~ (of) nyima, nyang'anya, poka. deprivation n. ~d adj.

deride

depth n 1 kina: urefu wa kwenda chini, uketo. in ~ adj,adv barabara, kwa kina; -a kuzamia. be/get out of one's ~ -wa katika maji marefu kuliko urefu wako; (fig) fanya jambo linalokuzidi kipimo/uwezo wa kuelewa. 2 usomi/mawazo/maono yaliyobobea/topea. 3 the ~ (s) n kina, lindi, ndani kabisa ~s of ignorance lindi la ujinga ~ of night usiku wa manane ~s of the sea vilindi in the ~ of my heart moyoni kabisa in the ~of the country shambani kabisa. ~ charge n (mil.) bomu la majini. ~-gauge n pima kina.

deputation n 1 wajumbe, wawakilishi. 2 agizo, ujumbe. depute vt kaimisha, naibisha, toa kazi/madaraka n.k. kwa mtu mwingine ili awakilishe; weka naibu/makamu/kaimu. deputize vi (for) kaimu, fanya badala ya mtu mwingine, -wa naibu. deputy n 1 kaimu; naibu; makamu she will be my deputy when I am away atakuwa kaimu wangu wakati sipo deputy minister naibu waziri. 2 (in some countries eg. France) mbunge.

derail vt,vi angusha/anguka treni; toa katika reli the train was ~ed treni ilianguka.

derange vt 1 (make mad) tia kichaa/ wazimu. 2 haribu, vuruga.

derby n mashindano ya farasi n (US) pama.

derelict n 1 mali (meli, chombo)

iliyotelekezwa/tupwa. 2 ombaomba, maskini, msikwao adj (esp. of ship) -lioachwa; -liotupwa ~ vessel chombo kihame ~ old house mahame. ~ion n hali ya kuachwa. ~ion of duty uzembe mkubwa, kutowajibika, kutotimiza wajibu.

deride vt kejeli; dhihaki; beza, beua.

derision n kejeli; dhihaka; dharau hold in derision dhihaki, dharau. derisory adj 1 (also derisive) -a kudhihaki/kukejeli. 2 -a kustahili dhihaka, -a kudharauliwa, -a

de rigueur

kupuuza derisory salary mshahara wa dhihaka/kubeza.

de rigueur adj -a lazima.

derive vt,vi ~ (from) 1 zalisha, pata

kutokana na, tokana na, chimbuka it ~d from asili/mwanzo/chimbuko lake ni. 2 (math) nyambua. 3 (gram) nyambulisha. derivation n 1 (origin) asili, mwanzo, chimbuko. 2 umbo na maana ya asili ya neno. 3 (gram) unyambulishaji: uundaji maneno mapya kutokana na viini au mashina. 4 (Math.) unyambuaji. derivative adj 1 zalika, kitokanacho; (derog) -sio asili, -sio na uasili, -enye kuigaiga a derivative poem shairi lisilo na uasili, shairi la kuigaiga. 2 (Math.) -nyambuo. 3 (gram) n kinyambuo: kitu kinachotokana na kitu kingine.

derm adj -a ngozi. ~atitis n ugonjwa

wa ngozi. ~atology n elimu ya ngozi (hasa magonjwa yake). ~atologist n daktari wa ngozi.

derogate vi ~ (from) shusha/punguza, (hadhi, heshima, mamlaka n.k.). derogation n. derogatory adj. derogatory (to) -a kushusha heshima/hadhi, -a kuaibisha. 2 -a matusi.

derrick n 1 ~-crane n winchi, slingi, manjanika: mashine ya kuinua vitu vizito (hasa katika meli). 2 fremu za mashine za kekee.

derring-do n (old use) tendo la ushujaa.

dervish n 1 darweshi: walii/muumini wa kiislamu anayeshikilia jadi na kutenda kufuatana na Hadithi bila kujali wakati wala mabadiliko; mwana tablighi. 2 mtu anayejisahau katika kucheza muziki.

desalinate (also desalinize) vt ondoa chumvi (toka kwenye maji ya bahari). desalination n.

descale vt kwangua/para mashapo/makoko.

descend vt, vi 1 (go or come down) shuka, enda/-ja chini, teremka. 2 (slope) inama. 3 (of origin) be ~ed from toka, tokana na (babu fulani),

desiccate

zaliana, -wa katika ukoo wa... 4 rithishwa (na); rithiwa his bravery ~s from his father ameurithi ushujaa kwa baba yake. 5 ~ (upon) shambulia kwa ghafla; (fig) tembelea ghafla. 6 ~ to jishusha. ~ant n dhuria. ~able adj -a urithi. descent n 1 mshuko, mteremko, mwinamo. 2 (ancestry) nasaba, ukoo, uzazi. 3 urithi, kurithiwa. 4 descent on/upon shambulio la ghafula; (colloq) kutembelea kusikotegemewa, ugeni usiotegemewa.

describe vt 1 eleza, toa wasifu. 2 chora, (hasa maumbo ya jiometri). 3 ~ as ita. description n 1 maelezo. 2 (colloq) jinsi, namna, aina. descriptive adj -a kueleza, -a kutoa wasifu.

descry vt ona, weza kuona (hasa mbali).

desecrate vt 1 najisi, kufuru; haramisha. desecration n.

desegregate vt ondoa ubaguzi (hasa

ubaguzi wa rangi). desegregation n.

desensitize vt haribu/punguza fahamu (za mwanga au maumivu)/ milango ya fahamu; tia ganzi. desensitization n.

desert1 n jangwa adj kame; -siolimwa.. 2 -siokaliwa na watu. ~ification n kugeuza jangwa (kwa kukata miti na kuharibu mazingira).

desert2 vt,vi 1 acha; toka the streets

were ~ed mitaa ilikuwa mitupu. a ~ed village n mahame. 2 telekeza he ~ed his wife alimtelekeza mkewe. 3 toka his courage ~ed him ujasiri wake ulimtoka. 4 (mil.) toroka. ~er n mtoro. ~ion n.

deserve vt,vi 1 stahili. 2 (idiom) ~

well/ill of stahili kutendewa vizuri/ vibaya. ~d adj -liostahili. ~dly adv. deserving adj -a kustahili, stahilifu. deserts n ustahili; (reward) thawabu.

deshabille n see dishabille.

desiccate vt kausha kabisa (ili kuhifadhi). ~d fruit n tunda lililokaushwa. desiccative adj.

desiderate

desiccator n. desiccant n (US) kikausho.

desiderate vt (want) taka sana, hitaji. desideratum n kitu kinachotakiwa sana.

design vt,vi 1 (draw) chora. 2 (of book etc) sanifu. 3 (of ideas) buni, panga. 4 (intend) kusudia, nuia, azimia n 1 mchoro, picha, kielelezo. 2 usanifu, ruwaza, nakshi. 3 mpango, plani, kielelezo. 4 kusudi, nia, madhumuni, maarubu. have ~s on/against -wa na kusudi baya/hila He has ~s on that young girl (colloq) anamtaka msichana yule. ~er n 1 msanii mchoraji. 2 mbuni. ~ing adj -erevu, -janja; -a hila n uchoraji, ubunifu (wa mashine n.k.). ~edly adv makusudi.

designate vt 1 onyesha; dhihirisha

~boundaries onyesha mipaka. 2 (denote) taja; -wa dalili ya; -wa na maana fulani. 3 (appoint) teua (mtu) kwa kazi fulani he ~d me as his successor aliniteua niwe mrithi wake adj -teule. the bishop ~ n askofu mteule. designation n uteuzi (wa mtu kushika cheo fulani); jina, cheo; maelezo.

desire vt 1 taka sana; tamani leaves much to be ~d hairidhishi kabisa. 2 (sexual) ashiki, tamani. 3 (request) omba. I ~d her to sit down nilimwomba aketi n 1 hamu; tamaa; uchu, shauku. 2 (formal) ombi. 3 kitu kinachotamaniwa/takiwa. what is your heart's ~ kitu gani unacho-tamani kuliko vyote. 4 (sexual) ashiki. desirable adj 1 -a kufaa. 2 -a kutamanisha. desirability n. desirous adj (formal/official) (of) -enye kutaka. desirous of peace -enye kutaka amani.

desist adj (formal). ~ (from) vi acha, hulu.

desk n 1 meza (ya kuandikia), dawati, deski. ~ work n (often derog) kazi ya ofisi reception ~ mapokezi, maulizo ~ clerk karani wa mapokezi. 3 (journalism) meza ya

destine

mhariri.

desolate vt (make sad) huzunisha, tia majonzi, tia ukiwa adj 1 -a ukiwa; -enye huzuni, -enye majonzi. 2 -lioachwa, -liotelekezwa, -liotupwa, hame. -~ly adv. desolation n.

despair vi kata tamaa; -fa moyo n kukata tamaa, kufa moyo. be the ~ of katisha tamaa. ~ing adj. ~ingly adv.

despatch n,vt see dispatch.

desperado n jahili.

desperate adj 1 -enye kukata tamaa, -liokata tamaa, bila tumaini, tayari kufanya lolote (kutokana na kukata tamaa). 2 -siofuata sheria (kutokana na kukata tamaa/kutokuwa na matumaini tena) ~ criminal jahili. 3 -baya sana, -a hatari the country is in ~ state nchi iko katika hali mbaya sana. 4 -enye kuwa na mahitaji makubwa ya kitu. 5 -a mwisho kabisa a last ~ effort jaribio la mwisho kabisa. ~ly adv. desperation n.

despicable adj -enye kustahili dharau/twezo; -enye kuleta hizaya.

despise vt tweza, dharau, hakiri.

despite n, prep. ~ of/in spite of licha ya. ~ his wishes licha ya matakwa yake. ~ful adj (arch. see spiteful). ~fully adv.

despoil vt nyang'anya, pora, ghusubu.~ation n. ~ment n uporaji. ~er n mporaji.

despondency n hali ya kukata tamaa, ukataji tamaa. despondent adj. be despondent kata tamaa, -fa moyo. despondently adv.

despot n 1 dikteta, mtawala mwenye

mamlaka yote. 2 (tyrant) mdhalimu. play the ~ fanya udhalimu; -wa dikteta. ~ie adj. ~ism n.

dessert n kitindamlo (tamutamu, matunda n.k.). ~ spoon n kijiko cha pudini.

destabilize vt yumbisha, chochea ghasia, vuruga amani.

destine vt kusudia, taka I was ~d never to see her again nilitakiwa

destiny

nisimwone tena this is ~d for Zanzibar hii inakwenda Unguja. destination n mwisho wa/kikomo cha safari; makusudio.

destiny n 1 (power) takdiri. 2 (that which happens) majaliwa, kudura, bahati.

destitute adj 1 hawinde, mkata, fukara. 2 ~ of -a kukosa, sio kuwa na ~ of sympathy kukosa huruma. destitution n ufukara.

destroy vt 1 haribu, bananga, vunja;

(completely) angamiza, teketeza, tilifu. 2 (usu of animal) ua. ~er n 1 mharabu; mwangamizi. 2 manowari (ya kulinda meli nyingine). destruction n 1 uharibifu, uvunjifu, maangamizo. 2 uteketeaji, uangamiaji. destructible adj. destructive adj 1 -a kuharibu, -haribifu, harabu, -a kutilifu. 2 -a shari. destructiveness n.

destructor n tanuri (la kuchomea

takataka); kichomataka.

desuetude n 1 kutotumika. 2 to fall into ~ kutotumika tena.

desultory adj -badilifu -siyo na taratibu, geugeu, -a kuchezacheza.

detach vt 1 tenga; bandua; kata. 2 peleka kikosi cha askari kutoka jeshi kubwa. ~able adj. ~ed adj 1 (of the mind, opinion) adilifu, siopendelea; -siyovutwa/ sioshawishiwa na watu wengine. 2 -sio na hisia, sioonyesha hisia; (aloof) -liokaa kando. 3 (house) nayokaa peke yake. ~ment n 1 mtengo; mabanduko. 2 (of soldiers, war-ships) kikosi kinachotumika kwa kazi maalum. 3 (impartiality) uadilifu, hali/tabia ya kutokuvutwa na maneno au fikra za watu; (aloofness) upweke: kukaa kando.

detail n 1 kila kitu. 2 utondoti. in thefullest ~ kwa utondoti, kinaganaga. go/enter into ~s chunguza kwa utondoti explain in ~ eleza kinaganaga. 3 (mil) kikosi maalum cha askari vt 1 ~ (to/for) tongoa; eleza kila kitu kwa ukamilifu, eleza

determine

kwa kusimulia habari yote. 2 tuma, agiza, amuru kufanya kazi maalum.

detain vt 1 kawisha, kawiza, chelewesha. 2 weka kizuizini, zuia. ~ee n mtu aliye kizuizini. detention n 1 kizuizini put in detention weka kizuizini. preventive detention n uzuizi wa hadhari. 2 uzuiliwaji (agh mtoto shuleni kama adhabu).

detect vt gundua;ona.~ion n ugunduzi; upelelezi. ~ive n mpelelezi, askari kanzu, kachero adj -a upelelezi. ~or n kigunduzi. lie ~or n kigundua uongo.

detente n maridhiano (hasa baina ya

mataifa).

deter vt shusha/vunja moyo; zuia, punguza ari (kwa kutia shaka, hofu, vitisho n.k.). ~rent n kizuio, kigingi.

detergent adj -a kusafisha n dawa kali ya kusafishia; sabuni (ya unga/maji).

deteriorate vt,vi pungua/punguza

thamani/manufaa/matumizi; fifia, haribika; chakaa. deterioration n.

determine vt,vi 1 (limit, define) ukilia, amua. 2 ~ to do something; ~upon doing something kusudia, dhamiria. 3 tambulisha; tafuta; pata; bainisha. ~a number tambulisha namba. 4 (fix beforehand) weka/panga muda (miadi, tarehe). 5 (settle, decide) amua; nuia; fanya uamuzi, kata shauri. 6 ~ somebody to do something fanya, shurutisha, sababisha what ~d you to go to Morogoro kitu gani kilikufanya kwenda Morogoro. 7 pambanua ~ the meaning of a word pambanua maana ya neno. determinable adj. determinant n 1 kiukilia, kitu (mtu) kinachodhihirisha/tambulisha/ yakinisha/onyesha manuizi. 2 kiamuzi, kitu (mtu) kinachoamua /maliza/kata/shauri. determinate adj thabiti, imara; -dhahiri; -enye mipaka. determination n 1 (resoluteness) uamuzi (mkata), azimio; kuamua; ushupavu. 2

detest

(resolve) azma, kusudi, nia, dhamiri. 3 (of word etc) kupambanua. 4 (of number etc) utambuzi; upataji; utafutaji; kutambulisha. ~r n (gram) kibainishi.

detest vt chukia sana, kirihi, sinya. ~ment n. ~able adj -a karaha, -enye makuruhu. ~ation n chuki, karaha; makuruhu.

dethrone vt uzulu, ondoa (mfalme).

detonate vt,vi lipua; lipuka. detonation n. detonator n.

detour n njia ya mchepuo/mzunguko. make a ~ chepuka.

detract vt ~ (from) 1 punguza (thamani). 2 (slander) punguza sifa; dunisha; kashifu. ~ ion n. ~or n mkashifishaji.

detrain vi,vt (of troops etc.) teremsha, shusha; shuka (toka garimoshi).

detribalize vt 1 tenga mtu kutoka detriment nkabila lake. 2 vunja mila au desturi za kabila/mbari. detribalization n.

detriment n hasara; dhara. to the ~ of -enye kuleta hasara/dhara. ~al (to) adj -enye kuleta hasara/dhara.

detrition n kuisha/kupungua kutokana

na msuguano.

detritus n mabaki/unga utokanao na kusagika kwa mchanga, mawe n.k. (ya kusugua).

detrop adj kisonoko, ziada mbovu.

deuce n 1 karata ng'anda mbili. 2 (tennis) sare. 3 (devil) shetani, ibilisi. what the ~ balaa gani. ~d adj, adv -baya mno.

Deuteronomy n kumbukumbu ya Torati.

devalue vt (also US devaluate) shusha thamani. devaluation n.

devastate vt 1 teketeza, haribu, bananga. devastating adj. devastation n.

develop vt,vi 1 kuza; kua. ~ing country n nchi inayoendelea ~ quickly vuvumka. 2 jitokeza, funuka, dhihirika. 3 (of films) safisha. 4 (of land) endeleza (kwa kujenga). 5 (explain) fafanua, eleza. ~er n 1

devil

mwendelezaji. land ~er n mwendelezaji ardhi. 2 (of film) developa. ~ment n 1 (augmentation) kukuza; kuendeleza, kusitawisha. 2 (growth) maendeleo, usitawisho. community ~ment n maendeleo ya jamii, usitawi wa jamii. ~ment Studies n Taaluma ya Maendeleo. 3 (film) kusafisha picha. 4 (explanation) ufafanuzi (wa wazo, mada, maana).

deviate vi 1 chepuka. 2 kengeuka, potoka (katika maadili). 3 hitilafiana. deviation n mkengeuko, mchepuko. deviant n mwacha maadili/desturi. deviance n. deviationist n mkengeuka, mtu anayekengeuka misingi ya kijamii au ya mfumo wa siasa uliopo. deviationism n.

device n 1 hila; mbinu, mpango leave somebody to his own ~s mwache afanye apendavyo. 2 (contrivance) chombo, ala, kitu (cha kufikilia lengo/kufanyia jambo fulani). 3 (emblem) chapa, alama, sanamu, picha itumikayo kama nembo/ urembo/ pambo. 4 kitu au usemi utumiwao kuleta athari fulani ya kisanii.

devil n 1 shetani, ibilisi; (fig) adui mbaya. between the ~and the deep (blue) sea katika hali ya atiati ukashindwa kuamua jambo; kimbia kufiwako kwenda kuliwako nyama. give the ~ his due mtendee kila mtu haki yake (hata kama ni adui). go to the ~ nenda zako! haribika! kwisha! play the ~ with umiza, haribu. the D~ n shetani. ~'s advocate n mchochea mjadala kwa kuonyesha ila au kasoro ya kitu. lucky ~ n mwenye bahati. speak/talk of the ~and he is sure to appear hatajwi (akitajwa tu hutokea). 2 (usu poor ~) (as interjection) masikini! 3 (arch) printer's ~ n kijana atumiwae kama tarishi mwanagenzi katika ofisi ya uchapaji, mwanasheria mwanagenzi. 4 (colloq) msisitizo.

devil-fish

what/who/why/where the ~ nini/ nani/kwa nini/wapi ...(kutegemea muktadha). ~ may-care adj (carefree) asiyejali. 5 (tech) mashine ya kuchambua vt 1 (spice a dish) koleza chakula (hasa kwa viungo vyenye pilipili). 2 ~ for fanya kazi kama mchapaji/mwanasheria mwanagenzi. ~ish adj 1 kama shetani. 2 -baya mno; ovu sana; -uaji; -katili adv kikatili. ~ry (also ~ ment) n 1 ushetani, uibilisi. 2 -ukatili; -uovu. 3 uchawi. 4 (rel.) elimu ya mizimu.

devil-fish n karwe.

devious adj 1 -a mchepuko, -a kuzunguka, -enye kuruba. 2 -janja, -a kichinichini. ~ness n.

devise vt 1 tunga, buni. 2 (~ to) rithisha mali (hasa ardhi) n wasia (wa mali, ardhi, n.k.). ~e n mtu anayerithishwa mali. ~r n msimamizi wa mirathi. devising adj.

devisor n see deviser n.

devitalize vt ondoa nguvu, dhoofisha, fifiza, fifiliza. devitalization n.

devoid adj ~ (of) pasipo, bila; -kosefu he is ~ of sense (fear, shame etc.) hana akili/hofu/haya, n.k. a country ~ of inhabitants nchi isiyo na wakazi.

devoir n (arch) 1 wajibu. do one's

~ timiza wajibu wako. 2 (usu pl) pay one's ~s wekea heshima, stahi.

devolve vt,vi ~ (on/upon) 1 kabidhi, hamishia (kazi, madaraka, zamu n.k.) kwa. ~ (to/upon) kabidhiwa ~ a responsibility to somebody kabidhi madaraka kwa mwingine. 2 rithiwa. devolution n 1 (transfer of rights) kukabidhi madaraka, kazi, haki, wajibu n.k.; ugatuzi. 2 urithishaji.

devote vt tenga (k.v. muda) kwa madhumuni maalumu; toa. ~ oneself/something to jifunga/ jizatiti/jitolea kufanya kitu fulani. ~d adj 1 -enye bidii, -a kushika kazi kwa moyo. 2 -aminifu. 3 -a kupenda sana, shabiki; -a kujisabilia. be ~d to work -wa na moyo katika kazi. ~d

diaeresis

to good works -a kujitoa kwa mambo mema/fadhila. ~e n 1 (rel) ~e (of) mfuasi wa dini (agh. mtawa, sufii, walii). 2 mpenzi wa michezo, shabiki n.k. devotion n 1 moyo wa ibada (wa dini, wa kumwabudu Mungu). 2 (earnestness) upendo, mapenzi mother's devotion to her children mapenzi ya mama kwa watoto wake. 3 bidii; moyo. 4 kujifunga. devotion to learning moyo wa kupenda kujifunza. 5 (pl) ibada, sala. devotional adj.

devour vt 1 -la kwa ulafi/kwa harakaharaka. 2 meza/teketeza. 3 kuwa katika lindi la wasiwasi/ mawazo. be ~ed by anxiety jawa na wasiwasi. 4 zamia katika fikra. ~er n. ~ingly adv.

devout adj 1 -enye kumcha Mungu n msalihina. 2 (of prayers, wishes) -a moyo, -a dhati. ~ness n. ~ly adv.

dew n umande. ~y adj -enye umande.

~-drop n tone (la umande). ~-fall n umande (ulioanguka). ~ point n kiwangoumande.

dewlap n shambwelele: ngozi

inayoning'inia chini ya shingo ya ng'ombe.

dexter adj -a kulia, -lio upande wa kulia.

dexterity n 1 ustadi; ubingwa; umahiri; wepesi (aghalabu wa kutumia mikono au mwili). 2 wepesi wa akili (katika kujenga hoja au kuelewa jambo). dexterous adj.

dhobi n dobi.

dhoti n doti.

dhow n dau, jahazi.

diabetes n (med) (ugonjwa wa) kisukari. diabetic adj -enye kisukari.

diabolic(al) adj 1 -a shetani, -a ibilisi. 2 -ovu sana, -baya sana, -katili. diabolism n 1 umilikaji; uabudu; ushughulikiaji mashetani. 2 tabia ya kishetani.

diacritic n alama ya kutofautisha matamshi ya herufi. ~al adj.

diadem n taji.

diaeresis n (gram) alama ya

diagnose

kutofautisha matamshi ya irabu mbili tofauti zinazofuatana.

diagnose vt tambua/baini ugonjwa/matatizo n.k. (kwa kuangalia dalili zilizopo), zuza. diagnosis n utambuzi/ubainishaji wa ugonjwa. diagnostic adj -a kuchunguza na kubainisha ugonjwa, -a uaguzi. diagnostician n. diagnostics n elimu ya uchunguzi wa aina na sababu za ugonjwa.

diagonal adj -a hanamu, -a kutoka

pembe mpaka pembe iliyoielekea, -a kukata mraba pembe kwa pembe, -a mshazari n hanamu, mshazari.

diagram n mchoro, kielelezo. ~atic(al) adj.

dial n 1 uso wa saa; diski yenye namba. 2 bamba linaloonyesha vipimo agh. kwa kutumia mkono. 3 kizungusho (kitu kinachozungushwa kupata namba, mita fulani k.m. ya redio). 4 chombo cha simu chenye nambari juu yake vt piga simu ~ a number piga namba: zungusha namba za simu (ili kupata namba fulani). ~ing code n namba ya kupiga. ~ tone n mlio wa kupiga.

dialect n lahaja. ~al adj.

dialectic(s) n upembuzi: kuhakiki ukweli wa nadharia au wazo kwa mjadala wa kimantiki. ~al adj 1 -a kipembuzi. 2 ~al method mbinu -pembuzi. ~al meterialism n uyakinifu pembuzi. ~ian n mpembuzi.

dialogue n 1 mazungumzo (agh. bainaya pande mbili/watu wawili). 2 maandiko (yaliyotungwa kama kwamba watu wanasemezana). 3 mabadilishano ya mawazo.

dialysis n (chem) 1 dialisisi: utenganishaji wa koloidi kutoka katika kitu kilichomo kwenye mmunyo na kukiacha kipenye katika kiwambo penyu. 2 usafishaji damu kwa mashine ya figo.

diameter n kipenyo. diametrical adj 1 -enye kupingana kabisa; -a kinyume kabisa be in diametrical opposition to

dibber

something kuwa na msimamo tofauti kabisa. 2 -a/-enye kuhusu/-lio katika kipenyo. diametrically adv.

diamond n 1 almasi; (fig) rough ~ n mtu anayeonekana mkatili lakini ana moyo mzuri. 2 ~ cut n chombo (chenye ncha ya almasi) cha kukatia kioo. 3 umbo la almasi (of playing cards) uru. 4 (baseball) kitovu cha uwanja wa besiboli. 5 ~back n nondo; (US ) nyoka mwenye madoa ya almasi. ~drill n kekee ya almasi. ~-field n mgodi wa almasi. ~ wedding n ndoa ya miaka sitini. ~point n chombo chenye ncha ya almasi agh. hutumiwa kuchimbulia vitu; makutano ya reli.

diaper n 1 kitambaa chororo au cha

pamba kitumikacho katika kutengeneza vitambaa vya meza na taulo. 2 nepi. 3 darizi ya almasi; nakshi vt nakshi, tarizi.

diaphanous adj (of fabric) -epesi na

ororo; -a kupenya nuru, -enye kuona.

diaphragm n 1 kiwambo (cha moyo, sikio n.k.); kitangaa. 2 kiwambo cha ngoma (simu n.k.). 3 kizuia mimba:chombo cha mpira kinachowekwa ukeni kuzuia mimba. 4 (photography) mboni mwanga. ~etic adj.

diarchy n serikali thaniya: serikali ya

watawala wawili.

dirrhoea n kuhara, kuendesha.

diary n 1 shajara: kitabu cha

kumbukumbu za kila siku. diarist n.

diaspora n 1 the D~ n kutawanyika kwa Wayahudi miongoni mwa watu wa mataifa. 2 upatiaji makazi kando ya Palestina kwa Wayahudi waliosambaa; makazi ya Wayahudi hao. The Black ~ n Waafrika weusi popote walipo duniani (kutokana na kutawanyika kwao).

diatribe n tahakiki ndefu yenye machungu, makemeo na matusi.

dibber also dibble n muo, (kijiti cha kuchimba makoongo ya kupandia mbegu). dibble vt 1 piga koongo

dice

kupandia. 2 panda mbegu kama kwamba umetumia koongo.

dice n (pl) (sing formal) die (colloq dice) dadu. The die is cast uamuzi umekwishafanywa, mambo yameiva. (sl) no ~ haifai kitu! vt,vi 1 cheza dadu; cheza kamari, tia mirabumirabu. ~ box n kikopo au kisanduku cha kuchezea dadu. ~ with death (colloq) hatarisha maisha. 2 kata katika michemraba midogo midogo. ~y adj (colloq) -a mashaka; -a hatari.

dichotomy n mgawo wa sehemu mbili;mwainisho wa uwili (agh. wenye kukinzana).

dick n (sl) 1 mboo. take one's ~ apa, thibitisha. 2 askari kanzu, mpelelezi, kachero.

Dickensian adj -a Dickens; shabiki

wa kazi za Dickens; mwanafunzi wa Dickens (mtunzi maarufu wa riwaya).

dicker vt (trade bid) shindania bei.

dickey (also dicky) n 1 ~ bird n (neno watumialo watoto) ndege. 2 ~ seat n kiti cha ziada cha nyuma cha kukunja katika gari la viti viwili. 3 sehemu ya shati ya mbele iliyogeuzwa.

dicky adj -siojisikia vizuri, dhaifu, -a wasiwasi.

dicotyledon n dikotiledoni: mmea ambao mbegu yake ina kotiledoni mbili (k.m. harage).

dictaphone n diktafoni: kinasa sauti cha simu ya ofisi.

dictate vt ~ (to) 1 (read aloud) semaau soma kwa sauti ili mwingine aandike yaliyosemwa, toa imla. 2 toa masharti. 3 amuru (declare) I wont' be ~d to sitaamrishwa n (pl) mwongozo: kanuni/amri zinazomwo-ngoza mtu kutenda jambo. dictation n 1 maamuru. 2 imla. 3 (orders) amri nzito; maonyo makali I will not submit to dictation sikubali kuamrishwa. dictator n dikteta: mtawala wa mabavu (hasa aliyejitwalia madaraka kwa nguvu). dictatorial adj. dictatorship n.

die

diction n uteuzi na matumizi ya maneno; mtindo na jinsi ya kuongea.

dictionary n kamusi: kitabu cha orodha ya maneno yaliyopangwa kwa kufuata utaratibu maalumu au kwa kufuata alfabeti pamoja na maana zake.

dictum n 1 tamko rasmi juu ya jambo fulani; tamko lenye mamlaka kuhusu kitu fulani. 2 msemo.

did v see do.

didactic adj 1 -lokusudiwa kufundisha.2 (usu derog) -enye kutaka kufundisha kila mahali; -enye kupenda kuhubirihubiri. ~ally adv. ~s n elimu ya kufundisha.

diddle vt ~ somebody (out of something) (colloq) danganya, kenga, tapeli.

die1 n 1 see dice. 2 (pl) (stamp, punch) chapa, kipande cha metali cha kupigia chapa sarafu, (nishani, karatasi n.k.).

die2 vi 1 -fa, fariki; kata roho ~ of an

illness -fa kwa maradhi ~ of laughter angua kicheko ~ by one's own hand jiua. 2 (phrases) ~ in one's bed kufa kwa uzee. ~ with one's boots on kufa ukiwa bado ukingali na nguvu, ukingali unapigana. ~ in the last ditch pigana kwa namna zote ili kutetea kitu/jambo fulani. ~ game kabili kifo kishujaa. ~ hard kufa tu baada ya mapambano makali. ~ in harness kufa ukiwa bado unafanya kazi. 3 be dying for something/to do something taka sana kitu. 4 acha kufahamika, potea his fame will never ~ sifa yake kubwa haitapotea. 5 ~- hard n mkaidi, asiyependa mabadiliko; asiyekubali kushindwa. 6 (used with adverbial particle) ~ away isha, poteza nguvu, fifia. ~ back (of plants) kauka hadi kwenye mizizi ambayo baadaye huchipua. ~ down (of fire in a fire place) fifia; (of excitement) pungua. ~ off kufa moja baada ya nyingine.~ out toweka kabisa, fikia mwisho.

diesel

diesel n dizeli. ~ engine n injini ya dizeli. ~electric locomotive n injini itumiayo dizeli yenye kutoa mkondoumeme.

diet1 n 1 mkutano wa kujadili mashauri ya kitaifa, ya kimataifa au ya kikanisa. 2 (in certain countries) bunge (hasa la Japani).

diet2 n 1 chakula, mlo. balanced ~

n mlo kamili. 2 utaratibu maalumu wa chakula (agh. kwa mtu anayetaka kupunguza uzito/unene). ~ary adj 1 -enye kuhusu chakula. 2 -a kuhusu mwiko, mzio, ugunga. ~etics n ugunga, elimu-lishe. ~ician n mgunga, mwanalishe vt gunga, kula kwa kufuata maelekezo, taratibu na miko iliyowekwa.

differ vi 1 tofautiana, hitilafiana, achana; -topatana. 2 ~(from somebody) (about/on something) -tokubaliana. agree to ~ kubali kutofautiana. ~ence n 1 tofauti, hitilafu, hali ya kuwa mbalimbali. ~ence of opinion tofauti za mawazo. makes no ~ence ni mamoja tu, ni sawa tu that makes all the ~ence hiyo hubadili hali ya mambo kabisa. 2 kutokukubaliana, mfarakano mdogo. 3 kiwango cha vitu kutofautiana. 4 kiasi, kadiri iletayo tofauti, hitilafu. ~ent adj mbalimbali, siokuwa sawa na -ingine, tofauti. ~ently adv. ~ential n, adj 1 difrensha. 2 (Math) ~ential equations milinganyo tenguo. 3 (wage) tofauti (katika asilimia) za ujira kati ya wafanyakazi wenye ujuzi na wale wasio na ujuzi wa kiwanda kile kile. ~entiate vt 1 tofautisha, pambanua, ainisha. 2 (Math) tengua. 3 ~entiate between tendea tofauti. ~ entiation n utofautishaji, upambanuzi. 2 utenguzi.

difficult adj -gumu; -zito, -a shida; -a

fumbo. ~y n 1 shida, matatizo, dhiki, ugumu the ~y is to make good choice tatizo ni kufanya uchaguzi mzuri I have ~y in saying napata shida/ninashindwa kusema. 2 (pl) be

digit

in ~ies, -wa na matatizo, wamba get oneself into ~ies jitia matatani be in financial ~ies wamba. make ~ies leta ubishi.

diffident adj -siojiamini, -enye haya. diffidence n.

diffract vt (of a beam of light) sambaa.

~ion n msaambazo.

diffuse vt,vi 1 eneza, tawanya. 2 enea,vavagaa, tawanyika. 3 (of gases and liquids) changamana polepole. diffusible; diffusive adj. diffusiveness n ueneaji, usambaaji. diffusion n mweneo, msambao. ~adj 1 -a kutumia maneno mengi zaidi. 2 -a kutawanyika pande zote. adv ~ly ~ ness n uenevu.

dig vt 1 chimba. 2 (sl) furahia; elewa.3 (with adv. particles & prep) ~in/~ into something anza kula, kamata! ~ something in chimbia, changanya. ~ something into something tia, choma, chocha. ~ oneself in jikita; jizatiti. ~ something/somebody out chimbua, chokonoa, fukia n 1 kikumbo, pigo. 2 machimbo. (colloq) vyumba vya kupanga ~ger n 1 (usu in compounds) mchimbaji. gold ~ger n mchimba dhahabu. 2 mashine ya kuchimbulia, eksikaveta. 3 (sl) Mu-Australia. ~ging n 1 uchimbaji. 2 (pl) mahali ambapo panachimbwa metali agh. dhahabu. 3 (pl, colloq) (also digs) chumba/vyumba vya kupanga.

digest1 vt,vi 1 (of food) meng'enya; meng'enyuka. 2 (consider) fikiria, waza. ~ible adj. ~ibility n. ~ion n mmeng'enyo wa chakula. ~ive adj -a mmeng'enyo wa chakula. ~ive system n mfumo wa mmeng'enyo wa chakula.

digest2 n muhtasari, ufupisho ~ of cases muhtasari wa kesi.

digit n 1 kidole. 2 tarakimu. ~al adj -a kidole, -a tarakimu. ~al clock/watch n saa isiyokuwa na mishale, saa ya tarakimu. ~al computer n kompyuta n ionyeshayo

dignify

mahesabu kwa tarakimu.

dignify vt ~ (with) tukuza, zidishia

heshima. dignified adj. dignitary n mwadhamu, mheshimiwa, mtu mwenye cheo. dignity n 1 heshima; hadhi. human dignity n hadhi ya utu. beneath one's dignity -siolingana na hadhi ya mtu. 2 (greatness) ukuu; ubora. 3 (rank) cheo, hadhi. stand on one's dignity ng'ang'ania kuheshimiwa. 4 utulivuna makini ya tabia au mtindo.

digraph n herufi mbili zinazowakilisha sauti moja k.m. sh/katika neno sheria.

digress vi (of speech, writing) toka nje ya mada. ~ion n. ~ive adj.

digs n see dig.

dike; dyke n 1 handaki; mfereji. 2 boma (la kuzuia maji yasienee yakifurika). 3 (fig) kizuio vt zuia kwa boma.

dilapidated adj -liochakaa, bovu, gofu. a ~ old car mkweche. dilapidation n.

dilate vt,vi 1 tanua; panua; vimbisha;

tanuka; panuka; vimba. 2 ~ up on sema/andika kwa mapana na marefu. dilatable adj dilation n

dilatory adj 1 -vivu, -zembe, goigoi, si -epesi, si -tendaji. 2 (delaying) -a kukawia, -a kuchelewa; -a kukawilisha, -a kuchelewesha.

dilemma n mtanziko (hasa katika kuchagua moja katika mawili) you are on the horn of a ~ huna budi kuchagua, ukipenda usipende.

dilettante (pl dilettanti) n ajifunzaye kitu kijuujuu; mbabaishaji; mpenda sanaa wa ridhaa adj -a kijuujuu; -a ridhaa. dilettantism n.

diligence n bidii, uangalifu, jitihada,

juhudi. diligent adj. diligent (in) -enye bidii, -angalifu, -enye juhudi, -enye jitihada. diligently adv.

dilly-dally vi sitasita; poteza wakati,

fanya ajizi.

dilute vt 1 zimua. 2 (fig) fifilisha, fifiliza ~ skilled labour changanya vibarua na wataalamu badala ya

dine

kuajiri wataalamu peke yao. dilution n. diluent adj -a kuzimulia, zimulifu, -liozimuliwa n kizimuo.

dim vt,vi tia giza; fifiliza; punguza mwanga adj 1 -a gizagiza. 2 (indistinct) sio dhahiri, -sioonekana vizuri, -liofifia; -siosikilika vyema. 3 (of eyes, eyesight) -sioweza kuona vizuri, -iliyoingia giza. take a ~ view of (colloq) angalia vitu kwa upande wa ubaya; -toridhika na jambo; angalia vibaya, -topenda. 4 (colloq, of persons) -jinga, -sio na akili; -sio na maarifa. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ~-wit n mjinga.

dime n sarafu ya Marekani na Kanada yenye thamani ya 1/10 ya dola.

dimension n 1 ukubwa; kadiri. 2 kipimo cha aina yoyote. 3 kivimbe. ~al adj.

diminish vt,vi punguza; pungua, punguka.

diminuendo n (Mus.) sauti ipungukayo polepole.

diminution n 1 upunguaji; mpunguo, kipunguo. 2 mpunguzo. diminutive adj 1 -dogo sana. 2 (gram, of a suffix) -enye kuonyesha udogo n neno lililoundwa kwa kuongezwa kiambishi cha kuonyesha udogo.

dimple n kibonyo kidogo (hasa katika shavu au kidevu) vt,vi bonyea kidogo shavuni au kidevuni.

din n 1 kelele. 2 mshindo. 3 ghasia vt,vi fanya kelele/mshindo/ghasia, chagiza, fanyia ging'izo. ~ something into somebody chagiza.

dinar n dinari, fedha inayotumika Mashariki ya kati na Afrika ya Kaskazini

dine vt,vi (formal) 1 -la chakula kikuucha siku. ~ out -la chakula hotelini au kwa marafiki. 2 karibisha mtu kwa chakula kikuu cha siku; kirimu. dining car n behewa la kulia chakula. dining room n chumba cha kulia. dining table n meza ya chakula. ~r n 1 mla chakula (kikuu hasa cha kutwa). 2 behewa la kulia chakula; (US) mgahawa wenye umbo

ding-dong

la behewa la kulia chakula.

ding-dong n mlio wa kengele (agh. wa mfululizo) adj. ~ struggle/battle n mapambano makali, vuta nikuvute adv kwa mshindo wa sauti zinazofuatana mfululizo.

dinghy;dingey n (naut) kihori.

dingle n kibonde (hasa chenye

uvuli wa miti).

dingy adj 1 -chafuchafu; -enye gizagiza; ovyoovyo. dingily adv. dinginess n.

dinky adj 1 -zuri, nadhifu. 2 (derog) dogo sana, -siomuhimu.

dinner n 1 mlo mkuu wa siku/kutwa; dhifa. 2 chakula rasmi kinacho-andaliwa kwa ajili ya mgeni. ~-jacket n koti jeusi linalovaliwa na wanaume kwenye sherehe rasmi jioni. ~-service huduma za mlo mkuu. ~-set n seti ya vyombo vya chakula.

dinosaur n dinosau pia dinosaria: mnyama mkubwa sana wa zamani (mwenye umbo la kenge).

dint n 1 see dent. 2 by ~ of kwa

kufanya; kwa kutumia; kwa sababu ya he succeeded by ~ of hard work amefaulu kwa kufanya kazi kwa bidii.

diocese n jimbo (la askofu), dayosisi. diocesan adj & n.

dip vt,vi 1 ~ in/into chovya, zamisha. ~ stick n kijiti cha kupimia oili/mafuta. 2 ogesha (kondoo, ng'ombe) kwa dawa katika josho. 3 teremsha na kutweka tena upesi. ~ a flag amkia kwa bendera ~ the head lights punguza nuru ya taa za gari. 4 inama, nepa, enda chini, teremka kidogo the sun ~ped below the horizon jua lilizama chini ya upeo wa macho. 5 ~ into (fig) ~ into one's purse tumia pesa. ~ into the future jaribu kufikiria yajayo ~ into a book somasoma, angalia angalia kitabu n 1 mchovyo; mzamo. 2 dawa ya kuogeshea mifugo. 3 mbetuko; mwinamo, mteremko. 4 mkao wa bendera inapoteremshwa au kutwekwa. 5 kuogelea (kwa muda

direct

mfupi).

diphtheria n (med.) dondakoo: ugonjwa wa koo unaoambukiza ambao husababisha kupumua kwa shida. diphtheritic adj.

diphthong n (ling.) irabu unganifu,

irabu-pacha k.m. ai katika laiti.

diploma n diploma; stashahada, hati ya sifa.

diplomacy n 1 diplomasia. 2 upatanishi, usuluhishi. 3 (cunning) werevu/ujanja/ustadi wa kushughu- lika na watu wengine (ili mambo yote yafanikiwe); busara; hekima. diplomat n 1 mwanadiplomasia; balozi. 2 bingwa katika uhusiano na watu. diplomatic adj 1 -a kidiplomasia. diplomatic corps n maafisa wa ubalozi katika nchi. diplomatic immunity n huria kwa wanadiplomasia. diplomatic relations n uhusiano wa kibalozi. 2 -erevu; -a busara. -a hekima. diplomatically adv.

dipper n 1 kata; upawa. 2 (US) the Big (Little) ~ n Nyota Kuu za Kaskazini.

dippy adj (sl) -enye wazimu.

dipsomania n hamu/kiu ya ulevi. ~c n mtu mwenye hamu kubwa ya ulevi; ugonjwa wa ulevi.

dire; ~ful adj 1 -a kutisha, -a kuogofya, -enye misiba, -baya. 2 kubwa sana.

direct1 adj 1 nyoofu, -a moja kwa moja a ~ hit kupiga shabaha barabara ~ road njia ya moja kwa moja. 2 -a kweli, -siotetereka. 3 -a wazi, -aminifu, bila kuficha he gave a ~ answer alijibu waziwazi. 4 (various uses) ~ action n migomo. ~ speech n kauli halisi. ~ tax n kodi ya dhahiri. ~ object n yambwa tendwa. ~current n mkondo fulizo adv moja kwa moja the child went ~ to its mother mtoto alikwenda moja kwa moja kwa mama yake. ~ness n.

direct2 vt,vi ~ (to) 1 elekeza, ongoza, onyesha. 2 andika, peleka. 3 ~

direful

something to somebody elekeza, lenga, kusudia. 4 simamia, ongoza, dhibiti. 5 ~ to/ towards geuza, badili; amuru, simamia, agiza. ~ion n 1 (course) mwelekeo, uelekeo; jiha in the ~ion of upande wa, kuelekea. in all ~ions kila upande. 2 majira. have a good/poor sense of ~ion weza/-toweza kutambua vizuri majira au uelekeo. 3 (often pl) maelekezo, maagizo. 4 (pl) anwani (ya barua, kifurushi). 5 uongozi, uratibu, usimamizi. ~ional adj. ~ive n agizo, maelekezo. ~ly adv 1 moja kwa moja. 2 (at once) mara, mara moja, bila kuchelewa. 3 (plainly) wazi, bila kuficha. ~or n mkurugenzi. managing ~or n mkurugenzi mwendeshaji. Board of ~ors n Bodi ya Wakurugenzi. film ~or n mwendeshaji filamu. ~orship n nafasi ya/kipindi cha ukurugenzi. ~orate n 1 kurugenzi. 2 bodi ya wakurugenzi. ~ory n 1 kitabu chenye orodha ya majina, anwani, kazi na habari nyinginezo za watu (wa mtaa, mji n.k.). a telephone ~ory n kitabu cha orodha ya simu.

direful adj (liter) see dire

dirge n wimbo wa maziko/ maombolezo.

dirt n 1 uchafu; taka; ukoko the compound was covered with ~ eneo lilitapakaa/jaa uchafu. 2 udongo, kifusi a ~ road (US) barabara ya udongo. as cheap/common as ~, duni, -a hali ya chini. fling/throw ~at somebody haribu sifa za mtu, kashifu. treat a person like ~ dharau mtu. ~ farmer n (US) mtu anayefanya kazi zake zote. ~ cheap adj rahisi sana. 3 mawazo/ mazungumzo machafu. ~y adj 1 chafu, -enye taka. 2 (of the weather) -enye upepo mwingi, -a mvua nyingi. 3 -enye mawazo/mazungumzo machafu; -enye matusi. 4 choyo; -sio na heshima. ~y vt,vi chafua, tia taka. do the ~y on somebody/play a ~y trick fanyia vibaya/hila. give a

disappoint

~y look angalia vibaya/kwa jicho kali. wash one's ~y linen in public fichua hadharani siri za ndani. ~ily adv.

dis- (pref) 1 tenda kinyume cha. ~obey vt -totii. ~arm nyang'anya silaha. 2 sio ~honest -sio aminifu.

disability n 1 udhaifu; upungufu,

ulemavu be under a ~ -wa na upungufu (fulani). 2 kilema permanent ~ kilema cha kudumu; kutoweza legal ~ kutoweza kisheria. disable vt 1 lemaza. disabled adj lemavu. disabled soldier n askari mlemavu (aliyeumia vitani). 2 nyima/ondolea uwezo. disablement n.

disabuse vt ~ (of) (formal) weka mtu

sawa (kimawazo), elimisha; sahihisha.

disadvantage n 1 upungufu, kasoro, hitilafu. 2 hali ngumu, kizuizi (katika kufanikisha jambo) at a ~ katika hali ngumu. ~ ous adj. ~ ous (to) inayoleta madhara. ~ously adv.

disaffected adj -sioridhika, -a kukosa/ kupoteza imani; asi. disaffection n chuki (hasa ya kisiasa), kukosa imani.

disagree vi ~ (with) 1 -tokubaliana na, toafikiana, tofautiana. 2 dhuru; -tofaa this food ~s with me chakula hiki kinanidhuru. ~able adj 1 -siopendeza, -enye kusumbua, baya. 2 -enye hasira, kali. ~ ableness n. ~ably adv. ~ment n.

disallow vt kataza.

disappear vi 1 toweka, potea; didimia; fifia. 2 (come to an end) isha, koma; potea. 3 (fig) ambaa, tokomea. ~ance n.

disappoint vt 1 -toridhisha, sikitisha. 2 vunja matumaini/matarajio (yanayotegemewa kutoka kwako), batilisha; (fig) angusha. ~ed adj. ~ed (in/at) (with) sikitishwa kwa jambo (na mtu). ~ing adj. ~edly adv. ~ment n 1 masikitiko, maudhi. 2 hali inayovunja

matumaini. 3 kitu/jambo/mtu anayevunja matumaini ya mwingine.

disapprobation n (formal) kutoridhia, rai katavu, kutounga mkono.

disapprove vt,vi ~ (of) -tokubali,

-toridhia, -topenda my parents ~ of my leaving home wazazi wangu hawakubali niondoke nyumbani. disapproval n. disapprovingly adv.

disarm vt,vi 1 nyang'anya silaha.

2 (of a country) punguza/acha kutumia silaha, punguza majeshi. 3 poza, vunja nguvu; zima. ~ament n upunguzaji wa silaha za vita.

disarrange vt pangua, chafua, fuja,

vuruga. ~ment n mchafuko, fujo, mtawanyiko, vurugu.

disarray vt,n vuruga, fanya kuwa

mchafukoge. in ~ mchafukoge.

disassemble vt tenganisha, changua,

bomoa.

disassociate vt,vi see dissociate.

disaster n baa; msiba; maafa. disastrous adj.

disavow vt (formal) kana, kataa. ~al

n.

disband vt,vi (of organized groups)

vunja, tawanya; fumukana, tawanyika. ~ment n.

disbar vt toa kwenye uwakili, fukuza, achisha uwakili.

disbelieve vt,vi ~ in -tosadiki,

-toamini. disbelief n hali ya kutoamini, kutosadiki, ukosefu wa imani. ~r n.

disbench vt achisha uhakimu.

disbud vt kata chipukizi.

disburden vt ~ (of) (formal) ondolea mzigo, matatizo; tuliza ~ one's mind pumzisha akili.

disburse vt,vi toa fedha, lipa disbursing official ofisa mlipaji. ~ ment n.

disc (also disk) n kisahani, rekodi. ~ brake n breki kisahani. ~ jockey n diskojoka. 2 (anat.) gegedu. 3 diski. floppy ~ n diski laini (inayohamishika). hard ~ n diski ngumu (isiyohamishika). ~ drive n kiendesha diski.

discard vt tupa, acha n 1 kitu

kilichotupwa au kuachwa. 2 karata iliyotupwa.

discern vt tambua, maizi, ona, fahamu. ~ing adj tambuzi. ~ible adj. ~ment n utambuzi.

discharge vt,vi. 1 (dismiss) ondoa,

fukuza, toa (kazini). 2 (of liquid, gas etc.) toa, toka; foka. 3 (let off) piga, fyatua (bunduki), tupa (mshale). 4 (release) fungulia, ruhusu, achilia. 5 (unload) shusha, teremsha, pakua (shehena). 6 lipa, maliza (deni); feleti. 7 (execute) timiza, tekeleza n 1 mshuko. 2 kutoa. 3 mlipuo/mfyatuko. 4 kuruhusiwa; kuachiliwa; kuachilia. 5 (of a boil) kutoka usaha. 6 (of duty) utimizaji.

disciple n mwanafunzi; mfuasi wa

dini. the Twelve D~s wanafunzi kumi na wawili wa Yesu. ~ship n.

discipline n 1 nidhamu. 2 ufundishaji wa nidhamu. 3 adhabu. 4 somo vt 1 fundisha nidhamu. 2 -pa adhabu, adhibu. disciplinary adj. disciplinarian n mdhibiti nidhamu be a good disciplinarian -wa mdhibiti nidhamu mzuri.

disclaim vt kana, kanusha; (legal) kataa haki. ~er n 1 kanusho, katao la haki/dai. 2 hati ya kukataa.

disclose vt ~ (to) funua; toa/toboa; arifu; fichua. disclosure n.

discolour vt, vi geuza (haribu) rangi, chujua, fichua; geuka (haribika) rangi; kwajuka. ~ation n.

discomfit vt 1 fadhaisha, aibisha, bumbuaza; udhi. 2 (baffle) kanganya. 3 fanya mipango ya mtu ivie, tibua mipango. (roust) (arch.) shinda kabisa. ~ure n.

discomfort vt sumbua, kera n 1 usumbufu, kero, adha. 2 aibu/soni (kidogo).

discommode vt (formal) sumbua.

discompose vt babaisha, vuruga akili, udhi, tia wasiwasi. discomposure n.

disconcert vt 1 tia wasiwasi, babaisha, kanganya, vuruga akili. ~edly adv. ~ment n.

disconnect vt ~ (from) vunja

(muungano wa vitu), tenga, achanisha ~ a plug toa plagi ~ a telephone kata simu. ~ed adj -sioungana, -siopangwa vizuri. (of words or thoughts) -siofungamana vizuri, -siofuatana barabara. ~ion; disconnexion n.

disconsolate adj -enye huzuni, majonzi/sikitiko sana, -siofarijika, -sio na faraja, -sio na furaha. ~ly adv.

discontent n 1 kutoridhika; ukosefu wa ridhaa, chuki show ~ nung'unika vt,vi -toridhika, -totosheka; -toridhisha he was ~ed with his job hakuridhika na kazi yake. ~ment n kutotosheka; kutoridhisha.

discontinue vt,vi acha; komesha;

achisha; maliza. discontinuance n. discontinuous adj -sioendelea, -sioungana. discontinuity n.

discord n 1 kutokupatana, kutokuelewana, utesi. 2 (music) sauti zisizolingana. ~ant adj 1 -a kutoelewana, -a kutopatana. 2 siooana. ~antly adv. ~ance n.

discotheque n (colloq abbr disco) disko; jumba la starehe ambapo watu hucheza muziki uliorekodiwa.

discount n kipunguzo, turuhani. (of goods) at a ~ kwa bei nafuu, isiyopatikana kwa shida, aheri. ~ broker n dalali, mlanguzi; (fig) -sio na thamani Is justice at a ~ these days je haki haithaminiwi siku hizi vt 1 punguza bei. 2 lipa, pokea thamani ya sasa ya hawala isiyotazamiwa kulipwa bado. 3 -toamini kabisa kabisa; puuza, chukulia ilivyo. ~ able adj.

discountenance vt 1 nyima msaada/idhini/ruhusa/upendeleo; -tokubali, -topendelea. 2 vunja moyo.

discourage vt 1 vunja moyo, katisha/ tamaa. ~ a person from doing something katisha tamaa (mtu) asifanye jambo. 2 pinga, wekea vikwazo. ~ment n.

discourse n hotuba, mhadhara; mahubiri hold a ~ with (formal) wa

na mazungumzo ya makini na vi ~ upon hutubia, toa mhadhara, hubiri. discourteous adj -sio na heshima, adabu, staha. discourtesy n.

discover vt gundua, tambua; funua,

fichua. ~er n. ~y n 1 ugunduzi, ugunduaji. 2 jambo jipya, geni, lisilojulikana kabla; ajabu; kitu kilichogunduliwa. 3 (legal) order for ~y amri ya kudhihirisha.

discredit vt 1 (dishonour) aibisha, punguza sifa, tahayarisha, tia fedheha. 2 (disomebodyelieve) -toamini, -tosadiki, -tothamini. 3 tia shaka, onyesha uongo n 1 aibu. 2 shaka, kutoamini. ~able adj. ~ ably adv.

discreet adj 1 -makinifu. 2 -a tahadhari kubwa (kabla ya kutenda), angalifu, -enye hadhari; -teuzi maneno. ~ly adv. discretion n 1 busara, akili, makini, hadhari he has reached years of discretion amefikia utu uzima, amekomaa. Discreation is the better part of valour (prov) busara ni bora kuliko ushujaa. 2 hiari at your own discretion kwa hiari yako. discretioary adj.

discrepancy n tofauti, hitilafu. discrepant adj.

discrete adj -sio ungana, peke. ~ness n. discriminate vt,vi 1 ~ (between/from)tofautisha, tenga, ona tofauti, pambanua. ~ between so and so ona tofauti, pambanua baina ya fulani na fulani. 2 ~ (against) bagua, pendelea laws which do not ~ against anyone sheria zisizopendelea. discrimination n ubaguzi; upambanuzi. disriminatory adj.

discursive adj 1 -enye kutangatanga

(kimatendo, mawazo); -sio na mpango; -sio na msimamo. 2 -enye kufuata mantiki au hoja maalum. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

discuss n kisahani vt ~ (with) jadili, zungumza. ~able adj. ~ion n majadiliano, mjadala, mazungumzo. it is under ~ion imo katika

disdain

kujadiliwa, inajadiliwa.

disdain vt dharau, tweza, beza, bera, (kwa kiburi, dharau) n dharau, kiburi, makuu, usodai. ~ful adj. ~ fully adv.

disease n ugonjwa, maradhi, uele, ndwele. communicable ~ n maradhi ya kuambukiza. ~ of the mind/mental ~ ugonjwa wa akili. ~d adj -gonjwa.

disembark 1 vt,vi ~ (from) shusha, teremsha; shuka, teremka (kutoka chomboni, melini). ~ation n.

disembody vt tenga mwilini, toa (roho kutoka mwilini); achia huru. disembodied spirit n pepo.

disembowel vt tumbua, toa matumbo.

disembroil vt toa katika matatizo/ mkanganyiko, tanzua.

disenchant vt 1 zingua, opoa uchawi.

2 fumbuliwa macho, poteza imani he is ~ed with the government amepoteza imani na serikali. ~ment n kupoteza imani.

disencumber vt ondolea mzigo. disendow vt ondolea/twalia wakfu/ruzuku.

disenfranchize vt (see disfranchise vt)

disengage vt,vi kong'oa; namua, toa,

ondoa. ~ (from) achanisha; nasuka. ~d adj. ~ment n.

disentail vt (legal) batilisha wakfu.

disentangle vt,vi ~ (from) 1 fundua,

funua. 2 eleza; fumbua, dhihirisha, dadavua. ~ment n.

disequilibrium n ukosefu wa msawazo, ukosefu wa urari.

disestablish vt ondolea hadhi ya taasisi, vunja uhusiano (kati ya taasisi na serikali). ~ment n.

disfavour n 1 kutopendelea; chuki,

kutokubalia. 2 kuchukiwa vt -topendelea, -tounga mkono.

disfigure vt umbua, haribu sura, rembua be ~d umbuka; kwajuka; sawijika. ~ment n.

disforest vt fyeka/ondoa msitu.

disfranchise/(also disenfranchise) vt 1 nyima haki ya uraia (hasa haki ya kupiga kura). 2 nyima jimbo, haki ya

dishonest

kuchagua Mbunge. ~ment n.

disgorge vt 1 tapika; kokomoa; (fig) (yield up) rudisha (kitu kilichotwaliwa kwa makosa). 2 (of rivers etc.) mimina.

disgrace n aibu, fedheha; tahayari, soni. ~ful adj. ~fully adv vt tia aibu, fedhehi, tahayarisha, tweza.

disgruntled adj ~ (at/with) -sioridhika, -siopendezwa na; -enye chukichuki.

disguise vt 1 ficha, funika ukweli. 2

geuza uso (umbo) ili kudanganya n mavazi ya kujigeuza (ya uigaji), umbo la uwongo, hila. under the ~ of kwa kujifanya. blessing in ~ bahati iliyojitokeza kwanza kwa sura ya balaa, kufa kufaana.

disgust n ~ (at/with) karaha, ikirahi, maudhi, unyarafu vt chukiza, chafua moyo; kirihi. ~ingly adv. ~ edly adv. ~ ing adj.

dish1 n 1 sahani; kombe; bunguu. a ~ful sahani tele. 2 (food) chakula standing~ n chakula kinacho-andaliwa kila siku. 3 the ~es n vyombo vya udongo (sahani, bakuli, vikombe). ~ washer n mashine ya kuoshea vyombo. ~ water n maji yaliyooshea vyombo. ~ cloth; ~ rag n kitambaa cha kufutia sahani. ~ cover n kawa. 4 (sl) mtanashati (hasa msichana). ~y adj.

dish2 vt ~ up pakua; (fig) tayarisha, toa hoja. ~ out gawa. 2 (colloq) vuruga. ~ plans vuruga mipango ya mtu.

dishabille n (usu in ~) (usu of woman) uvaaji wa nguo usiokamilika, kuvaa nguo ovyo ovyo.

disharmony n kutotangamana;

kutokuwa na mwafaka. disharmonious adj.

dishearten vt vunja moyo, ondoa imani become ~ed vunjika moyo.

dishevelled adj (of hair) timtimu, chafu, -sio safi; (of appearance) -sio nadhifu.

dishonest adj 1 -sio aminifu,

-danganyifu ~ person ayari, mwizi.

~ly adv. ~y n.

dishonour vt 1 aibisha, fedhehesha; tahayarisha. 2 (refuse to redeem) -totekeleza (ahadi, deni); kataa kulipa (hundi, hawala); (of a bank) ~ a cheque kataa kulipa fedha ya hundi, -totambua hundi n 1 aibu, hizaya, fedheha. 2 kukataa notice of ~ notisi ya kukataa. ~able adj. ~ably adv.

disillusion vt ondosha fikra dhanifu/njozi/ruya, ~ed adj -lioishiwa imani/ hamu, -lioachana na njozi. ~ment n.

disincentive n kivunja motisha/ raghba/moyo; ukatishaji tamaa.

disincline vt 1 (usu passive) be ~d for something; be ~d to do something -tokuwa na hamu/ari ya kutenda jambo. 2 -tochangamkia jambo. disinclination n. disinclination (for something/to do something) ukosefu wa ari (ya kufanya jambo), kutotaka/ kutokuwa na ari/hamu ya kutenda jambo.

disinfect vt ua viini vya maradhi/

vijidudu, safisha, takasa. ~ant n kipukusi: kemikali ya kuzuia au kuua viini vya maradhi. ~ion n.

disinfest vt ondoa wadudu/vinyama vidogovidogo (k.m. panya). ~ation n disinfestation officer ofisa muua/mwondoa wadudu.

disentranchize v see distranchise vt

disinflation n udhibiti wa mfumuko wa bei (ambapo bei na mishahara havipandi na kushuka ovyoovyo).

disinform v toa taarifa ya uongo kwa makusudi. ~ation n taarifa ya uongo

disingenuous adj (formal) -enye hila,

-danganyifu, laghai. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

disinherit vt toa katika urithi, nyima mrithi haki ya kurithi. ~ance n.

disintegrate vt,vi 1 changua, vunja,

vunjika, changanua. 2 tenga sehemu mbalimbali. disintegration n uchangukaji.

disinter vt (formal) 1 fukua, chimbua (kitu kilichozikwa). 2 (bring into view) (fig) vumbua, gundua. ~ment

dismember

n.

disinterested adj 1 -sio na raghba,

-siopendelea, -enye haki. 2 siojali, -siotaka faida. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

disjoin vt kongoa, tenganisha, achanisha.

disjoint vt 1 vuruga mpango, pangua. 2 tenga viungo, changua, ambua, tangua. ~ed adj (of speech and writing) -sio na mtiririko, -siofuatana, -sio ungana, -sio na mantiki. ~edly adv. ~edness n.

disk n (computer) kisahani, diski (ya kurekodia taarifa ndani ya kompyuta.

disjunctive adj -a kutenganisha, -a

kuachanisha, -a kutengua; (gram) -enye kueleza tafauti, ukinzani, uteuzi kati ya mambo mawili (mfano ama -au-). disjunction n 1 mwachano, kutenganisha, kuachanisha. 2 (maths) funduo. ~adv.

dislike vt chukia, -topenda, -totaka n

chuki. take a ~to somebody chukia mtu, anza kuchukia mtu. likes and ~s mapendezi na machukizo; raha na karaha.

dislocate vt 1 tegua, tengua. 2 (disturb) vuruga; fuja, chafua, haribu constant power cuts may ~ business ukatizaji umeme wa mara kwa mara huenda ukavuruga biashara. dislocation n.

dislodge vt ~(from) 1 ng'oa, ondoa (kwa kutumia nguvu) toka mahali pake. 2 fukuza (toka mafichoni).

disloyal adj ~ to -asi, -sio -aminifu. ~ly adv. ~ty n.

dismal adj 1 -a kuhuzunisha, -a majonzi, -a kusikitisha, -sio na raha. 2 -a ovyo; baya. ~ly adv.

dismantle vt 1 pambua, kongoa. 2 vunja, bomoa. ~ment n.

dismast vt ondoa, vunja milingoti ya chombo (kwa dhoruba, tufani, mzinga n.k.).

dismay n hofu, fazaa; mvunjiko wa moyo. stricken with ~ -lioshikwa na hofu, -liofadhaishwa.

dismember vt 1 kata kiungo, changua; rarua. 2 (fig) gawa; gawana (dola/

nchi). ~ment n.

dismiss vt ~ (from) 1 fukuza, ondosha (hasa katika kazi). 2 (allow to go) ruhusu, fungulia. 3 toa fikrani, puuza; (leg) futa, tupilia mbali the judge ~ed the case jaji alifuta kesi. 4 (of cricket) toa. ~al n. ~ible adj.

dismount vt,vi ~ (from) 1 shuka, teremka. 2 shusha, teremsha, toa ~from one's horse shuka juu ya farasi. 3 angusha, (toka kwenye farasi, pikipiki, n.k.).

disobey vt,vi asi, kaidi, -totii, puuza (amri). disobedience n ~ (to) kutotii, uasi disobedience to orders kutotii amri. disobedient adj. disobediently adv.

disoblige vt (formal) 1 kataa kusaidia/ kufikiria wengine. 2 bughudhi, -tojali (matakwa, haja) ya mwingine. disobligingly adv.

disorder vt chafua; fuja, vuruga n 1 fujo, vurugu; machafuko, ghasia. 2 (illness) ugonjwa, maradhi. ~ed adj -liovurugika ~ed mind akili iliyovurugika. ~ly adj 1 -sio taratibu, -sio na mpango, -a mvurugiko, -liochafuka. 2 (riots) -a ghasia. ~ly house danguro; kasino. ~ly person mkorofi. ~liness n.

disorganize vt vuruga, pangua, tangua. disorganization n.

disorientate/(US) disorient vt (lit, fig) kanganya. disorientation n.

disown vt 1 kana, kataa. 2 achia radhi, kanusha.

disparage vt umbua, aziri, shushia hadhi. ~ment n. disparagingly adv.

disparate adj -lio tofauti kabisa, sio

linganishika n (pl) vitu tofauti. disparity n tofauti, hali ya kutofautiana kabisa.

dispassionate adj -siopendelea;

-sioathirika na jazba, -siohemkwa. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

dispatch;despatch vt ~ to 1 (of errand) tuma; (of material) peleka. 2 maliza (k.m. kazi chakula n.k.) haraka. 3 ua; fisha; nyonga n 1 haraka; kufanya upesi, wepesi;

displease

ufanisi. 2 barua, waraka, ripoti inayopelekwa na kijumbe. 3 upelekaji, utumaji (wa barua, waraka, ripoti). 4 uuaji, ufishaji. ~er n msimamizi wa usafirishaji ~ boat mashua ya kupelekea barua ~ book kitabu cha barua za mkono ~-box sanduku la kuchukulia nyaraka za serikali ~-rider mtu apelekaye habari kwa pikipiki

dispel vt ondoa, fukuza, tawanya, (fikra, mashaka n.k.).

dispense vt,vi 1 gawa, toa (haki, msaada n.k.). 2 ~ (with) acha kutumia, achana na, fanya bila ya, achilia. 3 changanya na toa dawa. dispensable adj si -a lazima; si -a muhimu. ~r n 1 mgawanyaji wa dawa. 2 kimiminio. dispensary n 1 zahanati. 2 (in hospitals) chumba cha dawa. dispensation n 1 mgawanyo, mgawo. 2 (divine) mpango wa Mungu. 3 (special leave) ruhusa, kibali (cha kuvunja kanuni). 4 mfumo wa dini (katika kipindi fulani maalum).

disperse vt,vi 1 tawanya, tawanyisha; tawanyika, enea; eneza. 2 toweka the fog ~d ukungu ulitoweka. dispersal n. dispersion n. dispersive adj. the Dispersion n see Diaspora.

dispirit vt vunja moyo; katisha tamaa; huzunisha. ~ed adj. ~edly adv.

displace vt 1 hamisha, ondoa mahali

pake (makazi, nchi, ofisi). ~d persons n wakimbizi: watu waliolazimishwa kuhama (kwa sababu ya vita n.k.). 2 shika nafasi ya mwingine. ~able adj. ~ment n 1 kutwaa mahali pa mwingine. 2 uhamisho. 3 nafasi ya maji iliyotwaliwa na chombo/kitu kinachoelea; maji ya kujaza nafasi hiyo.

display vt 1 onyesha. 2 tandaza, pamba (ili kitu kionekane waziwazi) n 1 maonyesho. 2 (show off) takabari, kukoga; mikogo.

displease vt chukiza; kasirisha; udhi,

kera. be ~d with something topendezwa/ kerwa na jambo fulani. displeasing (to) adj -a kero, -a chuki, -a maudhi. displeasure n chuki, maudhi, kero.

disport vt ~ oneself (formal) chezacheza, jifurahisha, jiburudisha (majini, juani n.k.).

dispose vt,vi 1 panga ~ the boats in port panga mashua bandarini. 2 ~ of tupa, maliza, angamiza, ondoa ~ of vehicles ondosha/tupilia mbali mikweche. 3 ~ to elekeza; tayarisha. be ~d to taka, penda; elekea. 4 amuru ~ of amuru. man proposes, God ~s (prov) mja hutaka, Mola hujaalia/huamuru. disposable adj -a kutupika, -a kutupa (baada ya kutumika). disposal n disposal (of) 1 utumiaji; utupaji disposal of waste utupaji wa uchafu. 2 udhibiti; mpangilio; upangaji. 3 haki ya kutumia kitu, mamlaka, idhini. at your disposal chini ya mamlaka yako means at my disposal uwezo nilionao. 4 uuzaji; utoaji. disposition n 1 (character) tabia, silika, moyo, welekea. 2 (inclination) elekeo. 3 mpangilio, mpango. 4 madaraka; mamlaka.

dispossess vt nyang'anya, pokonya; pora. ~ somebody of something nyang'anya mtu kitu. ~ion n.

disproportion n kutolingana, kutowiana, ukosefu wa urari. ~ate adj -siolingana.

disprove vt kanusha, kana; bainisha

uwongo. disproof n kanusho, ushahidi unaokanusha.

dispute vt,vi 1 ~ (with/against somebody) bishana; jadiliana. 2 jadili; pinga; saili (ukweli wa...). 3 shindana, tetea. disputable adj -enye mashaka, si hakika, si yakini, -enye kuzua mjadala. disputant n mshindani, mbishani; mkaidi. disputation n mashindano, majadiliano, mabishano. disputatious adj -kaidi; -gomvi; -bishi, -shindani n shindano (la maneno); mabishano,

mzozo, ugomvi. in ~ inayogombaniwa trade ~ mgogoro wa kazi. beyond/past all ~ si jambo la kushindania, jambo linalokubaliwa, lisilo mjadala. without ~ bila mgogoro/ubishi.

disqualify vt 1 ~ somebody (for something/from doing something) (debar) futa, ondolea haki, harimisha, batilisha. 2 (render unfit, incapacitate) zuia, -tostahilisha, ondoa ustahili, ondolea nguvu. disqualification n.

disquiet vt fadhaisha, tia wasiwasi, hamanisha, sumbua n fadhaa, wasiwasi, hamaniko; hangaisho. ~ing adj hamanishi. ~ingly adv. ~ude n wasiwasi.

disquisition n ~ on something hotuba ndefu; maandiko marefu (yaliyofafanuliwa sana au kutiwa madoido).

disrate vt (naut.) shusha/teremsha (baharia) cheo.

disregard vt -tojali, puuza, dharau, bekua we may ~ this item tunaweza kuacha jambo hili n dharau, kupuuza, mbekuo.

disremember vt (US) -tokumbuka, sahau I ~ed the fact sikukumbuka jambo lile.

disrepair n uchakavu.

disrepute n tabia/sifa mbaya, utovu wa heshima bring into ~ aziri fall into ~ poteza heshima/sifa njema. disreputable adj -enye tabia/sifa mbaya; -a ovyo he is disreputable looking ni mtu ovyo. disreputable to -enye kuashiria vibaya kwa.

disrespect n utovu wa heshima/adabu, ufidhuli, usafihi, ujuvi treat somebody with ~ -tomheshimu mtu, vunjia mtu heshima. ~ful adj. ~fully adv.

disrobe vt,vi vua (hasa mavazi rasmi).

disrupt vt 1 vunja, vuruga. 2 (discussion) katiza, ingilia kati, dakiza; tenganisha. ~ion n. ~ive adj.

dissatisfy vt -totosheleza, -toridhisha to

be dissatisfied with living condition kutoridhika/kutoridhishwa na hali ya maisha. dissatisfaction n. ~ (with somebody/something)/(at doing something) kutoridhika, kutotosheka.

dissect vt 1 changua, kata vipande vipande; tenga sehemu mbalimbali za mnyama, mimea n.k. (ili kuchunguza muundo wake). ~ed plateau n uwanda uliogawanyika (katika milima na mabonde). 2 (fig) chambua, hakiki kwa makini au kwa undani kila sehemu. ~ing room n chumba cha kufanyia mazoezi ya upasuaji viumbe. ~ion n uchunguzi; sehemu.

dissemble vt,vi (formal) ficha (hisia, kitu, nia, maono n.k.). 2 danganya, ghilibu, fanya unafiki. ~r n mdanganyifu, mnafiki.

disseminate vt eneza, tawanya, sambaza (maoni, imani n.k.). dissemination n.

dissent vi 1 ~ from -wa na maoni

tafauti, -tokubali, -towafiki. 2 kataa (imani ya kanisa la Kianglikana) n mfarakano wa mawazo, kutokubaliana, kutowafiki. dissension n mfarakano, ugomvi. ~ient adj -enye kuona vingine, -siokubali a ~ient voice -a kukataa, -a kupinga, -enye kukaidi, -enye shauri tafauti n mbishi.

dissertation n 1 tasnifu: andiko au maelezo marefu ya mada fulani (yanayohudhurishwa kwa digrii ya chuo kikuu). 2 insha; hotuba.

disservice n (a) ~ (to) tendo

linalodhuru/lisilosaidia.

dissever vt (formal) tenga, kata vipande vipande; achana, katika.

dissident adj -a kupinga, -pinzani n

mpinzani. dissidence n.

dissimilar adj ~ (from/to) -siofanana, -enye kutofautiana na. ~ity n. dissimilitude n tofauti, umbalimbali. dissimilation n (ling.) msigano: kutofautiana kwa sauti zilizofanana kiasi hapo awali.

dissimulate vt,vi see dissemble. dissimulation n.

distaff

dissipate vt,vi 1 tapanya, tawanya; tawanyika; sambaza; sambaa. 2 (waste by extravagance) badhiri, fuja, fanya ubadhirifu/ufasiki. dissipation n utapanyaji; ubadhirifu. ~d adj -a uasherati; badhirifu.

dissociate (also disassociate) vt,vi

~ (from) tenga; jitenga; kata, weka mbali. 2 (repudiate connection) kaidi; kanusha, kana; jitoa. dissociation n 1 kutenga; kujitenga. 2 kukanusha; kukaidi.

dissolute adj fisadi, -potovu;

-asherati; -levi; -ovu. ~ly adv. dissolution n 1 dissolution (of) (disintegration) mvurugiko, kuoza, kuharibika. 2 mwisho, kikomo; mauti. 3 utanguzi. 4 kuvunjika (kwa chama, ushirika au ndoa). dissolution of partnership n utanguzi wa ubia. dissolution of Parliament n kuvunja Bunge.

dissolve vt,vi 1 (melt) yeyusha. ~in (to) yeyuka. ~ in (to) tears angua kilio. 2 vunja; vunjika; komesha, tangua; tanguka, isha ~ a marriage vunja ndoa ~ a committee vunja kamati. 3 toweka polepole, fifia, potea. dissoluble; dissolvable adj. ~nt n kiyeyushi adj -enye kuyeyusha.

dissonant adj 1 -a sauti tafauti (zisizoafikiana, zisizo nzuri); -a makelele. 2 -enye hitilafu. dissonance n 1 sauti zisizolingana; ukosefu wa muwafaka, makelele. 2 tofauti, hitilafu (za imani, vitendo n.k.).

dissuade vt ~ somebody (from) shawishi (mtu) asifanye jambo, vuta, shauri dhidi ya, geuza mawazo (ya mtu mwingine). dissuasion n. dissuasive adj.

dissyllable n (US) see disyllable. dissymetry n hali ya kutokuwepo na

ulinganifu/urari. dissymetric (al) adj.

distaff n kijiti cha kukunjia uzi (chenye bonge la uzi) unaokunjwa kwa mkono. on the ~ side kukeni.

distance

distance n 1 umbali; masafa, kitalifa

part of the ~ sehemu ya umbali (fulani) a good ~off mbali kidogo na hapo a short ~ from karibu na. at a ~ kwa mbali within calling ~ karibu vya kutosha kusikika/kuitika, kitambo kidogo. in the ~ huko mbali. keep somebody at a ~ fanya mtu asikuzoee. keep one's ~ (fig) kaa mbali, jitenga usizoeleke. some ~ mbali kiasi within walking ~ karibu tu. long ~ adj (of races, journeys) -a masafa marefu, mbio ndefu, safari ndefu; (of telephone calls) simu kutoka/kwenda mbali. middle ~ adj (of races) mbio za umbali wa kati. 2 (space of time) muda, kitambo vt ~(from) weka/kaa mbali na, pita mbali kabisa, acha nyuma. distant adj 1 distant (from) -a mbali have a distant recollection kukumbuka kwa mbali a distant relative ndugu wa mbali. 2 (of degree of similarity) -siofanana sana, -a kufanana kidogo sana. 3 (cold, reserved) -siozoeleka, baridi, si -kunjufu we are on distant terms hatukuzoeana sana. distantly adv.

distaste n (a) ~ (for) kutopenda, kuchukia, maudhi, chuki he looked at me with/in ~ aliniangalia kwa chuki. (to) ~ful adj -a maudhi, -a chuki. ~fully adv. ~fulness n.

distemper1 n (upakaji) rangi ya maji vt paka rangi ya maji.

distemper2 n ugonjwa wa mbwa na baadhi ya wanyama (wa kukohoa na kukosa nguvu).

distend vt,vi vimbisha; vimba; tanua; tanuka; futuka. distensible adj. distension n.

distil vt,vi 1 ~ something (from something); ~ something off/out tonesha, tona, geuza kuwa mvuke. 2 tiririsha; dondoka (kwa matone). ~lation n utoneshaji. ~ler n toneshaji. ~lery n kiwanda cha kutonesha.

distinguish vt,vi 1 ~ from pambanua, bainisha, weka mbali. 2 tofautisha ~

distress

between two things tofautisha vitu viwili. 3 (perceive) ona, tambua. 4 oneself jipatia sifa he greatly ~ed himself alijipatia sifa bora. ~able adj -a kutambulikana; -a kuonekana dhahiri. ~ed adj maarufu, -a heshima, mashuhuri, bora look ~ed onekana mtu wa heshima.

distinct adj 1 (different) ~ (from) tofauti na these matters are entirely ~ from each other mambo haya yanatofautiana kabisa. 2 (clear) dhahiri, wazi, -liosikika kwa urahisi. ~ness n. ~ly adv. ~ion n 1 kutofautisha; utofautishaji a ~ion without difference utofautishaji usio halisi. 2 tofauti. 3 (honour) heshima, sifa; hali ya kuwa bora a man of ~ion mtu wa sifa/heshima maalum gain ~ion pata sifa. 4 alama ya heshima, zawadi, nishani. ~ive adj -a kutofautisha; -a pekee ~ive features sifa bainishi.

distort vt 1 geuza/badili umbo (hali ya kawaida). a face ~ed by pain uso uliobadilika kwa maumivu. 2 potosha habari/ukweli. ~ion n.

distract vt ~ (from) 1 (draw attention) vuta (mawazo, fikra), vuruga (mawazo); ondoa katika shughuli. 2 (occupy) shughulisha. ~ed adj. ~ed (with/by) -liochanganyikiwa; -enye wasiwasi. ~edly adv. ~ion n 1 (attention) kuvuta mawazo, kuondoa katika shughuli. 2 (unsettlement) fadhaa; mashaka; wasiwasi, hangaiko; wazimu you drive me to ~ion unanitia wazimu. 3 (rest) pumzisho, kitulizo; mchezo, burudiko.

distrain vt ~ (upon) (leg) piga tanji; shika/zuia mali ya mtu (kumlazimisha alipe deni), lipisha ~ upon somebody's property piga tanji n tanji.

distraught adj -enye kuhangaika, -enye wasiwasi, -liochanganyikiwa, -liofadhaishwa.

distress vt,vi dhikisha, tesa; huzunisha; tia wasiwasi. ~ oneself jitesa; ona

distributary

wasiwasi be much ~ed huzunishwa/ sikitishwa na. ~ed area n eneo la dhiki/lisilo na kazi. ~ing adj. ~fully; ~ingly adv. n 1 dhiki; majonzi, huzuni companion in ~ rafiki katika dhiki ~ committee kamati ya wenye shida, wasio na kazi. 2 hali ya hatari; tatizo/shida kubwa. ~ signal n alama ya hatari. 3 maumivu, mateso, uchungu.

distributary mkono wa mto.

distribute vt ~ (to/among) 1 gawanya; gawa. 2 tandaza, sambaza. distributor n mgawaji; (electr) kigawi, distribyuta. distribution n 1 mgawanyo; ugawaji; maenezi, usambazaji. 2 (Maths) uenezaji. distributive adj -a kugawanya; -a kusambaza; -a kueneza. distributive share n hisa mgawanyo.

district n 1 wilaya ~ magistrate

hakimu wa wilaya. 2 (of town) mtaa, kiambo. the D~ of Columbia jiji la Washington, eneo la serikali ya Muungano ya Marekani. 3 jimbo la uchaguzi.

distrust vt shuku, tuhumu. ~ (of) n shaka. ~ful adj -a kushuku, -enye mashaka, -sioamini. ~fully adv. ~fulness n.

disturb vt 1 (disarrange) chafua, fuja,vuruga. ~ the peace vuruga/vunja amani. 2 sumbua do not ~ me usinisumbue. ~ance n 1 ghasia, usumbufu, machafuko, vurugu. 2 (emotional) kuchanganyikiwa mental disturbance mvurugiko wa akili.

disunite vt,vi tenganisha, farakanisha; tengana, farakana. disunity n. disunion n 1 mfarakano, utengano. 2 (discord) kutopatana, ugomvi.

disuse n kutotumika this path has fallen into ~ njia hii haitumiki. ~d adj -siotumika tena.

disyllabic adj -enye silabi mbili. disyllable n (US) (dissyllable) silabi mbili.

ditch n handaki; mtaro, mfereji make a last ~stand linda/pigana mpaka mwisho; endelea mpaka mwisho. dull

diverge

as ~ water -jinga kabisa vt 1 tengeneza/chimba/safisha handaki. 2 (sl) telekeza, acha, tupa he ~ed his old car alitupa mkweche wake. 3 tupa handakini.

dither vi 1 (arch) tetemeka. 2 (colloq) tapatapa, sita, shindwa kuamua la kufanya n mtetemeko; (colloq) hali ya kutapatapa, hali ya kushindwa kuamua la kufanya.

ditto n (abbr. do) 1 mshabaha ule ule. 2 kama kwanza, sawa sawa ~ marks alama za mshabaha. ~ somebody kubaliana na fulani, afiki hoja yake; sema kitu kilekile kama fulani. say ~ to (colloq) sema kitu kilekile kama; kubaliana na.

ditty n wimbo mfupi mwepesi.

diuresis n (med) ongezeko la mkojo. diuretic adj -a kuongeza mkojo, -a slim countries) baraza kukojoza n dawa ya kukojoza.

diurnal adj 1 (of daylight) -a mchana. 2 (daily) -a kila siku. 3 (astron) -a siku nzima.

divagate vi 1 tangatanga. 2 ~ from

acha (njia/lengo n.k.), kengeuka; zungukazunguka.

divan n 1 kiti kisicho na egemeo. 2 (also ~ bed) kochi kitanda. 3 (in Muslim countries) baraza.

dive vi 1 zamia majini; (person) piga mbizi. 2 tia mkono ghafla (mfukoni, chomboni n.k.). 3 (go deeply into) jitia kabisa, zamia. 4 (of aeroplanes etc.) piga, mbizi, shuka, ghafla. ~ bomb vt,vi shuka ghafla na kudondosha mabomu n 1 mzamo, mzamio; kupiga mbizi make a ~ into one's pocket tia mkono mfukoni. 2 (colloq) mkahawa/baa isiyo ya heshima. diving-bell n chombo cha mpiga mbizi. diving-board n ubao wa kupiga mbizi. ~bomber; ~r n mpiga mbizi. pearl ~ r n mzamia lulu.

diverge vi achana, fuata njia mbalimbali. ~nce n muachano; tofauti. ~nt views n mawazo yanayotofautiana.

divers

divers adj (arch) kadhaa; zaidi ya moja.

diverse adj -a namna mbalimbali, anuwai. diversify vt 1 fanya tofautitafouti/anuwai/mbalimbali. 2 (of business etc.) panua biashara kwa kutengeneza/kuuza bidhaa za aina nyingine. diversity n hali ya kuwa anuwai, tofauti. ~ly adv.

divert vt ~ (from) 1 chepua. 2 (relieve, amuse) liwaza, burudisha. 3 potosha, vuta kwingine. diversion n 1 njia ya mchepuko. 2 (passtime) mchezo, liwazo, pumzisho. 3 (stratagem) mbinu (ya kuvutia macho kwingine), hila (ya kudanganya adui). diversionist n. diversionary adv.

divest vt,vi (formal) 1 ~ somebody of vua; vulia; twalia. 2 uzulu, vua madaraka, nyang'anya. 3 ~ oneself achana na.

divide vt,vi 1 gawa; gawanya; gawanyika; tenga the road ~s the village barabara inagawa kijiji. 2~ into/by gawa kwa ~ 6 by 3 gawa 6 kwa 3. 3 (set at variance) gombanisha; gawanya, leta kutokukubaliana. opinions are ~d on this matter watu hawakubaliani kuhusu swala hilo. 4 (classify) pambanua, ainisha. 5 (in parliament) piga kura. 6 ~ up gawana they ~d up the money waligawana pesa. n mpaka; (Geog.) kigawa mito. the Great ~ n mpaka kati ya uhai na mauti.. division n 1 (separation) kutenga, mtengo. 2 (Math) ugawanyaji division sign alama ya kugawanya. 3 (distribution) mgawo, kigawe, mgawanyiko, mgawanyo division of labour mgawanyo wa kazi. 4 (partition) mpaka, kitu cha kutengea. 5 (part) sehemu ya kitu kilichogawanyika au kilichojitenga. 6 kutoafikiana; kutofautiana mawazo. 7 (mil) divisheni. 8 (Parliament) kugawanyika makundi mawili kwa ajili ya kuhesabu kura. division bell n kengele ya kuwaashiria wabunge kuwa kuna kupiga kura. 9 (in govt.

establishments) idara budget division idara ya makadirio ya fedha. divisional adj. divisive adj -enye kugawa/kutenganisha. divisiveness n. divisor n (Maths) kigawanyo. divisible adj -a kugawanyika. divisibility n.

dividend n 1 (comm) gawio. 2 (Math.) kigawanyo, hesabu yenye kugawanyika. 3 pay ~s leta faida.

dividers (Maths) kigawanyi; (compass) bikari.

divine1 vt,vi agua; bashiri, tabiri. divination n uaguzi; ubashiri, utabiri. ~r n mwaguzi. ~-rod n fimbo ya mwaguzi.

divine2 adj 1 -a Mungu, kama Mungu; takatifu ~ service ibada takatifu. 2 (surpassing) (colloq) bora sana; -tukufu; -a fahari n mjuzi wa mambo ya Mungu (dini). divinity n 1 Uungu; Umungu; utukufu wa Mungu. 2 D~ n Mungu. 3 tawhidi, theolojia.

divorce n 1 talaka grounds for ~ sababu za talaka. 2 mtengano, mwisho wa ushirikiano (wa vitu viwili vilivyoshikamana) vt ~ (from) 1 taliki, tangua ndoa. 2 (fig) (separate) tenga; tenganisha. ~e mtalaka.

divot n majani yaliyong'olewa na udongo wake.

divulge vt funua, toa wazi, toboa, fumbua (siri). ~nce n.

divvy n (colloq abbr. of dividends).

dixie n sufuria kubwa ya chuma (itumiwayo na majeshi au kambini).

dizzy adj 1 -enye kizunguzungu/ kisulisuli; -a kutia kizunguzungu. 2 (perplexed) -enye -kuchanganyikiwa, -enye wasiwasi; (sl) -jinga, -pumbavu vt tia kizunguzungu; tia wasiwasi. dizzily adv. dizziness n.

djin n jini.

do vt,vi 1 fanya, tenda what are you ~ing tomorrow? unafanya nini kesho I'll ~ my best/all I can/all in my power nitafanya kila niwezalo. when in Rome ~ as the Romans

do

~ (prov) ukiwa Roma tenda kama Warumi she is ~ing her homework anafanya zoezi (la nyumbani). what's ~ne can't be un~ne (prov) maji yakimwagika hayazoleki. no sooner said than ~ne fanyika mara moja. well begun is half ~ne (prov) mwanzo mzuri ni nusu ya kufanikiwa. easier said than ~ne rahisi kusema kuliko kutenda. 2 tengeneza I have ~ne 10 copies nimetengeneza nakala 10. ~ it yourself (abbr DIY) fanya mwenyewe (hasa ujenzi, useremala, ukarabati n.k. bila kuajiri wafanyakazi). 3 soma, jifunza I am ~ing zoology at the University nasoma zoolojia Chuo Kikuu. 4 (Maths) pata jawabu she can ~ this sum anaweza kupata jawabu la hesabu hii. 5 (attend to) shughulikia I'll ~ you now nitakushughulikia sasa. 6 (with nouns) ~ one's teeth piga mswaki ~ one's hair chana nywele ~ the dishes safisha vyombo ~ the flowers panga maua ~ one's duty timiza wajibu. patience and perseverance will ~ wonders (prov) mstahimilivu hula mbivu ~ time (sl.) fungwa jela ~ good tenda wema; saidia this medicine will ~ you good dawa hii itakusaidia. 7 (with gerunds) ~ the cooking pika ~ the washing fua. 8 (with the pp and perfect tenses) maliza; timiliza; isha it is ~ne imemalizwa, imetimizwa. 9 ~ (for) faa; tosha will it ~ for you? itakufaa? this will never ~ haifai kabisa it is not ~ne to talk with your mouth full si vizuri/haifai kuzungumza na chakula kinywani. 10 (with passive force colloq) what's ~ing? kuna nini? Nothing ~ing! Hamna! endelea the patient is ~ing well mgonjwa anaendelea vyema. 11 (for vehicles etc.) enda, safiri this old car only ~es 40 kilometres an hour mkweche huu unaenda kilomita arobaini tu kwa saa. 12 ~ somebody (out of something) (colloq) tapeli;

do

punja; rubuni; iba. 13 iga; igiza he ~es Kinjeketile well anaiga Kinjeketile vizuri. 14 ~ somebody/oneself well (colloq) kimu, hudumia (kwa chakula malazi n.k.). 15 (colloq) zuru, tembelea she did Tanzania in two weeks alitembelea Tanzania kwa wiki mbili. 16 iva, ivisha the beef was ~ne to a turn nyama iliiva barabara. 17 husika na; tokana na ~n't have anything to ~ with him usihusike na huyu have agreat deal to ~ with husika sana na. 18 (in greetings) how ~ you ~ (formal) u hali gani? how (are) you ~ing? vipi mambo? 19 ~ oneself proud jifurahisha, jiridhisha. 20 ~ to death ua; (fig) haribu; chusha. 21 make ~ with tumia (ingawa haitoshi/ hairidhishi), jishikiz(i)a. 22 ~ your own thing (sl.) shika taimu yako, shika hamsini zako. 23 (with adv particles and preps) ~ away with futa, tangua; ua. ~ well/badly by somebody tendea wema/mabaya. be hard ~ne by onewa. ~ as you would be ~ne by (prov) tenda upendavyo kutendewa. ~ somebody down (colloq) laghai, danganya; sengenya, teta. ~ for fanyia kazi za nyumbani; fanya mipango ya. be ~ne for haribika, kwisha. ~ in (sl) ua. be ~ne in choka sana. ~ out fagia, safisha; panga. ~ over piga rangi upya; piga; umiza. ~ up karabati, tengeneza, fufua; (of dress etc.) funga (na vifungo n.k.); fanya kifurushi; chosha. ~ with hitaji, taka; (tolerate) vumilia; (pass time) fanya what did you ~ with yourselves yesterday mlifanya nini jana? mudu/weza/ishi bila we will ~ without his help tutamudu bila msaada wake n 1 (sl) (swindle) hila, ujanja, kuiba. 2 (colloq) (party) tafrija. 3 desturi, kanuni. 4 fair dos/do's (GB) (as an exclamation) haki, tutendeane haki (katika kugawana). ~ings n 1 (sl) shughuli;

do,doh

mishughuliko, mambo. ~er n mtendaji. wrong-~er n mkosaji.

do,doh1 n noti ya kwanza na ya nane katika skeli.

do2 (abbr. of ditto).

doc (colloq abbr of doctor).

docile adj 1 -tiifu, -sikivu, -elekevu. docility n.

dock1 vt ~ (off) (of tail), fupisha, punguza. 2 kata, punguza (mshahara, chakula).

dock2 n (of court) kizimba.

dock3 n 1 gati, bunta. dry ~ n guda.~yard n gatini. 2 (pl) bandari vt,vi 1 (of ship) pandisha gudani; funga gatini. 2 unganisha vyombo viwili vya anga. ~er n hamali, kuli.

docket n 1 muhtasari (wa barua, hati n.k). 2 (comm) orodha (ya bidhaa, kazi zilizofanywa). 3 lebo (juu ya bidhaa iliyofungwa kueleza vitu vilivyomo, matumizi au jinsi ya kuunganisha) vt 1 andika (muhtasari wa barua, hati n.k.). 2 orodhesha (bidhaa; kazi zilizofanywa). 3 andika lebo.

doctor n 1 daktari, tabibu, mganga. 2daktari (wa falsafa): mtu mwenye shahada ya juu kabisa katika somo.~ of laws n daktari wa falsafa katika sheria vt 1 (colloq) ganga, tibu. 2 (mend, repair) tengeneza. 3 ghushi. ~ food ghushi chakula: fanya chakula/kinywaji kiwe kibaya kwa kuongeza kitu kingine. ~ the accounts ghushi hesabu. 4 (of animals) hasi. ~ate n shahada ya udaktari. ~ial adj -a udaktari.

doctrine n 1 kanuni, mafundisho (ya dini, vyama vya siasa n.k.), imani it is his ~ ndiyo imani yake. doctrinaire; doctrinar n mnadhariasugu adj -a kanuni/nadharia tupu doctrinaire socialism ujamaa wa nadharia tu. doctrinal adj -a kanuni, -a mafundisho; -a madhehebu (ya dini).

document n hati, nyaraka vt thibitisha kwa kutoa hati/-pa hati, toa hati. ~ation n uandikaji wa hati; hifadhi

ya hati. ~ary adj 1 -a hati, -enye kuandikwa. ~ary evidence n ushahidi ulioandikwa 2. (of film) -a mambo yasiyokuwa ya kubuni; -a maisha halisi n filamu ionyeshayo hali halisi.

dodder vi (colloq) jikongoja, enda mwendo wa kutetemeka (kwa udhaifu, uzee, ugonjwa). ~er n. ~y adj.

dodeca (pref.) kumi na mbili. ~gon n pembe kumi na mbili. ~hedron n umbo lenye sura kumi na mbili ~syllable n mstari wenye silabi kumi na mbili.

dodge vt,vi 1 (piga) chenga, kwepa (ili

usionekane, au usikamatwe). 2 tumia hila (werevu) ili kukwepa jambo n 1 chenga. 2 hila, ukwepaji. ~r n.

dodgy adj. 1 -a hatari 2 -enye hila.

doe n sungura/swala/digidigi jike. ~s

kin n ngozi ya sungura, swala, digidigi.

doff vt (old use) vua (kofia, nguo,

mavazi). ~ one's hat amkia mtu kwa kuvua kofia.

dog n 1 mbwa; mbwa dume. 2 (in phrases) every ~ has his day kila mtu ana siku yake, iko siku. give a ~ bad name (and hang him) paka mtu matope/haribu jina la mtu (na watu wataendelea kumfikiria vibaya). help a lame ~ over a stile saidia mtu wakati wa dhiki/matatizo. let sleeping ~s lie acha mambo kama yalivyo, usimwamshe aliyelala, ukimwamsha utalala wewe. love me love my ~ ukimpenda baniani upende winda wake. he doesn't stand/have (even) a ~'s chance hana uwezo wowote (wa kushinda, kushiriki). go to the ~s potoka, haribika; haribikiwa, kwisha. throw/give to the ~s tupa (kama takataka), sukumiza. lead a ~s life ishi maisha ya taabu. lead somebody a ~'s life sumbua/ghasi mtu kila wakati treat somebody like a ~ tendea vibaya, dhalilisha a ~ in the manger mtu mwenye inda

doggerel

(anayewazuia wengine wasifaidi kitu fulani ambacho hakimsaidii yeye). be the under ~ -wa mtu wa kushindwa tu. be top ~ (colloq) -wa kiongozi, -wa mwenyewe. die a ~'s death/die like a ~ -fa kifo cha aibu/dhiki. dressed like a ~'s dinner (colloq) amevalia maridadi sana/kufuata mitindo mipya kabisa. look like a~'s breakfast/ dinner onekana shaghala- baghala. a case of ~ eat ~ hali ya unyang'au. you can't teach an old ~ new tricks (prov) si rahisi kumbadilisha mzee. 3 (colloq) jamaa. a sly ~ n mtu mjanja. 4 a hot ~ n mkate wenye soseji. 5 (in compounds). ~ biscuit n biskuti za mbwa. ~'s body n mtu wa chini (afanyaye kazi za ovyo). ~collar n mkanda wa mbwa; (colloq) kola ya padre. ~days n siku za jua kali. ~-eared adj ( of a book) -enye visikio, -enye vikunjo. ~fight n mapigano baina ya ndege za kivita. ~house n kibanda cha mbwa. (sl) be in a ~ house aibika. ~-paddle n mtindo wa kuogelea kama mbwa. be~-tired -wa taabani kwa uchovu/kuchoka sana. ~-watch n (naut) zamu ya saa mbili katika meli ~vane n (naut) kibendera. ~ eat ~ adj katili -a unyang'au. ~like adj a kama mbwa. ~gy/ ~gie n (child's word for) mbwa vt fuata karibu sana, andama. ~ somebody's footsteps fuata mtu kila aendapo. ~ged adj (obstinate) -kaidi, shupavu, -gumu. 2 (firm) kakamavu, -siokata tamaa, thabiti.

doggerel n mashairi hafifu.

doggo adv lie ~ (sl) lala kimya kabisa; jificha.

doggone (US sl) neno la mshangao kama salaale! that ~ cat yule paka mshenzi.

dogie n ndama mkiwa (asiye na mama).

dogma n 1 imani, mfumo wa imani

unaofundishwa na kanisa. 2 (usu derog) imani (ambayo watu wanatakiwa kukubali bila kusaili).

~tic adj 1 -enye kutangazwa kama imani ya kanisa. 2 (of a person) -enye kulazimisha kauli (bila kutaka kusailiwa). 3 (of statement) -liotolewa/lazimishwa bila kuthibitishwa. ~tics n elimu ya imani za dini. ~tism n kung'anga'nia/kulazimisha kauli/imani/tabia. ~tize vi, vt shikilia/ lazimisha kauli, shauri, maneno.

doh see do.

doily n kitambaa cha mapambo

(kinachowekwa chini ya sahani, glasi n.k.).

doldrums n 1 mahali baharini karibu na ikweta ambapo kwa kawaida hakuna upepo kabisa. 2 (colloq) in the ~ katika hali ya huzuni, kusononeka.

dole vt ~ (out) gawia (chakula, fedha

kidogo kidogo watu wenye shida) n wasio na kazi. be/go on the ~ anza kupata posho hii kwa sababu ya kukosa kazi. ~ful adj -a huzuni, -a majonzi, -enye moyo mzito.

doll n 1 mwanasesere; mtoto wa bandia. 2 (sl) kidosho vt,vi ~ up jipamba, jipara. ~y n 1 (child's word for) mwanasesere. 2 toroli. 3 (also ~y bird) (sl) kidosho.

dollar n 1 dola. American ~ n dola ya Marekani.

dollop n (colloq) chakula kilichopakuliwa.

dolour n huzuni; majonzi. ~ous adj -a huzuni, -zito, -a kuhuzunisha.

dolphin n (bio) pomboo (mnyama kama nyangumi mwenye urefu wa futi 8-10).

dolt n mjinga, baradhuli; zuzu. ~ish adj.

domain n miliki. 2 (fig) uwanja (wa elimu n.k.) that is my domain huo ni uwanja wangu. 3 (maths) kao.

dome n 1 kuba. 2 (US sl) kichwa (hasa kipara). 3 ~d adj -enye umbo la kuba; -liofunikwa na kuba.

domestic adj 1 -a nyumbani, -a jamaa a ~ person mtu anayependa kukaa

nyumbani, mkaa nyumbani ~ science sayansi kimu, maarifa ya nyumbani. 2 -a nchini, -a ndani, -a kienyeji. ~ flights n safari za ndege za ndani. ~ news n habari za nchini. 3 (of animals) -liofugwa na binadamu; -enye kukaa na binadamu. a ~ animal n mnyama anayefugwa n mtumishi wa nyumbani. ~ally adv. ~ate vt (chiefly in pp) 1 idilisha; zoeza kazi za nyumbani she's not at all ~ated hapendi/hawezi kazi za nyumbani. 2 (of animals) fuga. ~ation n. ~ity n 1 (kupenda) maisha ya nyumbani, maisha ya familia. 2 (pl) mambo ya nyumbani.

domicile n (formal) makao, makazi;

nyumba, maskani vi fanya maskani, anzisha makazi. domiciliary adj (formal) -a kimakazi domiciliary visit ziara ya afisa wa serikali/mganga nyumbani kwa kufanya upekuzi/ matibabu.

dominate vt,vi ~ (over) 1 (rule)

tawala, -wa na amri juu ya, amuru. 2 (of a place esp. a height) -wa refu kuliko, tawalia, angalia kutoka juu. domination n. dominant adj 1 -a nguvu, -a kutawala. 2 (of heights) -lio juu ya n noti ya tano katika skeli. dominantly adv. dominance n.

domineer vi ~ (over) fanya jeuri; kandamiza, onea. ~ing adj -jeuri, -onevu. ~ingly adv.

dominie n (Scot) mwalimu.

dominion n ~ (over) 1 mamlaka, utawala be under the ~ of tawaliwa na, -wa chini ya. 2 miliki. 3 (old use) moja ya nchi za madola zilizokuwa zikijitawala k.m. (Kanada na Australia).

domino n dhumna, dadu, domino.

don1 vt (old use) vaa nguo.

don2 n (SP) bwana, mwungwana. 2 (GB) mhadhiri, mwalimu wa chuo kikuu. ~nish adj -a kama mhadhiri; -a kinadharia tu.

donate vt toa/-pa msaada (kwa fedha n.k.), changa. donation n utoaji msaada; msaada, mchango. donor n

mfadhili, mhisani, mtoa msaada/ mchango. blood donor n mtoaji damu; mtu anayejitolea damu.

done vt see do.

donga n (S. Africa) korongo.

donkey n 1 punda. ~ engine n injini ndogo ya mvuke (hasa kwenye meli). ~ jacket n koti fupi zito la mfanyakazi. ~work n kazi ya sulubu. ~'s years muda mrefu. that was ~'s ago ilikuwa zamani sana. 2 (stupid person) mpumbavu; mpuuzi. 3 (fig) talk the hind leg off a ~ bwabwaja.

don't, do not, 1 see do. 2 do's and ~s masharti na miiko.

doodle vi (colloq) chorachora.

doodlebug n (colloq) kombora (katika vita kuu ya pili).

doom n 1 maangamizi, kifo, hukumu to go to one's ~ kufa, kuangamia. 2 (also ~'s day) siku ya hukumu ya mwisho, mwisho wa dunia, siku ya Kiyama. till ~'sday milele vt ~ (to) (usu, passive) hukumu. ~ed to misery -lioandikiwa tabu stories ~ed to oblivion hadithi za kusahaulika.

door n 1 mlango; (of two halves)

tarabe. back ~ n mlango wa nyuma, mlango wa uwani. front ~ n mlango wa mbele, mlango mkubwa be on the ~ kusanya tikiti mlangoni; simama mlangoni. 2 (fig) nyumba. next ~ (to) nyumba ya pili (jirani). next ~ to (fig) karibu na. two/three ~s away/down/off nyumba ya pili/tatu kutoka--. ~ to ~ nyumba hadi nyumba. out of ~s nje (ya nyumba). within ~s ndani (ya nyumba). at death's ~ karibu ya kufa. lay something at somebody's ~ sema kuwa fulani anawajibika kwa jambo fulani, laumu, shutumu. show somebody to the ~ sindikiza mgeni show somebody the ~ fukuza, toa nje. 3 (fig) namna ya kupata (kufikia) kitu. a ~ to success njia ya kupata mafanikio. close the ~ against

somebody zuia mtu kufanya jambo, vunja uwezekano. send the ~ in someone's face zuia mtu asiingie, zuia mpango wa mtu. (compounds) ~ bell n kengele ya mlango. ~ case/frame n fremu ya mlango. ~ handle n mkono wa kitasa cha mlango. ~keeper n bawabu. ~ knob n kitasa cha rungu/nundu. as dead as a ~nail kufa fofofo. ~plate n kibandiko cha kutia jina (namba) la mwenye nyumba, kipande cha anuani. ~post n mhimili, mwimo. as deaf as ~post kiziwi kabisa. ~step n ngazi za mlangoni. ~stopper n kishikizi/kizuizi cha mlango. ~ way n mlangoni.

dope n 1 rangi ya kung'arisha, vanishi. 2 (colloq) dawa ya kulevya (k.m. afyuni, kasumba, bangi). 3 (sl) maelezo, habari. 4 mpumbavu vt 1 -pa dawa (hasa inayolevya). 2 changamsha kwa dawa ya kulevya (k.m. farasi au mbwa katika mashindano). 3 laza kwa dawa. ~y adj 1 jinga. 2 -liolala nusu, levi; (sl) -liopumbazwa na dawa ya kulevya (bangi n.k.). ~-fiend n (sl) mtumwa wa dawa za kulevya.

dormant adj -a kulala, -siotumika kwa muda, -liolala, bwete (-enye uwezo wa kuamka/kukua/kuendelezwa baadaye) a ~ volcano volkano bwete: volkano ambayo haijalipuka. dormancy n ubwete.

dormitory n bweni, dahalia. ~ town

n mji wa makazi (ambapo watu huishi lakini wanakwenda kufanya kazi mji mwingine).

dorsal adj (anat) -a mgongoni, -a nyuma ~ sound sauti za nyuma ya ulimi.

dory n boti ndogo ya makasia yenye tako bapa.

dosage n kipimo na masharti ya matumizi ya dawa.

dose n 1 kipimo cha dawa. 2 (sl) ugonjwa wa zinaa vt 1 nywesha dawa, -pa dawa; -nywa dawa.

doss n ~ house n nyumba ya kulala

wageni ya bei nafuu; hoteli ndogo; usingizi mfupi vi (sl) lala katika hoteli. ~ down enda kulala. ~ out lala nje! ~er n mzururaji.

dossier n jalada la hati/nyaraka zenye habari za mtu au tukio.

dot1 n 1 nukta, alama ndogo, kitone. on the ~ (colloq) juu ya alama come at five on the ~ njoo saa 11 juu ya alama. 2 kitu kionekanacho kama tone. the year ~ zama za kale vt 1 tia (alama ya) tone/nukta. ~one's i's and cross one's t's (fig) fanya kuwa wazi na -a uhakika, kamilisha kila kitu. 2 fanya/funika kwa nukta. ~ about tia nukta huko na huko. be ~ted about tapakaa, tawanyika. sign on the ~ted line (fig) kubali bila kukawia au upinzani. ~ty adj 1 -liotapakaa madoa. 2 (colloq) punguani; -pumbavu; -jinga.

dot2 n (Fr) mahari.

dotage n uzulufu: kipindi cha upungufu

wa akili kutokana na uzee. dotard n mtu katika hali hii.

dote vi ~ (on/upon) penda sana, pendelea; tunuka.

dottle n bumba la tumbaku lililobakia

kwenye kiko.

double adj 1 maradufu. 2 (in pairs)

-wili, kwa jozi. 3 tengenezwa kwa ajili ya watu au vitu viwili. 4 (of flowers) -enye zaidi ya duara moja ya petali. 5 -enye kazi/faida mbili. ~ dealing n, adj (u)janja, (u)kauleni, (u)danganyifu, (u)ndumakuwili. ~dealer n mdanganyifu, ndumakuwili, kauleni n 1 kitu kilicho mara mbili (ya ukubwa/nguvu/mwendo, n.k. wa kawaida). 2 (counterpart) mwenzi wa mtu/kitu kingine, nakala, rupia kwa nyenziye ~ of his father anafanana na baba yake. 3 (Tennis) mchezo wa watu wawili kila upande. 4 at/on the ~ chapuchapu, shoti, haraka. 5 mwigizaji badili. ~or quits pata potea adv 1 mara mbili cost ~ gharimu mara mbili. 2 kwa

double

jozi vt,vi 1 rudufu, zidi/zidisha mara mbili, ongeza/ongezeka. ~ up in a room weka watu wawili katika chumba kimoja. 2 ~ up/over/across kunja/kunjika, pinda/pindika mara mbili; (of a pair of trousers) sega, pania. 3 (naut) zunguka, badili mwelekeo haraka (pitia rasi). 4 fumba. 5 ~ back rudi mbio haraka ~ up (with pain) jikunja (kwa maumivu); (with laughter) angua kicheko ~ as (play) igiza wahusika wawili; fanya kazi mbili; (in room/ bed) lala wawili wawili adj, adv (in compounds) ~barrelled adj (of a gun) -enye mitutu miwili ~-barrelled gun bunduki yenye mitutu miwili; (fig, of a compliment, etc) -enye utata. ~ bass n (music) zeze chini. ~-bedded adj (of a room) -enye vitanda viwili; chumba cha watu wawili. ~-bind n kuwa katika ugumu wa kuamua; shaka. ~ -breasted adj (of a coat) -enye safu mbili za vifungo. ~-check vt kagua/ chunguza maradufu; saliti; danganya. ~-cross n tendo la kudanganya au kusaliti. ~decker n meli/basi/kitanda cha ghorofa. ~ take kuchelewa kung'amua/kutambua jambo. ~ talk n kusema kinyume. ~ think n uwezo wa kuamini mambo mawili yanayopingana. ~-edged adj -enye sehemu mbili za makali; (fig, of an argument, compliment) -enye utata. ~-entry adj (of a cash book) maingizo mawili. ~-entry system n mpango wa maingizo mawili. ~-faced adj -nafiki; (of a cloth) -enye nyuso mbili. ~ first n shahada ya daraja la kwanza kwa ajili ya kufaulu masomo mawili kwa wakati mmoja. ~jointed adj -enye viungo vinavyokunjika isivyo kawaida. ~ park vt, vi egesha gari njiani kando ya gari lingine. ~-quick adj -a mbio, -a haraka adv upesi sana, haraka sana. ~-stop n (music) sauti mbili kwa pamoja (za noti). doubly adv 1 mara mbili. 2 to be doubly

faithful kuwa -aminifu sana.

doublet n 1 jaketi la kubana. 2 jozi ya kufanana. 3 nenokikoa: neno moja kati ya jozi yenye asili moja lakini maana tofauti.

doubt n shaka, wasiwasi; tashwishi; tuhuma. beyond all reasonable ~ bila shaka yoyote. ~ as to something tilia shaka. be in ~ kuwa katika shaka/ wasiwasi make no ~ usiwe na shaka, usitie shaka there is no ~ about it hapana shaka juu jambo hili throw ~ upon something tilia jambo shaka vt, vi -wa na shaka, ona shaka; shuku, tuhumu; -tosadiki ~ somebody's word -toamini maneno yake. ~ful adj ~ (about/of) 1 (irresolute) -enye wasiwasi, -a shaka. 2 (uncertain) si hakika, si yakini, -siojulikana, si dhahiri. ~fulness n. ~less adv bila shaka, hakika, kwa yakini.

douceur n 1 zawadi; bahashishi. 2 rushwa.

douche vt (of medicine) piga bomba (ya kusafisha, ya kuogesha) n (of medicine) 1 msukumo wa maji ya kupiga bomba.

dough n kinyunya. 2 (sl.) pesa, ngamia.

dough-nut n donati, aina ya maandazi. ~y adj laini, kama kinyunya.

doughty adj (old use or joc.) 1 shujaa.

2 madhubuti.

dour adj 1 kali. 2 -kaidi. 3 sononi:

-enye kusononeka. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

douse;dowse vt 1 lowesha, mwagia

maji; chovya majini; zamisha. 2 (naut) teremsha tanga; funga kishubaka; anguka majini; tua tanga. 3 zima (taa).

dove n 1 njiwa (wadogo zaidi kuliko wafugwao); alama ya amani. 2 mpatanishi (katika utesi). 3 (fig) mpenzi. 4 (colour) mpigania amani, mwanachama wa watetezi wa amani. ~coloured adj -a rangi ya njiwa. flutter the ~ cotes shtua watu

wapole/wakimya. ~-cote n tundu la njiwa. ~eyed adj -enye macho ya njiwa (kwa upole na usafi). ~hawk n mwewe. ~tail vt,vi (mortise) unganisha (mbao) kwa kufanya vipande viwili viumane; (fig) umana, kubaliana n kiungo cha mbao; kuumana. ~tail-joint maker n mtengeneza viungo vya kuumana.

dowager n 1 mjanekike mrithi (wa mali au cheo cha mumewe). 2 (colloq) mwanamke wa makamo mwenye hadhi kubwa.

dowdy adj 1 -enye kuvaa ovyo, asiyevutia. 2 -a kizamani (kitabia, kimavazi, kimatendo).

dowel n ( ~ -pin) kiwi, pini isiyo na kichwa, kijiti kiingizwacho ndani ya tundu kuviweka vitu pamoja.

dower n 1 haki ya mke mfiwa

(kutokana na mali ya mumewe), sehemu ya urithi (wa mali ya mume) apewayo mjane mwanamke. 2 mahari. 3 kipaji (k.m. akili) vt 1 lipa mahari. 2 -pa kipaji.

down1 n (fine hair) laika, malaika;

manyoya laini (ya makinda ya ndege); ndevu laini (za kwanza za kijana). ~y adj laini, -ororo, -a laika.

down2 adv 1 (with vv of motion) chini

the flag was hauled ~ bendera ilishushwa chini come ~ shuka. 2 (with vv of motion) lala; anguka chini the boxer knocked his opponent ~ mwanamasumbwi alimwangusha chini mpinzani wake. 3 (with vv indicating change of stance but not of position in space) kuelekea/kwenda sit ~ kaa chini/kitako bend ~ inama. 4 (with vv indicating position or state) kuwa katika hali ya kushuka Juma isn't ~ yet Juma hajawa tayari kushuka there are no lights in the streets because the lamp posts are ~ taa za mitaani haziwaki kwa sababu nguzo zote zimeanguka chini. 5 kutoka sehemu maarufu zaidi kwenda sehemu isiyo maarufu. 6 (with vv to indicate reduction to a smaller volume, less

down

degree etc.) the tyre is ~ tairi halina upepo the storm has died ~ dhoruba imetulia the fire is burning ~ moto unafifia the price of fish is ~ bei ya samaki imeshuka. 7 (with reference to writing) write the address ~ andika anwani (kwenye karatasi) put me ~ andika jina langu, niandikishe. 8 kuanzia wakati wa nyuma hadi baadaye the history of phonology ~ to Chomsky historia ya fonolojia hadi kufikia wakati wa Chomsky. 9 (include the lower limit in a series) kuanzia kiwango cha chini katika mfululizo from old men ~ to small children kuanzia wazee hadi watoto wadogo. 10 (used in various phrases) D ~ with hatutaki. up and ~ huku na huko. money/cash ~ n arubuni. ~ payment n malipo ya kwanza (arubuni). be ~ and out (colloq) tolewa nje kwa kuangushwa chini (katika masumbwi), shindwa kurudi katika pambano la masumbwi. get ~ to business anza kuchangamkia kazi. be ~ on somebody chukia mtu. ~ in the dumps (colloq) katika sura ya majonzi. ~ on one's luck patwa na mikasa. come ~ in the world shuka hadhi. come ~ on somebody karipia. ~ to earth -enye kuhusika na mambo halisi. turn upside ~ geuza juu chini. hunt/track ~ winda, saka. ~ with umwa, ugua. be ~ for andikishwa kwa prep 1 (direction) chini tears ran ~ his face machozi yalimtiririka usoni. 2 (position) mbele; kusini Kilwa is further ~ the coast Kilwa iko kusini zaidi ya mwambao. 3 (time) all ~ the ages toka zamani. (fig) (colloq) all ~ the line pote fall ~ a hole anguka kwenye shimo run ~ the hill shuka mlima (kwa kukimbia) cut ~ the middle kata katikati pace up and ~ the room tembea huku na huko chumbani n ups and ~s mema na mabaya. have a ~ on him mchukie. vt (a drink)

Downing Street

gugumia. ~ tools -goma kazi. ~ beat n (music) pigo la kwanza. ~ cast adj 1 -enye huzuni, -zito be ~ cast vunjika (moyo). 2 (of eyes) -a kutazama chini. ~-draught n mjongeo wa gesi, hewa kuelekea chini. ~fall n 1 maanguko, maangamizi; (~ of rain) mvua nyingi. 2 ushinde. ~-grade vt teremsha cheo/ hadhi/umuhimu. ~-hearted adj -enye huzuni,-enye kuvunjika moyo. ~hill adj -a kuja/ kwenda chini, -a kuteremka mlima chini. (fig) adv go ~hill haribikiwa. ~pour n mvua kubwa. ~ town adv (US) mjini; katika/kuelekea sehemu ya chini ya mji; sehemu iliyo na shughuli nyingi za kibiashara. ~trodden adj -a kudhulumiwa; -a kuonewa; -a kudhalilishwa. ~ward adj 1 -a kwenda chini, -a kuteremka. 2 (of price) -a kushuka; (of a commodity)-a kushuka thamani. be on the ~ path elekea uharibifu; fifia. ~-at-heel adj 1 (of shoes) -liyochakaa. 2 (kwa mtu) liyevaa nguo zilizochanika.

Downing Street n mtaa wa London

ambapo ni makazi ya waziri mkuu; (colloq) Serikali ya Uingereza.

downright adj kweli, -enye kuwa

wazi adv kwa wazi, kabisa, sana; dhahiri. ~ness n.

downs n nchi ya vilima vyenye majani mafupi; ukanda wa juu usio na miti.

downstairs adj -a kwenda chini; -a

ghorofa ya chini zaidi adv (of place) chini, chini kwa kushuka ngazi, kwenda chini.

dowry n mapambo (vitu vitolewavyo na bibi arusi kwenda kwa bwana arusi).

dowse vt see douse.

doxology n wimbo wa kumsifu Mungu.

doyen n kiongozi wa mabalozi.

doyley see doily.

doz abbr. of dozen.

doze vi sinzia. ~ off pata usingizi wa kimang'amung'amu n usingizi mwepesi have a ~ lala kidogo. ~

(at) gona n gonezi.

dozen n 1 dazeni: fungu la vitu kumi na viwili. talk nineteen to the ~ porojoa. 2 ~s of idadi kubwa ya.

draconian adj -kali sana, -katili, -onevu; -a dragoni, -a zimwi.

draft1 n 1 kundi dogo la askari

(lililotolewa katika kundi kubwa kwa kazi maalumu). 2 (US) kikundi cha watu wanaoitwa jeshini; kuitwa jeshini. ~ card n barua ya kuitwa jeshini. 3 (sketch, design) kielezo, kielelezo, rasimu, ramani; mfano (wa kazi). 4 mswada jaribio la kwanza, mchoro wa kwanza; mwandiko wa upesi (wa kujaribia, wa kufikiria) wa hati. ~sman n see draughtsman (leg) msawidi. 5 hati ya malipo itolewayo na benki; ulipwaji wa fedha kwa kutumia hati hiyo. vt 1 (select, separate) tenga (chagua) kundi dogo (katika kundi kubwa la askari); ita jeshini. 2 (design) andika (piga) sanamu ya; sawidi, chora jaribio la awali.

draft2 adj 1 -enye kufanya kazi ya

kubeba. ~ animals n wanyama wavutao mizigo (k.m. punda). 2 -liotoka pipani. ~ beer n bia inayotolewa katika pipa.

drafty adj (US) see draughty.

drag1 vt,vi 1 kokota, buruta; enda

pole na kwa shida; kawia, chelewa. ~ one's feet vuta miguu; (fig) fanya shingo upande. ~ somebody into doing something lazimisha/fanya mtu afanye jambo bila hiari. ~ up (a child) lea vibaya mtoto. ~ up leta, ingiza (swali/hoja). 2 (search) tafuta majini kwa kutumia wavu. 3 vuta (nanga). 4 vuta kiubavubavu mshipi wa kuvulia. 5 ~ about vuta popote. ~ down shusha hadhi, fanya nyonge. ~ in (colloq) vuta ndani, ingiza. ~ on endelea na jambo hilohilo kwa namna isiyopendeza/kwa kuchosha ~ on a miserable existence endelea katika maisha ya dhiki. ~ out vuta, endeleza kwa muda mrefu; refusha

drag

bila sababu.

drag2 n 1 (hindrance) kizuio, mgogoro, mzigo; (net) jarife, juya. 2 (colloq) mzigo, mtu anayechosha. 3 (sl) mavazi ya kike yanayovaliwa na mwamume. 4 (sl) mkupuo wa sigara. ~ chain n mnyororo wa kuburura. ~y adj (colloq) -enye sura mbaya, -siopendeza, -nayochosha.

draggled adj see be~.

dragoman n mkalimani (wa Kiarabu, Kituruki, Kiajemi).

dragon n dragoni; zimwi; mnyama

mtambaachi mkubwa wa kubuni (mwenye mbawa na kucha, na daima hupumua moto). ~'s blood n gundi nyekundu; (colloq) mtu mkali. ~-fly n kerengende.

dragonnade n mateso kwa kutumia

jeshi.

dragoon n askari mpanda farasi. vt ~ into lazimisha, tisha kwa nguvu; sumbua. ~ somebody into doing something lazimisha mtu kufanya jambo.

drail n ndoana kubwa yenye mshipi na chubwi.

drain vt 1 ~ away/off toa maji kwa

mifereji/bomba. 2 kausha. ~ing board n kichanja cha kukaushia vyombo. 3 (drink) -nywa yote. 4 ~ (away/off); ~ (of) (fig) fifisha, dhoofisha, nyonya ~ somebody of his strength etc. chosha mtu. 5 nyonya usaha, unyevu (kwa bomba). 6 nywa/maliza kunywa (agh. ndani ya glasi). 7 ~ the cup of pitia (hasa matukio/maisha mabaya). n 1 mfereji, mfumbi, bomba la kutoa maji. throw money down the ~ ponda mali, tumia pesa vibaya. go down the ~ potea bure, teketea, haribika. 2 jambo linalofifilisha/nyonya. brain ~ n uhamaji wa wasomi/mabingwa toka nchi moja hadi nyingine (wakitafuta maslahi). 3 kinywaji kidogo, tone. ~age n 1 mtiririsho. 2 (sewers) mfereji, bomba la maji machafu. ~age system n mfumo wa kuchukua

maji machafu. ~age-area/~basin n eneo ambalo maji ya mto hutokea. ~age-tube n (med) neli ya usaha.

drake n bata dume.

dram n 1 dramu (kipimo cha uzito); ya wakia. 2 kiasi kidogo sana cha ulevi. take a ~ nywa kidogo.

drama n 1 drama; tamthiliya. 2

mfululizo wa mambo/matukio ya kuvutia. ~tic adj -a drama; -a kutia shauku/kuvutia; (of a person, behaviour) -enye kuonyesha hisia kwa namna ya kuvutia/mno, -enye kupenda kuigiza. ~tically adv. ~tics n usu with sing 1 sanaa ya kuandaa na kuonyesha tamthiliya. 2 tabia ya kujionyesha. ~tist n mwandishi wa tamthiliya/drama. ~tis personae n pl (lat) (orodha ya) wahusika wa tamthiliya. ~tize vt 1 igiza tamthilia/ drama; geuza hadithi kuwa ya kidrama; -wa na tabia ya kidrama. 2 geuza. 3 tia chumvi, igiza. ~tization n. ~turgy n sanaa ya kutunga tamthiliya.

drank pt of drink.

drape vt 1 ~ (around/over) funika na kitambaa. 2 ning'iniza nguo kuzunguka au juu ya kitu. 3 ~ (with) funika/pamba. 4 pumzisha, laza, bwaga. ~r n (GB) mwuza nguo a ~r's shop duka la nguo. ~ry n 1 biashara ya kuuza nguo. 2 nguo. 3 nguo zinazoning'inia, mapazia.

drastic adj (of actions, methods,

medicines) kali; -enye athari kubwa; -enye matokeo ya haraka ~ steps hatua kali ~ally adv.

draught(US draft) n 1 (current of air) upepo, hewa ipitayo katika chumba. 2 mvuo wa samaki kwa wavu. 3 kina cha maji chenye kuwezesha meli ielee. 4 mnywo, funda, mvuto, mfyonzo; kuvuta/kunyonya uowevu kutoka katika chombo (mf. pipa). ~ beer bia ya kasiki. 5 funda a ~ of water funda la maji. 6 (pl) (US) drafti. vt see draft. ~ horse n farasi avutaye mizigo mizito. feel

the ~ (sl) -ishiwa; sikia upepo. ~-board n ubao wa drafti. ~sman n mrasimu, msawidi. ~smanship n urasimu.

draw n 1 kuvuta. 2 (of lottery) kuchezesha bahati nasibu when will the ~ take place? bahati nasibu itachezeshwa lini? 3 suluhu, sare the game ended in a ~ mchezo ulikuwa sare. 4 kivutio; mvutiaji Mr Mrema is a great ~ at meetings anavutia sana watu kuja mkutanoni. 5 kufuta be quick on the ~ -wa mwepesi kufuta/ kuchomoa (upanga, bastola); (fig) mwepesi kuelewa mambo. vt,vi 1 vuta. ~ aside chukua mtu pembeni. ~ the curtains vuta/funga pazia. 2 kokota. plough ~n by the tractor plau linalokokotwa na trekta. ~ (out); (from/out of) ondoa kwa kuvuta; zidua; zibua ~ a cork zibua kizibo ~ a nail zidua msumari. 3 (in card games) kata ng'anda. to ~ a winner kupata tiketi ya ushindi; tafuta/bahatisha mshindi. ~ a blank -topata chochote. ~ somebody's teeth poza mtu, maliza ukali wake. 4 ~ (from/ out of) chota ~ water from a well teka/chota maji kisimani; (of money/from one's account) chukua to ~ rations kuchukua posho. ~ it mild (fig) -wa wa kiasi; -totia chumvi nyingi; -wa taratibu. ~ tears/applause sababisha machozi/makofi the news drew tears habari ile ilimliza. 5 ~ (to) vuta, vutia he drew my attention to alinionyesha I don't feel ~n to him sivutiwi naye. 6 vuta, ingiza ndani to ~ a deep breath vuta pumzi kubwa. ~ one's first/last breath zaliwa/-fa. 7 (of a chimney) acha nafasi ya hewa kupita; -jengwa ili kupitisha hewa/moshi. 8 ~(out) sababisha/ shawishi (mtu) kuongea, kuonyesha hisia zake. 9 enda karibu, karibia Republic day is ~ing near siku ya Jamhuri inakaribia. ~ near karibia. ~ ahead enda mbele ~ ahead from others enda mbele kuliko wengine. ~

draw

off/back rudi nyuma. 10 sababisha kusogea/kuja. 11 chora ~ a line piga mstari ~ picture (fig) eleza kwa maneno. ~ the line weka mpaka; kataa; weka kiwango; kataza. ~ a distinction (between) onyesha tofauti. ~ a parallel/ comparison/analogy between. linganisha; onyesha ulinganifu. ~ the line (at) weka kikomo; eleza jambo lisiloruhusiwa; kataa kuendelea. 12 andika ~ a cheque (on a bank for a sum of money) andika cheki; (of writers) chota, sawiri. 13 (of a ship) -hitaji kina (ili kuelea) the ship ~s six metres of water meli yahitaji kina cha mita sita za maji ili ielee; (of competition) toka sare, fungana. 14 (of the features) kunjamana, umbuka; umbua, rembua. 15 (special uses with prep and adv particles) ~ apart tengana. ~ away zidi kutangulia. ~ back kaa mbali; (fig) sita; onyesha kutotaka n kizuizi, dosari, kipingamizi. ~ in (of a day) fikia mwisho wake; -wa fupi zaidi. ~ down vuta. ~ for jaribu bahati, pigia kura. ~ into shawishi kujiunga. ~ on (of a period of time) karibia, ingia night drew on usiku ulikaribia. ~ off ondoa. ~ on somebody tumia. ~ somebody on vutia, shawishi. ~ on somebody tishia kwa silaha. ~ out (of a day) -wa refu, refuka; nyosha; refusha. ~ up (of vehicle) simama/simamisha; tayarisha, tunga; (US passive) (of troops etc.) panga, simama hima. ~back n 1 kizuizi, kipingamizi. 2 marejesho (ya kodi/ushuru). ~ bar n kifungo kitenganishacho mabehewa. ~bridge n daraja (ulalo, mtatago) ya kuinuliwa. ~er n 1 mtoto wa meza. 2 (daughtsman) mrasimu, mchoraji, mwandika hundi. ~ers n chupi (ya zamani). ~ing n 1 uchoraji (picha, ramani, vielelezo n.k.). 2 (picture ) picha, mchoro, kielelezo, taswira. out of

drawl

~ing -liochorwa vibaya. ~ing board n ubao wa kuchorea (k.v. wa mrasimu). ~ing room n (US) sebule, ukumbi.

drawl vt,vi kokota/kokoteza/vuta maneno (sauti) n usemi wa kukokoteza maneno, uvutaji maneno.

dray n rikwama: mkokoteni wa magurudumu manne kwa ajili ya kuchukulia mizigo mizito.

dread n (also a ~ of ) stand in ~ of ogopa sana, hofia n woga vt,vi ogopa, hofia. ~ed part adj -enye kuhofiwa sana. ~ful adj -a kuogopesha; (colloq) -siopendeza stand in ~ of somebody kuwa katika hofu. ~fully adv. ~fulness n.

dream n 1 ndoto, njozi, ruya I had a ~ niliota. ~-land n ulimwengu wa njozi. 2 usingizi. go about in a ~ (colloq) tembea kama unaota, tangatanga ndotoni. 3 (colloq) mtu mzuri anayevutia. sweet ~s! lala unono, ~like adj kama ndoto vt,vi 1 ~ (about/of) ota ndoto. 2 waza, -wa na taswira. ~ away poteza wakati. 3 ~ up (colloq) fikiria, buni (mpango). ~er n. ~y adj 1 -a kama ndoto, -enye kuota ndoto, -enye kusinzia ~y eyes macho ya kusinzia a ~y person mtu afanyaye mambo kama kwamba anasinzia; awazaye sana mambo yasiyoweza kuwa. 2 (of things, experiences) -sio dhahiri; -sio ya kweli; (colloq) -a kupendeza; -a kutuliza, -a kufariji. ~ily adv.

dreary;drear adj 1 -a kuchosha. 2 -a

kutia huzuni, -a kufanya moyo mzito. drearily adv.

dredge1 vt nyunyizia ~ meat with flour nyunyiza unga juu ya nyama. ~r n chombo cha kunyunyizia unga, sukari n.k; kinyunyizio, mrashi.

dredge2 n kizoa taka (chini ya maji). vt ~ (up) zoa taka (chini ya maji mtoni n.k.) kwa wavu. 2 vua kwa wavu. ~r n merikebu ya kuvua/kuzoa/ kuvuta takataka.

dregs n 1 masimbi, mashapo, makapi,

machicha. drink to the last ~

dribs and drabs

kunywa pasipo kusaza. 2 (fig) kitu kisichofaa, takataka.

drench vt rowesha, mwagia maji get ~ ed (to the skin) rowana kabisa. ~ing n uchepechepe.

dress vt,vi 1 visha/vaa nguo. be ~ed in vaa she was ~ed in red alivaa nguo nyekundu. 2 ~ up valia (vizuri/rasmi); vaa nguo za kutokea. 3 visha ~ your children visha wanao, patia mavazi. 4 tayarisha (kwa matumizi) to ~ a chicken kumtayarisha kuku (kwa kupika). 5 tengeneza nywele. ~ down (fig) karipia, kemea. 6 funga (kidonda). 7 vutia. 8 panga (askari). ~er n 1 meza (kabati) ya jikoni. 2 (US) kabati la kujipambia. 3 muuguzi msaidizi anayesaidia kufunga vidonda. 4 mtu anayewasaidia waigizaji kuvalia rasmi kabla ya mchezo kuanza. n nguo, mavazi. evening ~ n vazi la jioni. morning ~ n vazi la asubuhi. ~ coat n koti jeusi wavaalo wanaume jioni. ~ rehearsal n zoezi la mwisho (la mchezo/tamthiliya ngoma) ambapo wahusika wanavaa mavazi yao ya mchezo. full ~ n mavazi rasmi. ~maker n mshonaji magauni. ~ing n 1 uvaaji. 2 (med.) kufunga vidonda; bendeji ya vidonda. 3 masala; chatne, siki. 4 dondo/wanga. 5 (manure) mbolea, samadi. ~ing-case n kishubaka cha kuwekea vyombo vya safari. ~ing-gown n vazi livaliwalo wakati mtu anapopumzika. ~ing -room n chumba cha kuvalia nguo. ~ing-table n meza ya kujipambia. ~y adj (colloq of persons) -enye mavazi mazuri, maridadi, mtanashati.

drew pt. of draw.

dribble vi 1 tiririka, dondoka. 2 toa

kidogo kidogo udenda/uderere/mate; (football) chenga, piga chenga. ~r n.

driblet n tone linaloanguka; kiasi kidogo by ~s kidogo kidogo.

dribs and drabs (colloq) kiasi kidogo.

dried pt, pp of dry.

drift n 1 mkondo (k.m. wa maji); mwelekeo wa mkondo; mvuto wa meli (chombo nje ya uelekeo wake kwa mkondo). 2 (heap ) lundo, chungu (ya majani, mchanga n.k.) iliyofanywa kwa upepo/bahari n.k. 3 maana, mwelekeo I see his ~ naelewa maana yake. 4 hali ya kwenda bila malengo wala mwelekeo. 5 mwelekeo (usio na mpango) the ~ is towards war tunaelekea kwenye vita n 1 kwenda pepe. 2 mvuto, mwelekeo. 3 vitu vilivyopwelewa. ~-anchor n nanga ya pepe. ~-ice n mabonge ya barafu yanayochukuliwa na mkondo. ~-net n jarife (la kusambaza). ~-sand n mchanga unaopeperushwa. ~-wood n mbao zilizopwelewa vt 1 chukuliwa. 2 tangatanga hapa na pale, zurura. 3 -enda pepe/kombo/mrama; fuata upepo. ~er n mzururaji; boti ya kuvulia.

drill1 n keekee vt, vi toboa shimo kwa keekee.

drill2 n 1 mafunzo ya wanajeshi juu ya matumizi ya silaha; kwata. 2 mafunzo kamili yenye mazoezi mengi ya kurudiarudia. 3 taratibu (k.m wakati wa dharura).

drill3 n mfuo (wa kupandia mbegu) vt panda mbegu katika mfuo.

drill4 n dreli (aina ya kitambaa kigumu).

drink1 vt,vi 1 -nywa. 2 ~ down/off/

up -nywa yote. 3 ~ in/up pokea (sikia/ ona) kwa furaha; pokea akilini; (of plants) nywa. 4 kunywa sana. 5 ~ (to) takia heri, kwa afya ya.

drink2 n 1 kinywaji, kileo soft ~ kinywaji baridi. 2 ulevi, kileo, pombe strong ~ pombe kali have a ~ kunywa (kinywaji). be in ~/the worse for ~/ under the influence of ~ wa katika hali ya kulewa. take to ~ ingia ulevini. 3 (colloq) the ~ n bahari; ziwa, mto. ~able adj -a kunyweka. ~ (pl); ~ables n vileo.

drive

~er n mnywaji; mlevi. ~ing n unywaji. ~ing-bout n mfululizo wa kulewa. ~-ing-fountain n mashine inayorusha maji ya kunywa. ~ingwater n maji ya kunywa.

drip vt,vi 1 dondoka, tona; dondosha, tonesha. ~ping-wet adj iliyorowa chepechepe. ~dry (of fabric) adj inayokauka haraka bila kukamuliwa. vt 1 anika bila kukamua. 2 nyonyota n 1 tone, ndondondo, kutona. 2 (sl) (mtu) asiyevutia watu. ~ping n (of meat) mafuta ya nyama iliyobanikwa. ~pingpan n sinia la kukusanyia matone.

drive vt 1 swaga. ~ somebody into the corner (fig) weka mtu katika hali ngumu, bana sana. 2 endesha (motokaa, garimoshi n.k.). driving licence n liseni ya kuendeshea gari. driving school n shule ya udereva. driving test n mtihani wa udereva. driving lessons n mafunzo ya udereva. 3 chukua/peleka kwa gari ~ a friend to town mchukue rafiki mjini (kwa gari). 4 enda/tembea kwa gari. ~ in n (and attrib.) mgahawa, sinema n.k. ambako watu huingia na magari yao. 5 (usu passive) endesha. driving belt n ukanda wa kuendeshea. 6 (of wind, water) peleka/tupa/sukuma. 7 (of rain, ship) enda upesi au kwa nguvu/ kwa kasi. 8 ~ in; ~into pigilia, kongomea. 9 piga kwa nguvu. ~ home (fig) elewesha barabara. let ~ at piga, rushia kombora, lenga. 10 sababisha; fanya (kitu kitokee), lazimisha. 11 sulubisha, fanya/ fanyisha kazi sana. ~ away at (one's work) fanyia kazi sana. 12 fukua; toboa (kwa nguvu) (shimo, tundu). 13 endesha shughuli (agh. biashara). ~ a hard bargain -wa mkali kwenye biashara, -wa mgumu. 14 ~ at -wa na maana ya; maanisha; kusudia. 15 ahirisha. 16~ off fukuza, rudisha nyuma n 1 (in US also ~ way) njia ya binafsi ya kwenda nyumbani. 2 matembezi

drivel

kwenye gari ya binafsi to take for a~ kutembeza ndani ya gari (ya binafsi). 3 nguvu ya kupiga/kurusha mpira; mpigo. 4 bidii, nguvu, wepesi; uwezo wa kuendesha mambo, msukumo. 5 kampeni. 6 mashindano. 7 (mech) chombo cha kuendeshea. right hand ~ n kuendeshea kulia. four wheel ~ n endesha kwa magurudumu manne. ~r n 1 dereva be a good/bad ~r kuwa dereva hodari/asiyefaa. 2 msimamizi (wa gari, farasi, watumwa). in the ~r's seat kwenye uongozi; (mech) kiendesha mitambo. 4 (golf) rungu ya kupigia mpira mbali; kingoe. driving adj -enye nguvu/uwezo.

drivel vi payuka, payapaya, bwabwajan upuuzi, mapayo, mapiswa. ~ler; (US) ~er n mpayukaji.

drizzle n manyunyu, mvua ya rasharasha vi nyunya, nyonyota. drizzly adj.

drogue n 1 (naut) nanga ya majini. 2 dango (kilengwa shabaha) (katika mazoezi ya ndege za vita). 3 ~ parachute n parachuti ndogo itumikayo kuitoa kubwa kwenye mfuko wake.

droll adj -a kuchekesha n mchekeshaji. ~ery n kichekesho, shere ya kufurahisha, uchekeshaji.

dromedary n ngamia (mwenye nundu moja).

drone n 1 nyuki dume. 2 mvivu;

(colloq) kupe. 3 mvumo. 4 msemaji hotuba isiyosisimua vt,vi 1 vuma. 2 ongea bila kusisimua/kuchangamka. 3 ~ on endelea kuchosha the meeting ~ on for hours mkutano uliendelea kwa saa nyingi.

droop vt,vi 1 inama; inamisha; fifia (kwa uchovu). 2 huzunika, nyong'onyea n kuinama. ~ingly adv.

drop1 n 1 tone have a ~ kunywa pombe. in ~s kidogo kidogo. 2 pombe (kidogo). take a ~ too much lewa. 3 kiasi kidogo. only a ~ in the ocean kiasi kidogo sana. 4 (med) dawa ya matone. 5 (decrease)

drove

kipunguo ~ in price kipunguo cha bei. 6 kitu kiangukacho/ kiteremshwacho. ~ curtain n pazia zinazoteremshwa katika mchezo at the ~ of a hat mara moja. 7 peremende (ya mviringo).

drop2 vt, vi 1 anguka; ponyoka; poromoka; poromosha. ~ out of somebody's hands angusha; ponyoka. ~ into a habit zoea, ingia katika tabia. ~ anchor shusha nanga. 2 tona, dondosha; dondoka. 3 koma; isha, malizika the matter ~ped jambo hilo likamalizika. 4 (utter ) toa (neno); ambia. 5 acha, achia, toa. ~ a hint dokeza ~ a line andika barua fupi. 6 (of leaves) pukutika. 7 pungua, punguka; tulia ghafula. 8 (with adv. particles & preps) (in car) teremsha ~ me at the office niache/nidondoshe ofisini. ~ away ondoka, pungua; toweka. ~ back rudi, baki nyuma. ~ behind chelewa, fuata nyuma (kwa kuwa huwezi kumudu mwendo). ~ down anguka; zuru. ~ off pungua; acha; teremsha; sinzia. ~ on somebody angukia mtu fulani. ~ into tumbukia. ~ out of acha kushiriki, jitoa, kana. ~ out n mtu anayejitoa/anayeacha kushiriki. 9 (colloq.) poteza fedha (katika kamari n.k). ~ a brick fanya kosa, sema kwa makosa. ~ dead (sl) potea, ambaa, ondoka. ~ something like a hot potato acha mara moja (kwa sababu ya matatizo/unyeti). ~let n kitone.

dropsy n jongo.

dross n 1 mavi (ya chuma, ya madini), dongo la chuma. 2 (fig) takataka, kisichofaa; kilichochanganywa na kitu kingine (hivyo kufanya kisifae). ~y adj.

drought n 1 ukame, ukavu.

drove1 pt of drive.

drove2 1 kundi (la ng'ombe, kondoo n.k.) linaloswagwa. 2 umati, halaiki. 3 juba; patasi (ya mwashi). ~r n mchuuza ng'ombe; mswaga mifugo

mnadani/gulioni.

drown vt,vi 1 zama majini, -fa maji;

zamisha majini, fisha maji. 2 ~ (out) (of sound) hanikiza. 3 (fig) a face ~ in tears uso uliorowana machozi; ~ in sleep -wa katika usingizi mzito (hasa kutokana na uchovu; lala fofofo to ~ one's sorrows in drink kufifilisha huzuni kwa kunywa pombe, kusahau matatizo kwa kulewa.

drowse vt,vi ~ (away/off) sinzia, shikwa na usingizi n lepe la usingizi. drowsy adj -enye kusinzia, -enye lepe, -zito kwa usingizi. drowsily adv. drowsiness n.

drub vt piga mfululizo (kwa mkono/ fimbo); (fig) sisitiza jambo, lazimisha mtu akubali/aseme. ~bing n kipigo give a good/sound ~bing piga mtu barabara; shinda sana.

drudge vi ~ at fanya kazi ya kuchosha n mfanya kazi ya sulubu na yenye kuchosha. ~ry n kazi ngumu.

drug n 1 dawa (itumiwayo kwa matibabu). dangerous ~ n dawa ya hatari. 2 dawa ya kulevya trafficking in ~s upitishaji wa madawa ya kulevya the ~ habit tabia ya kutumia madawa ya kulevya. a ~ on the market biashara iliyochina, bidhaa zisizonunulika. ~-pedlar n muuza madawa ya kulevya. ~ addict n mlevi wa madawa. ~ dealer/pusher n mwuza madawa vt 1 nywesha dawa (hasa mbaya, sumu, kileo). 2 tia dawa/ghoshi (chakula na vinywaji). ~gist n 1 (GB) muuza madawa. 2 (US) muuza madawa, vyakula na vinywaji. ~ store n (US) duka la madawa na vinywaji vya kulevya (bangi, marijuani, mirungi).

drugget n zulia la sufu.

drum n 1 ngoma. ~fire n mfululizo wa milio/milipuko ya mizinga vitani. ~ head court-martial n mahakama ya kijeshi wakati wa mapambano. ~ major n kiongozi wa bendi ya jeshi. ~ stick n mkwiro; (fig) mguu wa kuku/bata. 2 pipa vt,vi 1 piga ngoma,

dry

lia/liza/ngoma. 2 ~ (on) lizaliza sauti kama za ngoma k.m. kugongagonga meza, chezesha- chezesha miguu sakafuni. 3 ~ up ita kwa ngoma, piga chando; (fig) fanya kampeni. 4 ~ into sisitizia mtu jambo. 5 ~ out fukuza; tuma (ujumbe) kwa ngoma. ~mer n mpiga ngoma; (colloq) (US) mfanyabiashara msafiri.

drunk pp of drink adj -liolewa get ~ lewa. ~ with something (fig) jawa na ~ with joy jawa na furaha n mlevi. ~ard n mlevi. ~en adj 1 -a kulewa; levi, -a ulevi. 2 -a kusababishwa na ulevi, -enye kuonyesha ulevi/kulewa. ~enness n. ~enly adv.

drupe n (bot) tunda lenye nyama yenye majimaji na kokwa katikati k.m. tunda damu, embe.

dry adj 1 -kavu. ~ as a bone/bone ~ kavu kabisa ~maize mahindi makavu. 2 (waterless ) kame. 3 -liokauka a ~ well kisima kilichokauka. 4 (of wine) -chungu, -siyo tamu. 5 (colloq) -enye kuleta kiu. 6 -siosisimua, -a kuchosha. ~ as dust isiyosisimua, isiyovutia. 7 -sioonyesha hisia. 8 waziwazi, dhahiri ~ facts ukweli dhahiri. (compounds) ~ battery; ~ cell n betri. ~ clean safisha kwa mvuke au petroli. ~ cleaner n dobi. ~ cleaning n kusafisha kwa dawa. ~ eyed adj -a macho makavu. ~ dock gudani. ~ goods n bidhaa kavu. ~ nurse n yaya. ~ rot n uozo unaofanyika bila unyevu (hasa wa mbao/miti mikavu); (fig) upotovu wa jamii usio dhahiri. ~shod adj, adv bila kulowanisha miguu, miguu au viatu vikavu. ~ walling n kujenga ukuta wa mawe. drily adv. ~ out vt,vi kauka; kausha; anika; (of hands) futa; acha ulevi. ~ off kausha. ~ up kauka, sahau kiini cha usemi; (fig) ~ up! nyamaza! kaa kimya! ~ness n. ~ing adj. ~ly adv.

dual

dual adj -a mbili, -enye mbili ~ control udhibiti wa watu wawili ~ ownership umilikaji wa watu wawili ~ purpose -enye matumizi mawili (k.m. gari kwa mizigo na abiria) ~ economy uwekevu. ~ity n.

dub vt 1 -pa cheo cha uungwana.

2 -pa jina la utani. 3 paka ngozi mafuta (ili ilainike). 4 (of film) weka/badili sauti nyingine (hasa ya lugha nyingine). 5 nakili. ~bin n mafuta mazito ya kulainishia ngozi.

dubious adj 1 ~ (of/about) (of

persons) -a wasiwasi na, -enye mashaka. 2 (of persons) -a kutia wasiwasi, -sioaminika, -a kutia mashaka. 3 (of things/actions etc.) -iletayo wasiwasi, -sioaminika. ~ly adv. ~ness n. dubitative adj -enye shaka, -enye kusitasita, -a wasiwasi. dubiety n shaka.

duchess n mke (au mjane) wa mwana mfalme.

duck1 n 1 bata, salili; (white backed) kotwe. a lame ~ n mlemavu; kitu kisicho na faida; shirika lenye matatizo kifedha. play ~s and drakes with ponda mali; -wa mwepesi kuzoea jambo fulani. take to it like a ~ to water jifunza, zoea bila matatizo. like water off ~'s back bila kuleta matokeo yoyote, bila ya hofu, -sio na athari. ~s and drakes n mchezo wa kurusha mawe majini. ~ling n mtoto wa bata. an ugly ~ n mtoto mzito (kiakili) ambaye baadaye hubadilika na kuwa na akili sana.

duck2 vt,vi 1 kwepa. 2 zama/zamisha

majini kwa muda mfupi n kuzama; kuzamisha. 2 kukwepa. ~ing n. give a ~ing sukumiza majini.

duck3 n kitambaa kizito cha pamba

(kitani).

duck4 n (sl) kipenzi, muhibu.

duct n mchirizi, kichirizi, kifereji kinyweleo.

ductile adj 1 (of metal) -a kufulika

uzi. 2 (of clay, etc) -a kunyumbuka, -a kufinyangika, -a kunama; -a kinamo

duet

~ clay udongo wa kinamo; (of a person) -enye kuathiriwa/ kutawaliwa/kushawishika kwa urahisi. ductility n.

dud n, adj 1 (sl) (of thing or person)

-siofaa/sio na faida, bunga, dude.

dude n (US)(sl) mlimbwende, mtanashati. ~ ranch n (US) ranchi kwa ajili ya utalii.

dudgeon n mfundo. in high ~ -wa na mfundo mkubwa.

duds n tambara, (sing only) rapurapu.

due n (sing only) 1 haki, stahili give somebody his ~ mpe mtu sifa/haki yake hata kama humpendi. give the devil his ~ (prov) uwe adili hata kwa mtu mbaya. 2 (tax) (pl) kodi, ushuru, ada adj 1 -a haki, stahili; (befitting) -a kupasa. with ~ respect kwa heshima ipasayo, pamoja na kuheshimu. in ~ time; in ~ course kwa wakati upasao. 2 ~ (to) -a kulipwa the debt ~ to him will be paid today deni lake atalipwa leo. 3 (expected) -tazamiwa; the ship is ~ today meli inatazamiwa kufika leo. 4 ~ to kwa sababu ya, sababishwa na it is ~ to the sun ni kwa sababu ya jua his death was ~ to an accident kifo chake kilisababishwa na ajali adv moja kwa moja, barabara, sawasawa. the ship will sail ~ South meli itasafiri kusini moja kwa moja. duly adv ipasavyo, kwa wakati wake.

duel n 1 (hist) mapigano rasmi ya watu wawili mbele ya mashahidi (agh. ya bastola au panga) kwa madhumuni ya kuamulia ugomvi/kutetea hadhi. 2 mapambano kati ya watu wawili wenye uwezo sawa, wenye kutofau- tiana mawazo/msimamo n.k. ~list; ~ist n mpambanaji wa shindano la aina hii.

duenna n (esp in a Spanish or Portuguese family) mwanamke ajuza mtunza wasichana.

duet n 1 muziki wa sauti mbili au watu wawili. 2 (fig) mazungumzo ya watu wawili.

duffer n 1 (colloq) bozi, mzito wa

akili, zebe.

duffle; duffel n kitambaa kigumu cha

sufu. ~ coat n koti refu la sufu lenye vifungo vya mbao.

dug1 n 1 kiwele; chuchu.

dug2 pt,pp of dig.

dugong n nguva.

dug-out n 1 mtumbwi. 2 handaki la

vita.

duiker n (Abbotts) mindi; (common)

funo.

duke n 1 mwinyi. 2 mwana mfalme

mtawala (huru) wa jimbo. ~dom n see duchy.

dulcet adj (usu of sounds) -tamu, -ororo dulcify vt fanya kuwa -tamu na ororo.

dull adj 1 (of colour, sound) -liofifia. 2 -a mawingu a ~ day siku ya mawingu ~ weather hali ya mawingu. 3 goigoi a ~ pupil mtoto goigoi. 4 -a kuchusha; -a kuchosha; -siopendeza a ~ play mchezo usiopendeza/furahisha a ~ speech hotuba ya kuchusha. 5 butu, sio kali a ~ knife kisu kibutu a ~ pain maumivu hafifu yasiyo makali. 6 (of trade) -liolala, -siochangamka, -siotoka, iendayo polepole; (of goods) -liododa vt, vi 1 fifisha, chujusha. 2 fanya zito/ goigoi. 3 chukiza, chosha akili. 4 poza, tuliza. 5 fanya butu. 6 tia giza, tia utusiutusi. ~ ness n. ~ard n bozi; mzito wa akili.

dumb adj 1 bubu ~ animal mnyama bubu. strike ~ shitua mtu asiweze kusema, pigwa bumbuazi. ~ show n mchezo wa kibubu. 2 (silent) -a kimya, -a kunyamaa. 3 (US) (colloq) -pumbavu, bozi ~ blonde msichana mrembo mpumbavu. ~ly adv. ~ness n ububu. ~bell n 1 (of gymnastics) chuma chenye uzito cha mazoezi ya viungo vya mwili. 2 (sl) (US) mjinga. ~found/be ~ed vt pigwa na bumbuazi. ~ waiter n 1 meza yenye rafu zinazozunguka itumikayo kugawia chakula. 2 (US; in GB food-lift) kasha lenye vyakula

dung

lichukuliwalo kwa kambarau kutoka jikoni hadi chumba cha chakula.

dum-dum n ~ bullet n risasi ifanyayo uwazi/uharibifu mkubwa.

dummy n 1 mwigo (utumikao badala ya kitu halisi) a baby's ~ chuchu bandia, nyonyo. 2 (attrib) bandia. a ~ gun n bunduki (ya) bandia. 3 (in card games esp. bridge) mchezaji ambaye karata zake zimewekwa wazi mezani. 4 mchezaji wa akiba. 5 mpumbavu. 6 (publishing) mfano wa kitabu. 7 (attrib) ~ run n jaribio/mazoezi (ya kupigana, kulenga shabaha n.k.) adj -a kuigiza, -a bandia.

dump vt,vi ~ (down) 1 tupa, weka

ovyoovyo; tupa (takataka) jalalani; anguka ghafula (kwa kishindo). 2 uza kwa bei nafuu katika nchi nyingine bidhaa zisizotakiwa katika soko la nyumbani ~ goods on the market jaza bidhaa sokoni n 1 jaa la taka, dampo. 2 lundo la taka. 3 ghala (akiba) kubwa (hasa ya zana za vita). 4 (sl) genge, sehemu au mahali pachafu k.m. mji au kijiji. ~ cart; ~er (~ truck) n gari la taka, lori la taka, tipa: gari libebalo na kumwaga mchanga, kokoto n.k.

dumpling n 1 andazi la kinyunya kilichopikwa kwa mvuke au kuchemshwa lenye nyama au matunda ndani. 2 pudini ya kinyunya iliyookwa yenye matunda ndani.

dumps n (pl) (down) in the ~ -a kujisikia vibaya vibaya, -sio na raha.

dumpy adj -fupi na -nene.

dun1 adj kahawia -jivujivu n

chambobandia.

dun2 vt dai deni/madeni kwa nguvu n

mdai madeni; mtu anayekusanya malipo ya madeni.

dunce n zuzu, mbumbumbu. ~'s cap n kofia ya karatasi (aliyokuwa akivishwa zuzu darasani kama adhabu).

dunderhead n mpumbavu. ~ed adj.

dune n chungu ya mchanga.

dung n 1 mavi/kinyesi cha mnyama

dungaree

(hasa ng'ombe). 2 samadi. ~ cart n gari la (kubebea) samadi. ~hill n lundo la samadi (shambani).

dungaree n 1 kitambaa cha dangirizi. 2 (pl) ~s dangirizi.

dungeon n (hist) gereza la chini ya

ardhi.

dunk vt chonya, chovya (mkate, ugali) ndani ya mchuzi, maziwa.

duo adj wili n jozi, mbili; wanamuziki wawili.

duodunary;duodecimal adj -a kumi na mbili; iendeleayo kwa kumi na mbili; kumi na mbili; (pl) (maths) mfumo wa kumi na mbili.

duodenum n (anat) duodeni, mbuti.

duologue n mazungumzo baina ya watu wawili (hasa katika mchezo).

dupe vt danganya. n mtu anayedanganywa. ~ry n udanganyifu, ulaghai.

duplex adj -a mara mbili, -a mara dufu n (US) nyumba yenye kuishi familia mbili; nyumba yenye ghorofa mbili.

duplicate adj -a nakili, -a maradufu.

~ key n ufunguo wa nakili/ziada n nakala, kifani made in ~ imerudufiwa vt 1 nakili. 2 rudufu, andika/fanya -ingine. 3 (increase) zidisha kwa mbili. duplicator n mashine ya kurudufia. duplication n. duplicity n 1 unafiki. 2 undumakuwili.

durable adj -a kudumu sana; -a aushi n (usu pl) vifaa vinavyodumu k.v. friji. durability n.

durance n 1 kifungo. in ~ (old use)

kifungoni.

duration n muda, kitambo for the ~ of the war kwa muda wote wa vita.

duress n vitisho (k.m. vya kufungwa au kupigwa).

during prep wakati (wa), muda wote; kwa kipindi cha.

dusk n magharibi, utusitusi. ~y adj

-enye rangi nyeusi, -a utusitusi. ~iness n.

dust1 n 1 vumbi; tifutifu. bite the ~uawa; jeruhiwa; shindwa kabisa. (humbled) in (to) the ~ nyanyaswa,

duty

dhalilishwa. shake the ~ off one's feet ondoka kwa ghadhabu au dharau. throw ~ in a person's eyes laghai, danganya mtu. ~ bowl n jangwa (lililotokana na kulima ovyo). ~-coat n vazi la kuzuia vumbi. ~ jacket n ganda (la kitabu) la vumbi also ~-cover; ~pan n kibeleshi (cha kuzolea vumbi/taka). ~ sheet n shuka la kuzuia vumbi (la samani zisizotumika). ~storm n dhoruba ya vumbi. ~-wrapper n see ~-jacket. 2 a ~ kiwingu cha vumbi. what a ~ (fig) vurumai. kick up/make/raise a ~ (sl, fig) fanya fujo/ghasia. 3 (in compounds) ~bin n pipa la taka. 4 pl mabaki ya mwili wa binadamu. ~-cart n gari la (kuchukulia) taka. ~man n mwondoa/mzoa taka (katika mapipa).

dust2 vt 1 ~ something (down/off) pangusa, futa meza n.k; kung'uta (nguo). 2 nyunyizia kitu kama unga (vumbi, sukari; mchanga, dawa ya unga n.k.). ~er n kifutio, dasta, kitambaa cha kufutia vumbi. (fig) ~ a person's jacket piga mtu. ~-up (colloq) mapigano, mzozo. ~y adj 1 -enye mavumbi; -a kama vumbi. 2 -siovutia. 3 (colloq) it's not so ~y siyo vibaya.

dust3 n debe/pipa la taka.

Dutch adj -a Kiholanzi; -enye kutoka Uholanzi. D~ auction n mnada wa kushusha bei. D ~ courage n ujasiri wa kilevi. D~oven n jiko la bati la kuweka mbele ya moto. D~ treat n karamu ya kujilipia. go ~ (with somebody) gawana matumizi, changizana. talk like a ~uncle asa n pl 1 the D~ Waholanzi. 2 (lugha ya) Kiholanzi; (colloq) double ~ n Kichina; lugha isiyoeleweka.

duty n 1 wajibu it is my ~ ni wajibu wangu. 2 kuwajibika. ~ call n ziara ya wajibu. 3 zamu. on ~ kuwa kwenye zamu. off ~ kuwa mapumzikoni. (as) in ~ bound kama (ilivyo) ada. do ~ for shikia

duvet

zamu, tumika badala ya. 4 ~ (on) ushuru; kodi. ~free adj -siolipiwa ushuru. dutiful adj. ~ (to) tiifu, -sikivu; -a kufanya wajibu (ipasavyo). dutifully adv.

duvet n mfarishi.

dwarf n kibete, kibushuti. ~ish adj -liovia, -liodumaa adj -dogo; -fupi (kuliko -a kawaida) vt 1 fanya kuonekana kama kwamba ni -dogo (kwa kupambanua, kwa kulinganisha). 2 (hinder growth) kundaalisha, dumaza.

dwell vi 1 ~ in/at kaa, ishi. 2 ~ on/upon fikiri sana, eleza sana, andika sana; (music) ~ on a note refusha noti. 3 (of a horse) simama (kabla ya kuruka). 4 (tech) simama (mtambo wa mashine n.k.). ~er n mkazi. ~ing house n nyumba ya kukaa. ~ing-place n makazi.

dwelt pt of dwell.

dwindle vi (also ~ away) pungua, fifia.

dyarchy n see diarchy.

dye vt,vi 1 tia rangi. ~ in the wool/ grain tia rangi (nguo n.k.) ikiwa ingali ghafi (ili ikolee). ~d in the wool adj (fig) kabisa; kamili. 2 remba, tia rangirangi/nakshi. 3 chukua rangi, kolea, pata rangi n 1 rangi, (za nguo). fast ~ n rangi isiyochujuka. 2 kubuhu, makuruhu. a scoundrel of the deepest ~ mhalifu mkubwa mno. ~r n mtiaji rangi nguo, mtia rangi. ~stuff n dawa ya rangi. ~-wood n mtirangi (unatoa rangi). ~-works n kiwanda cha kutia rangi.

dysuria

dying pre cont. of die.

dyke see dike.

dynamic adj -a elimumwendo; (of person) -enye nguvu. ~al adj. ~ally adv. dynamism n 1 nguvu. 2 (pl) uwezo wa mtu/kitu. ~s n elimumwendo.

dynamite baruti kali vt lipua kwa

baruti.

dynamo n dainamo: chombo cha kuzalisha umeme mfululizo. ~meter n kipimanguvu.

dynast n mtawala wa kinasaba, Lodi. ~y n nasaba (jamaa, jadi, ukoo) ya mfalme.

dyne n daini: kizibo cha kani (katika mfumo meta).

dys (pref) -baya, -a shida ~raphia adj

-sioweza kuandika vizuri. n ~menorrhoea n maumivu makali ya hedhi.

dysentery n ugonjwa wa kuhara damu. dysenteric adj.

dyslexia n kutoweza kusoma vizuri.

dyspepsia n 1 kutomeng'enya chakula (tumboni). 2 (heartburn, eructation) kiungulia. dyspeptic adj & n.

dysuria n (med) kukojoa kwa maumivu.

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INSTITUTE OF KISWAHILI RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P. O. Box 35110, DAR-ES-SALAAM, TANZANIA.

ęTaasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI) 2000 Second Edition 2000
ISBN 9976 911 29 7
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