TUKI ENGLISH-SWAHILI DICTIONARY
KAMUSI YA  KIINGEREZA-KISWAHILI

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E,e n herufi e; herufi ya tano ya alfabeti ya Kiingereza.

each adj 1 kila moja ~ person kila mtu. 2 (pron) 1 kila (mtu, kitu, jambo, n.k.). 2 (used in apposition) -ote, pamoja we ~ helped the minister sote tulimsaidia waziri. 3 (used adverbially) kila moja/kipande ~of the members kila mwanachama. 4 (as reciprocal object) ~ other wao kwa wao, sisi kwa sisi/nyinyi kwa nyinyi they help ~ other wanasaidiana they see ~ other wanaonana.

eager adj ~ (for something/to do something) -enye hamu/shauku/moyo be ~ to leave -wa na hamu ya kuondoka. ~ beaver n (colloq) mchangamkia kazi. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

eagle n tai. ~ eyed adj -enye macho makali. ~t n kinda la tai.

ear1 n 1 sikio. be all ~s sikiliza kwa makini/shauku. fall on deaf ~s tosikilizwa, pita kienyeji. feel one's ~s burning hisi/ona mtu anakuteta. give one's ~s (for something/to do) jitoa mhanga, fanya liwezekanalo. go in (at) one ~ and out (at) the other haisikilizwi, haitiwi maanani. have an ~ to the ground tahadhari, kaa macho. (have) a word in somebody's ~ nong'oneza, -pa siri. have/win somebody's ~ sikilizwa, pokelewa vyema. over head and ~s sana over head and ~ in debt daiwa kope (si zako), lemewa madeni. pick up one's ~ sikiliza/ shughulika mara, tega sikio. turn a deaf ~ (to) kataa kusaidia. up to the/one's ~s in (work, etc) shughulika sana; lemewa sana. be wet behind the ~s -wa mshamba. out on one's ~ fukuzwa kazi, timuliwa. ~ache n maumivu ya sikio. ~drop n 1 dawa ya sikio (ya kutiririsha ndani). ~drum n kiwambo cha sikio. 2 herini, kipuli. ~ful n karamu ya maneno; karipio. ~ lobe n ndewe. ~mark n (of cattle) alama; kipuli; (fig) tabia, mwenendo, kawaida

earth

maalumu inayotambulisha. vt tia, wekea alama; (set aside) tenga kwa ajili ya. ~piece n (see ~ phone). ~phone n chombo cha kusikilizia. ~-place n sehemu ya kofia inayofunika masikio. ~-log n kiziba sikio (cha kujikinga na kelele au maji). ~-ring n hereni. ~shot n umbali wa kuweza kusikia sauti. ~trumpet n kineli kama tarumbeta kisaidiacho watu wasiosikia vizuri. ~ wax n nta/taka za masikio. 2 uwezo wa kusikia. 3 kitu chenye umbo la sikio (k.m. mkono wa birika, bilauri, n.k.). ~ed adj -a masikio. long-~ed adj -enye masikio marefu.

ear2 (of corn, etc) n shuke. earl n cheo cha mtu mashuhuri wa Uingereza. ~dom n cheo cha mtu mashuhuri wa heshima wa Uingereza.

early adj,adv 1 mapema. bright and ~ asubuhi na mapema ~ in life katika ujana, siku za ujana an ~ riser mraukaji ~ fruit matunda ya mlimbuko (to) keep ~ hours wahi kulala na kuamka at the earliest possible moment mapema iwezekanavyo eat an ~-dinner -la chakula cha jioni mapema. 2 (ancient) -a kale, -a zamani. 3 (near the beginning) mwanzo, mwanzoni ~ in the year mwanzoni mwa mwaka. The ~ bird gets/catches the worm (prov) aamkaye mapema huvuna neema. ~days (yet) mapema mno (kusema, kujua). earlier on mwanzoni. ~warning adj -a (kuashiria) mapema.

earn vt 1 chuma, pata (kwa kazi). 2 (deserve) stahili. ~ing n (pl) ~ings mapato ~ing capacity uwezo wa kuchuma. ~ings yield n (comm) urari kati ya faida ya mwaka na mtaji.

earnest1 adj -enye ari, -enye bidii, -a moyo. n in ~ kwa bidii, kwa moyo do/say in ~ fanya/sema kwa dhati. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

earnest2 n arbuni.

earth n 1 the ~ dunia; ulimwengu;

ardhi. come down/back to ~

ease

ondoka ruuyani/ndotoni. 2 uso wa dunia (to) drop to ~ tua ardhini; (dry land as opposed to sea) nchi kavu. move heavens and ~ (to do something) fanya juu chini kupata jambo. how/why/where/who, etc on~ vipi tena/mbona/wapi sasa/nani tena. 3 (soil) udongo. ~ closet n choo, lindi. ~ nut n karanga. ~ work n boma la udongo. ~ worm n nyungunyungu. 4 (animal's hole or lair) pango, shimo (la mnyama). run/go to~ (of a fox) kimbilia shimoni. run something/somebody to ~ (fig) saka, gundua baada ya kutafuta sana. 5 (elect) waya au njia ya kugusia kukamilisha mzunguko wa umeme. vt 1 ~up funika kwa udongo, fukia. 2 (elect) tia waya wa umeme ardhini. 3 (of fox) jificha pangoni. ~born adj -liozuka ardhini; -liozaliwa duniani, -a binadamu. ~bound adj (fig) -enye mwanzo wa kilimwengu, -enye kuelekea duniani; -sioweza kuacha dunia; -sio bunifu. ~en adj -a udongo, -liofinyangwa. ~enware n vyombo (vitu) vya udongo. ~ly adj 1 -a dunia hii. 2 (colloq) -a kuwezekana; -enye kufikirika. no ~ly use (colloq) haifai hata kidogo there is no ~ly chance (sl) hakuna uwezekano. ~quake n zilizala: tetemeko la ardhi. ~ shine n mwako wa dunia: mwangaza unaotoka duniani na kuonekana kwenye sehemu ya kiza ya mwezi. ~y adj 1 -a udongo. 2 (fig) fidhuli.

ease n raha, utulivu, amani. at ~ starehe, poa, tuli; kwa utulivu/ starehe; (after pain) faraja. be ill at~ taharaki, tahayari. be/feel at ~ tabaraki; tabaradi. put at ~ starehesha, poza, tuliza. stand at ~ (as a mil command) mguu upande. take one's ~ tulia, acha kufanya kazi. with ~ bila kuhangaika. vt,vi 1 ~ (of) fariji; (of pain) tuliza, punguza maumivu; (make easy) rahisisha ~ oneself enda chooni ~ down punguza mwendo, legeza

east

mwendo; (make loose) legeza. 2 ~ off/up punguza hali ya wasiwasi; tulia; punguza makali. ~fully adv. ~fulness n.

easy adj 1 rahisi, epesi people who are ~ to get on with watu ambao ni rahisi kuelewana nao ~ victim mtu ambaye ni rahisi kudanganyika. 2 (quite, comfortable) -a raha, tulivu, radhi, siyo na taabu an ~ chair kiti cha raha an ~ life maisha yasiyo na taabu ~ money pesa ipatikanayo bila jasho on ~ terms -a kulipia kidogokidogo by ~ stages (of journey) kwa awamu ndogondogo within ~ reach -a kufikika kwa urahisi; karibu woman of ~ virtue mwanamke mtembezi I'm ~ (colloq) sina ubishi, sina neno adv kwa urahisi ~ come ~ go kinachopatikana kwa urahisi hupotea kwa urahisi go ~ punguza kazi/kasi. go ~ on with -wa mwangalifu take it/things ~ -tofanya kazi kwa bidii sana, -tojisumbua. easier said than done kusema ni rahisi kuliko kutenda. stand ~ (mil) legeza mwili. easily adv 1 kwa urahisi. 2 bila shaka; kwa mbali sana he is easily the best singer yeye ni mwimbaji bora kwa mbali sana. easiness n. easygoing adj 1 (of persons) pole, si gumu, si kali; radhi. 2 (careless) zembe, vivu, -siojali.

easel n kiegemeza picha/sanamu; kiegemeza ubao (wa kuandikia).

easement n (leg) haki ya njia katika ardhi (ya mtu mwingine).

east n the~ n mashariki, matlai. the Far E~ n Mashariki ya Mbali. the Middle E~ n Mashariki ya Kati adj -a mashariki. E~ End n mtaa wa mashariki ya London wenye magati, (maskani ya wakukni) adv mashariki. ~ward/~bound adj -a kuelekea mashariki ~ ward wind pepo za matlai. ~erly adj -a mashariki. ~ erly winds n pepo za matlai. ~ern adj -a mashariki (nchi,

Easter

jimbo, wilaya, tarafa, kata, mji, n.k.). ~erner n mtu wa mashariki. ~ernmost adj -a mashariki kabisa.

Easter n Pasaka. ~ egg n yai lililopakwa rangi; yai lililotengenezwa kwa chokuleti (kwa ajili ya Pasaka).

eat vt,vi 1 ~ (up) -la. ~ it's head off (a horse) kula mno, gharimu zaidi kumlisha kuliko thamani yake. ~ one's heart out umia kimoyomoyo. ~ one's words futa usemi; omba radhi. ~ out of somebody's hand mtii sana, mkubalia sana ~ somebody out of house and home kula sana kwa gharama ya mwingine; (destroy) -la na haribu, mong'onyoa be ~en up with (jealousy, etc.) jaa (wivu, n.k.). 2 ~ into tumia/maliza sehemu. ~ing house/place n mkahawa, hoteli. ~ing apple n tufaha linaloliwa bila kupikwa. ~ings n (sl) chakula, maakuli. ~able adj -a kulika. ~ables n vyakula.

eaves n (pl) pembe la paa linaloning'inia, upenu, mchirizi, mdoya.

eavesdrop vi sikiliza kwa siri mazungumzo ya watu. ~per n dukizi.

ebb vi 1 (of tide) pwa. 2 (fig) (lessen)pungua, fifia; dhoofika. n 1 maji kupwa/mafu the tide is on the ~ maji yamekupwa. 2 (fig) hali duni, kudhoofika; kupungua be at a low ~ kuwa katika hali duni. ~-tide n kupwa.

ebony n (poet) mpingo adj (of colour) -a mpingo; -eusi kabisa the ~ keys of a piano vipande/ funguo nyeusi za kinanda.

ebullient adj 1 -enye kububujika. 2

-enye kujaa furaha. ebullience n mchemko.

eccentric adj 1 (of person) -a pekee, si -a kawaida. 2 (of circles) sio duara. n 1 mtu wa kipekee. 2 chombo cha kubadilisha mwendo duara uwe mwendo wa kurudi nyuma na kwenda mbele. ~ity n 1 upekee wa tabia,

economy

tabia ya kipekee. 2 kitendo au tabia ya ajabu, isiyo ya kawaida.

ecclesiastic n kasisi, padri adj -a padri, -a dini. ~al adj -a kanisa la Kikristo; -a padri. ~al history n historia ya kanisa. ~lly adv.

echelon n 1 mpango (wa ngazi unaotumika na vikundi vya askari jeshi, ndege za vita, manowari, n.k.). 2 (often pl with sing meaning) ngazi. the upper ~s of the government ngazi za juu za serikali.

echo n 1 mwangwi. ~ chamber n mahala pa mwangwi. ~ sounding n upimaji masafa kwa mwangwi. ~ sounder n kipima kina/masafa. 2 (likeness) kifano; mtu anayefanana na mwingine. vi,vt ~ something (back) 1 (of places) rudisha mwangwi. 2 -wa mwangwi wa. 3 rudia maneno, n.k. ya wengine.

eclat n mafanikio ya kusifika,io ya wazi; sifa kutoka kwa watu wote.

eclectic adj (of persons, methods, etc)

-siofuata mfumo/msimamo mmoja (wa mawazo, nadharia, n.k.). ~ism n.

eclipse n 1 kupatwa mwezi au jua. 2 (fig) kupoteza nguvu/umaarufu, n.k.. vt 1 (of the moon, a planet, etc) patwa; zuia mwanga. 2 (fig) zima; pita kwa mbali sana; fanya wengine waonekane hawana kitu. 3 (of feelings) maliza. ~ ecliptic n njia ya jua adj -a kupatwa jua/mwezi.

eclogue n shairi fupi (juu ya maisha mazuri ya shambani).

ecology n ikolojia: elimu ya uhusiano wa viumbe na mazingira. ecological adj. ecological system n (also ecosystem) mfumo wa ikolojia. ecologically adv. ecologist n.

economy n 1 uwekevu, iktisadi, ukabidhi. 2 uchumi. economic adj 1 -a kiuchumi economic assistance msaada wa kiuchumi. 2 -enye kufidia gharama economic rent kodi yenye kufidia gharama. economics n pl uchumi: sayansi ya uzalishaji, usambazaji na utumiaji bidhaa.

ecstasy

economist n 1 mtaalam wa uchumi, mchumi. 2 msarifu. economical adj -ekevu, -enye kupunguza gharama, angalifu katika matumizi; kabidhi; (cheap) rahisi. economize vt,vi punguza gharama, sarifu, bana matumizi.

ecstasy n 1 upeo wa hisi (hasa furaha) she was in ~ about her new job amefurahia mno kazi yake mpya. 2 (rel) hali ya roho kuungana na Mungu katika upeo wa kumwombea, n.k.). 3 (frenzy) hali ya kurukwa na akili; kurusha akili; kurukwa na akili. ecstatic adj -liojaa furaha/huzuni. ecstatically adv.

ecumenical adj 1 -a ekumeni ~ Council (RC) Mtaguso wa kanisa (unaoitwa na Papa). 2 -a kupenda muungano wa madhehebu yote ya Ukristo. ~ism n (also ecumenism) imani au tapo la kuleta umoja wa wakristo wote. ~ly adv.

eczema n ukurutu.

eddy n 1 (of wind, smoke, fog, mist, dust, water etc) mzunguko, mzingo, mkondo wa maji unaozunguka zunguka. 2 chamchela, kinyamkela. vi enda kwa kuzungukazunguka; zungukazunguka.

Eden n (Bible) bustani ya Edeni; (fig) mahali pa raha, peponi.

edge n 1 (of a weapon) machinjioni, makali. give an ~ to tia makali, noa. set one's teeth on ~ tia meno ganzi; (give offence) udhi. on ~ -a wahaka, -enye kiherehere. take the ~ off something punguza makali; (fig) utamu, furaha, maana. give somebody the ~ of one's tongue karipia vikali. have the ~ on zidi (kidogo). 2 (of a river, rock) ukingo the ~ of a cliff ukingo wa mwamba. 3 (of a cloth) upindo. 4 (of a place) mpaka vt 1 tia makali, noa. 2 (of a cloth) tia upindo. 3 (of a road, etc) tia ukingo/mpaka. 4 penya; penyeza he ~d through the crowd alipenya katikati ya umati wa watu. 5 ~ away toka/jitoa polepole/kwa hadhari ~

effect

one's way into the room jipenyeza pole pole chumbani. ~ out 1 ondosha polepole. 2 shinda/zidi kidogo. ~ways; ~wise adv. upande, ubavuni I could not get a word in ~ways sikuweza kusema hata neno moja. edging n ukingo; (kwa nguo) upindo edging -shears mkasi wa majani. edgy adj -enye wahaka, -enye wasiwasi sana. edgily adv.

edible adj -a kulika. n (pl) vyakula, chakula. edibility n.

edict n amri; sheria.

edifice n jumba; (fig) ruya, ndoto. edify vt adilisha, rekebisha maadili. edification n ujenzi wa maadili.

edit vt 1 (book, film, etc.) hariri. 2 ongoza/simamia kazi ya uhariri. 3 panga data ili ziingizwe kwenye kompyuta. 4 ~ out ondoa maneno wakati wa kuhariri. ~ion n toleo. ~or n mhariri. ~orial adj -a mhariri ~orial staff wahariri n tahariri. ~orship n. ~orialise/ize. vt andika tahariri; (often derog) changanya mawazo binafsi na mambo ya kweli.

educate vt elimisha, funza, fundisha, somesha an ~d person (a person of education) msomi, mtu aliyeelimika; mjuzi. educator n mwalimu, mwelimishaji. education n 1 elimu. 2 maadilisho, malezi. educational/ educative adj. educationist/ educationalist n mtaalamu wa elimu.

eel n mkunga as slippery as an ~ -sioshikika; (fig) (of a person) asiyeaminika, asiyechukulika.

eerie; eery adj -a kutia hofu, -a kioja, -a kutisha. eerily adv.

efface vt 1 futa, futilia mbali ~

memories sahau; sahaulisha. 2 ~ oneself jificha, jifanya si mashuhuri a self-effacing person mtu mpole, mwenye haya. ~ment n.

effect n 1 (result) athari, matokeo. the ~s of drought athari za ukame. of no ~ bure, -siofaa. in ~ kwa

effeminate

kweli; (of a rule, law, etc) inayotumika the rule is still in ~ kanuni bado inatumika. bring/carry/ put something into ~ tekeleza; fanya itumike. come into ~ tumika. give ~ to fanya iwe na maana/matokeo/ taathira. take ~ toa matokeo yanayotakiwa; fanya kazi the medicine is taking ~ dawa inafanya kazi; anza kutumika/kutekelezwa. 2 mawazo/hisia anayoyapata mtazamaji, msikilizaji, msomaji, n.k. 3 to this/ that ~ kwa maana hii/ile. to the ~ that ... inayosema kuwa. to the same ~ inayotoa habari hiyohiyo. 4 (effects) (pl) (property) vyombo, mali. no ~s (written often N/E by banker) hundi iliyokataliwa. vt timiza, tekeleza; (to) ~ an insurance anzisha bima. ~ive adj 1 -a kufaa, -enye nguvu, -enye matokeo yanayotarajiwa. 2 -a kupendeza, -a kufaa, -enye kufaa kazi/kupigana. ~ively adv. ~iveness n. ~ual adj (not used for persons) -enye kuleta matokeo yanayotakiwa. ~ually adv. ~ualness n. ~uate vt tekeleza, timiza, fanya. ~uation n.

effeminate adj (of man, derog)

-a (kama) kike. effeminacy n.

effervesce vi toa gesi; (fig of persons) changamka. ~nce n. ~nt adj.

effete adj -liochakaa, -liyokwisha, haifu. ~ness n.

efficacious adj (not used of persons) -a

kufaa, -enye kuleta matokeo yanayotakiwa. ~ly adv. efficacy n.

efficient adj 1 -a kufaa, madhubuti, fanisi. 2 (of persons) hodari, stadi, -enye ufanisi. ~ly adv. efficiency n utendaji bora, ustadi; ufanisi.

effigy n sanamu, kinyago in ~ katika sanamu. burn/hang somebody in ~ choma/nyonga sanamu ya mtu (kama ishara ya chuki).

efflorescence (formal) n 1 uchanuaji (maua). 2 (crystals) chunyu. efflorescent adj.

effluent n 1 mto, mfereji utokao katika mto mkubwa zaidi. 2 maji machafu

egg

yanayotoka kwenye kiwanda.

effluvium n uvundo, harufu mbaya. efflux n utoaji; utokaji (wa gesi au

kioevu) ~ of time kupita wakati.

effort n 1 bidii, juhudi, jitihada, nguvu make an ~ jitahidi, fanya bidii, tumia nguvu. 2 (colloq) matokeo ya jitihada/nguvu; kitu kilichofanywa kwa jitihada/nguvu that's a good ~ umejitahidi. ~less adj pasipo na haja ya bidii/jitihada/nguvu he is an ~less singer ni mwimbaji stadi (asiyehitaji kufanya bidii).

effrontery n ujuvi, usafihi, usodai; kiburi (to) have the ~ to kutokuwa na soni; kuthubutu.

effulgent adj (liter) -a kuang'aa, -enye kutia nuru, mwangaza, mng'ao be ~ with joy ng'aa kwa furaha. effulgence n mng'ao.

effusion n 1 utoaji; utokaji (wa gesi au kioevu); kumwaga; kumwagika, n.k. 2 (derog) maneno mengi yaliyojaa hisia. effuse vt toa (hewa, kioevu, gesi, n.k). effusive adj kunjufu; -ingi wa maneno, (katika kuonyesha upendo, shukurani). effusively adv. effusiveness n.

eft n see newt.

e.g. (abbr of for example)

egalitarian n, adj (person) -enye kupenda usawa; -enye usawa. ~ism n.

egg1 n yai. a bad ~ n yai viza; (colloq) mtu wa ovyo, mhalifu. assure as ~s is ~s dhahiri, wazi kabisa; bila shaka. in the ~ changa, bado kukua. put all one's ~s in one basket weka matumaini yote katika jambo moja walk on ~s enda kwa uangalifu. teach one's grandmother to suck ~s kufunza sogora jambo alijualo have ~ on one's face onekana mjinga/bwege ~ cup kikombe cha yai. ~ nog n. kileo kilichoongezewa maziwa, yai na viungo yai. ~ white n ute wa yai. ~ yolk n kiini cha yai. ~ shell n kaka la yai. ~ head n (colloq) (usu derog) msomi, mtoa nadharia.

egg

~ plant n mbilinganyi;biringanya. ~whisk n chapo.

egg2 vt ~ on sukuma, chochea,

himiza.

ego n nafsi. ~ trip n kitendo/vitendo vya kufurahisha nafsi. ~centric adj -enye ubinafsi. ~ism n 1 nadharia ya ubinafsi. 2 ubinafsi. ~ist n. ~istical adj. ~istically adv ~tism n majisifu; ubinafsi. ~tistic adj. ~tistically adv.

egregious adj -a kupita kiasi/upeo (kwa ubaya) ~ folly ujinga kupita kiasi; baya sana. ~ness n.

egress n 1 uhuru/haki/uwezo wa kutoka. 2 njia ya kutokea.

Egypt n Misri. ~ian n Mmisri adj -a Misri, Kimisri. ~ology n elimu ya mambo ya kale ya Misri. ~ologist n.

eh interj lo, nini, ati; au siyo; ulisemaje?

eider/~duck n somateria: aina ya bata mkubwa. ~ down n manyoya ya kifuani mwa somateria; (quilt) mfirashi.

eight adj nane he is ~ ana miaka minane. have one over the ~ lewa sana n nane. ~teen adj,n kumi na nane. ~teenth adj -a kumi na nane. ~some n wachezaji wanane. ~ty n themanini. ~ies n miaka ya themanini. ~ieth adj -a themanini.

either adj -o-ote, mojawapo ~ answer is correct jibu lolote ni sawa choose ~ basket chagua kikapu kimojawapo pron ~ (of) -ote mbili; -o -ote, mojawapo I don't like ~ sipendi chochote/vyote viwili... or conj~ ama ... au ~ do this or that ama fanya hili au lile adv (with neg) wala he is not clever or wise ~ si mwerevu wala si mwenye busara I shall not go ~ wala siendi I can't ~ hata mimi.

ejaculate vt 1 toa neno ghafla, tamka (ghafla). 2 kojoa, mwaga (agh manii). ejaculation n. ejaculatory adj.

eject vt 1 ~ from fukuza, toa kwa nguvu. 2 (of volcano, etc.) tupa. 3

elder

(of aeroplane) toka kwa dharura. ~ion n. ~or n. ~or seat n kiti cha dharura.

eke vt 1 ~ something out fanya kitu kidumu zaidi kwa kutumia uangalifu mkubwa au kukiongezea ili kitosheleze. 2 ~ out a living pata riziki kwa shida sana.

elaborate adj -liochanganuliwa;

-liofanywa kwa uangalifu; -liofafanuliwa kwa undani; (of artwork) -lionakishiwa sana. vt eleza kinaganaga; fafanua. ~ly adv. ~ness n. elaboration n.

e'lan n (Fr) uchangamfu; ukunjufu, bidii.

eland n pofu.

elapse vi (of time) pita.

elastic adj 1 nyumbufu, -a kunyumbulika, -a kunapukia. ~bands n mipira (ya kunyumbulika). 2 -a kubadilika ~ temperament tabia ya kubadilika ~ rules kanuni nyumbufu/za kubadilika. n mpira. ~ity n mnyumbuko. ~ity of demand n mnyumbuko wa mahitaji.

elate vt (usu pass) furahisha, sisimua adj (arch) -a furaha. elation n furaha.

elbow n kiwiko, kivi. out at ~s (of clothes) tambara; (of a person) aliyevaa matambara up to the ~s in work kuwa na kazi kupindukia. at one's ~ karibu na. vt jisukuma, jiingiza kwa nguvu/mabavu katika kundi la watu; toma, piga kikumbo, jipenyeza. ~-grease n msuguo wa nguvu, kazi ngumu (to) put ~-grease into a piece of work fanya kazi kwa nguvu. ~-joint n kiungo cha kiwiko (cha mkono). ~-room n nafasi a kutosha.

elder1 adj -enye umri mkubwa kuliko; kubwa ~ brother kaka mkubwa. n 1 mzee. the ~s n wazee. 2 mzee wa kanisa. ~ly adj zee, -enye kuzeeka. eldest n 1 mkubwa kabisa kwa umri. 2 eldest child n kifungua mimba.

elder

elder2 n msambuku (mti mdogo

unaozaa fuu nyekundu au nyeusi zitumikazo kutengeneza mvinyo).

El Dorado n El Dorado; nchi ya

kufikirika ya utajiri hasa wa madini.

elect vt 1 chagua kwa kupiga kura. 2 chagua, amua adj -teule. President ~n Rais mteule. the ~ n wateule. ~ion n uchaguzi. by ~ion n uchaguzi mdogo. general ~ion n uchaguzi mkuu ~ion campaign kampeni ya uchaguzi. ~ioneer vi pigia/fanyia kampeni (ili mtu fulani achaguliwe). ~ioneering n ufanyaji kampeni. ~ive adj 1 -enye uwezo wa kuchagua. 2 nayochaguliwa kwa kupigiwa kura. 3 (US) -a hiari, -a ziada. ~or n mpiga kura. ~oral adj -a kupiga kura. the ~oral roll/register n rejesta ya orodha ya wapiga kura. ~orate n wote wenye sifa ya kupiga kura.

electric adj 1 -a umeme ~ current

mkondo wa umeme ~ chair kiti cha umeme (cha kufisha wahalifu) ~ motor mota ya umeme. 2 (of speech, personality, etc.) -a kuchangamsha sana. ~al adj 1 -a umeme. ~al engineer n mhandisi umeme. 2 (fig) (e.g. of news) -a kushtusha sana, -enye kuleta wasiwasi. ~ally adv. ~ian n fundi umeme. ~ity n 1 umeme. 2 elimu umeme na asili yake. electrify vt 1 tia umeme (ili kuendesha mashine, kuwasha taa); peleka umeme. 2 (fig) (astonish) shtusha sana. electrification n.

electro pref (in compounds) -a kuhusu umeme. ~-cardiogram n elektrokardiogramu. ~-chemistry n elektrokemia, kemia ya umeme. ~-dynamics n nguvu za umeme. ~magnet n sumaku umeme. ~meter n elektromita: kipimo cha nguvu umeme. ~plate vt paka/chovya madini (mf. fedha) kwa elektrolisisi. ~cute vt ua kwa umeme. ~cution n. ~de n elektrodi. ~lysis n elektrolisisi: uchanganuaji dutu kwa nguvu za

elevate

umeme. ~n n elektroni. ~ n flow n mtiririko wa elektroni. ~nic adj -a elektroni. ~nics n sayansi na teknolojia ya elektroni (mf radio, TV). ~scope n elektroskopu. ~therapy n utabibu wa umeme.

eleemosynary adj (formal) -a

kutegemea msaada/sadaka.

elegant adj -a jamala, -a madaha, -a sanaa; sanifu. ~ly adv. elegance n.

elegy n shairi/wimbo wa huzuni, maombolezo. elegiac adj 1 (of metre) -enye huzuni, -a msiba. 2 -a kuomboleza, -enye maombolezo.

element n 1 (science) elementi. 2 (according to the ancient philosophers) vitu vya asili: ardhi, hewa, moto, maji. out of one's ~ sio mahali pake. 3 (pl) the ~s nguvu za asili; hali ya hewa. 4 (pl) mwanzo, madokezo ya awali. 5 msingi, sifa ya lazima na muhimu (ya kitu fulani). 6 dalili, ishara there is no ~ of truth in his statements hakuna dalili zozote za ukweli katika maneno yake. 7 (maths) memba; (electric) waya kinzi (wa umeme). ~al adj 1 -a vitu/nguvu ya asili. 2 -enye hisia kali. ~ary adj -a asili, -a mwanzo. ~ary colours n rangi za msingi. ~arily adv.

elephant n tembo, ndovu. a white ~ n mzigo; mali ya gharama kubwa isiyo na faida/matumizi. ~iasis n matende. ~ine adj -kubwa mno, -a kama tembo, nzito an ~ine memory kumbukumbu ya kuaminika.

elevate vt ~ (to) (formal) nyanyua,

ongeza, inua; (fig) kuza, adilisha, pandisha ~ the voice ongeza sauti, sema kwa sauti kubwa. ~d railway n reli inayopita juu kwa juu (hewani). elevation n 1 upandaji cheo/hadhi. 2 (height) urefu wa kwenda juu, kipeo, kimo. 3 (hill) kilima, mwinuko. 4 (drawing) picha/ramani ya upande mmoja wa jengo. 5 pembe (mwinuko). elevator n 1 grain elevator ghala ya nafaka. 2 (US) lifti, kambarau. 3

eleven

kipandishi.

eleven n, adj 1 kumi na moja. 2 timu ya wachezaji/wanachama kumi na mmoja. ~th adj -a kumi na moja. at the ~th hour dakika za mwisho. ~ses n pl (GB) kitafunio na kinywaji cha asubuhi (mnamo saa tano).

elf n kibwengo; (mischievous child)

mtundu. ~in adj -a kibwengo, tundu, tukutu. ~ish adj cheshi.

elicit vt ~ something (from somebody) vuta/shawishi/bembeleza mtu ajibu ~ the truth shawishi mtu aseme kweli. ~ation n.

elide vt dondosha irabu/silabi katika kutamka k.m. Mungu badala ya Muungu. elision n (from elide) ufupisho wa matamshi ya neno.

eligible adj ~ (for) -a kufaa, -a kustahiki, -stahilifu. elegibility n.

eliminate vt 1 ~ (from) futa, ondosha, acha. ~ somebody (from something) toa katika mashindano. 2 (inform or euph) ua. elimination n.

elite n kikundi/tabaka aali la watu wenye uwezo (kipaji au nafasi nzuri katika jamii) an educated ~ mwanazuoni; tabaka la wasomi. elitism n imani kuwa tabaka aali linapaswa kutawala. elitist n, adj.

elixir n 1 maandalizi ambamo

wanasayansi wa zamani walitaka kubadili chuma kuwa dhahabu. 2 tiba inayoponyesha magonjwa yote ~ of life kioevu cha maisha (ambacho humfanya mtu aishi milele).

Elizabethan adj -a wakati wa malkia Elizabeth I wa Uingereza. n mtu aliyeishi wakati wa malkia Elizabeth I (k.m. Shakespeare).

elk n kulungu wa kaskazini Ulaya na Asia.

ellipse n umbo yai; duaradufu. elliptic; elliptical adj -a umbo la yai.

ellipsis n udondoshaji wa maneno. elliptical adj (of a sentence) -liodondosha maneno.

elocution n ufasaha. ~ary adj. ~ist n mtu azungumzaye kwa ufasaha.

elongate vt,vi refusha; refuka adj (Bot,

emasculate

zool) refu. elongation n mwongezeko wa urefu; (of a line, etc) kipande kilichorefushwa.

elope vi ~ with hala, toroka (hasa mtu na mchumba ili waoane bila idhini ya wazee). ~ment n.

eloquence n umbuji, lugha ya kushawishi. eloquent adj. eloquently adv.

else adj (with indef or interr pron) 1 (besides) tena, juu ya hayo, zaidi what ~ shall I say? nitasema nini tena (zaidi)? did you see anybody ~ ulimwona mtu mwingine (zaidi)? 2 (otherwise) (or) ~ ama sivyo, au, la sivyo; vinginevyo take care or ~you will fall jihadhari ama sivyo/la sivyo utaanguka he's joking (or) ~ he's mad anatania ama sivyo ni kichaa/mwehu. ~where adj penginepo, mahali pengine.

elucidate vt (formal) eleza, fafanua; fumbua. elucidation n.

elude vt 1 epuka kwa hila/mbinu. 2 (baffle) fumba, tatiza. elusion n. elusive adj -a kuepuka kwa hila; telezi. ~ness n. elusory adj.

Elysium n (GK myth) (final bliss) peponi, ahera; (happiness) raha mustarehe, nderemo. Elysian adj -a peponi, -a raha mustarehe.

em n (pron)(colloq) 1 herufi m. 2 (of a print) kipimo cha kupimia idadi ya chapa katika mstari.

emaciate vt (usu passive) dhoofisha; kondesha He is ~d by hard work amedhoofishwa na kazi ya sulubu. emaciation n.

e-mail n imeli: waraka wa elektroniki

emanate vi ~ (from) (formal) anzia; tokea. emanation n.

emancipate vt ~ (from) komboa.

emancipator n. emancipatory adj. emancipation n ukombozi. women's emancipation ukombozi wa wanawake.

emasculate vt 1 hasi, hanithisha. 2 (weaken) dunisha, dhoofisha sana. emasculation n.

embalm

embalm vt 1 (of corpse) tia dawa (maiti) ili isioze. 2 (preserve carefully) linda/hifadhi isisahaulike. (perfume) tia harufu nzuri. ~ern mtu atiaye dawa (maiti) ili isioze. ~ment n.

embankment n ukuta/tuta lililojengwa kando ya mtaro, barabara, handaki, mto, n.k. embank vt jengea/fanya tuta kando ya mtaro, barabara, handaki, mto, n.k.

embargo n 1 kikwazo. 2 (fig) kizuizi.lift/raise/remove an ~ (from somebody) ondoa kikwazo; anza kufanya biashara na. place/lay somebody under (an)~; put an ~ on somebody wekea kikwazo mtu fulani, acha kufanya biashara na. ~ed adj -liowekewa kikwazo/kizuizi na mtu fulani.

embark vi,vt 1 panda, ingia, pakia. 2 ~ on/upon anza; anzisha. ~ation n upakiaji chomboni.

embarrass vt 1 tahayarisha, aibisha. 2 (old use) zuia, sumbua. ~ing adj. ~ingly adv. ~ment n 1 aibu. 2 shida financial ~ments shida ya fedha an ~ of riches mali nyingi kupita kiasi.

embassy n ubalozi, ofisi/kazi ya balozi; balozi na wafuasi wake (to) send somebody with an ~ kumtuma mtu na mabalozi au wajumbe.

embattle vt andaa askari kwa vita.

~ed adj (of an army) -liowekwa tayari kwa vita; (fig) -enye kujihami; (of a tower or building) -enye ukuta juu wenye nafasi za kupigia risasi.

embed vt (usu passive) ~ (in) tia ndani ya.

embellish vt ~ with pamba; rembesha, tia nakshi; (of a story) piga chuku, tia chumvi. ~ment n mapambo, urembo; kupiga chuku, kutia chumvi.

ember n (usu pl) 1 kaa la moto; kijinga cha moto. 2 (pl) majivu.

embezzle vt badhiri amana. ~ment n. ~r n mbadhiri amana, mbadhirifu.

embitter vt chukiza, tia uchungu sana.

emblazon vt ~ (with) 1 pamba (ngao,

emend

bendera, n.k.) kwa nembo mbalimbali. 2 sifu mno. ~ment n.

emblem n nembo; ishara. ~atic adj -wa (kama) ishara ya. ~atic (of) -wa kama nembo. ~atize vt tumia/ tumika kama nembo.

embody vt ~ (in) 1 pamba, mawazo/ maono. 2 jumuisha, unganisha. 3 -pa pepo mwili. embodiment n he is the embodiment of goodness ni mfano halisi wa wema.

embolden vt tia moyo, -pa moyo, tia hamasa.

embonpoint n (F, usu euph) unene.

embosom vt (poetic) kumbatia, tia moyoni.

emboss vt ~ with chora/tunisha kwa

kugandamiza. ~ed adj -liogandamizwa/tunishwa.

embouchure n 1 mlango wa mto;

(of mus instruments) kilimi, mtapa.

embowel vt (arch) tumbua, toa matumbo.

embrace vt 1 kumbatia; kumbatiana, piga pambaja. 2 (accept) kubali, pokea kwa moyo; tumia kwa bidii. 3 (include) jumuisha, ingiza. 4 (takein) fahamu, tambua. 5 (of religion) fuata. n kumbatio, pambaja. ~able adj. ~ment n.

embrangle vt tatanisha.

embrasure n 1 tundu ukutani (la kupenyeza mzinga au bunduki). 2 buruji, agh. katika jumba.

embrocation n fututa, dawa ya kuchua. embroider vt,vi 1 tarizi, nakshi, tia almaria. 2 (fig) (a story) piga chuku, tia chumvi. ~y n 1 almaria, nakshi, (stitches) taraza. 2 (of story) kupiga chuku adj ~y stitches mshono tarizo.

embroil vt ~ somebody/oneself (in) gombanisha, chochea, husisha na ugomvi. ~ment n.

embryo n 1 kiinitete. 2 kitu kilicho katika hatua za mwanzo. ~nic adj. ~logy n embriolojia: taaluma ya maisha ya kiinitete.

embus vt,vi (mil) tia/pakia/panda gari.

emend vt sahihisha, rekebisha

emerald

(maandiko). ~ation n.

emerald n zumaridi.

emerge vi ~ (from) 1 ibuka; zuka. 2(of facts, ideas) jitokeza, julikana, dhihirika; (after defeat) fufuka. ~nce n. ~nt adj. emersion n mwibuko; mzuko; utokezi.

emergency n 1 dharura. ~ brake n breki za dharura ~ leave likizo ya dharura. 2 state of ~ hali ya hatari. 3 tukio be ready for any ~ jiandae kwa tukio lolote. 4 (attrib use) -a kutumika wakati wa dharura an ~ exit mlango wa dharura.

emeritus adj -liostaafu na kubaki na cheo/heshima. professor ~n profesa wa heshima (baada ya kustaafu).

emery n msasa.

emetic n tapisho adj -a kutapisha. emigrate vt ~ (to/from) hama, hajiri. emigrant n mhamaji, mhajiri. emigration n. emigratory adj. emigre n mhamaji wa kisiasa, mkimbizi (agh wa kisiasa).

eminent adj tukufu, adhimu, maarufu. ~ly adv. eminence n 1 mwadhama; ukuu, ubora, utukufu (wa daraja, cheo,tabia, sifa, uwezo). 2 kilima, mwinuko. 3 (R.C.) His/Your E~ Mhashamu/mwadhamu Kadinali.

emir n kadhi; sheikh.

emissary n mjumbe.

emit vt toa. emission n. emission (of) kutoa; kutokeza, utokezaji (wa mwanga, joto, harufu, n.k.).

emollient n dawa ya kulainisha

ngozi; dawa ya kutuliza maumivu adj -a kulainisha, -a kutuliza.

emolument n (usu pl formal) mshahara, ujira.

emotion n mhemuko, hisia kubwa, jazba, mshtuko, mchomo wa moyo (to) appeal to the ~s gusa hisia. ~al adj 1 -enye mhemuko/jazba (psych) ~al disturbance mvurugiko wa akili. 2 -ilioelekezwa kwenye mhemuko. ~less adj bila hisia kubwa/ mhemuko. ~ally adv. emotive adj -enye kuamsha hisia. ~alism n hali ya kuhemkwa mno.

empty

empanel;impanel vt orodhesha (jina la mtu) katika jopo/baraza la wazee.

empathy n (psych) uwezo wa kuhisi maono ya mwingine.

empennage n sehemu ya mkia wa

ndege/eropleni.

empire n ufalme, milki, (sovereignty) himaya, enzi kuu British ~ Falme ya Uingereza.

emperor n mfalme mkuu (hasa atawalaye falme mbili au zaidi). empress n mfalme wa kike.

emphasize vt tia mkazo, kaza, sisitiza. emphasis n mkazo emphatic adj -a nguvu, -a mkazo; (distinct) dhahiri, waziwazi. emphatically adv.

emphysema n (med) ugonjwa wa kuvimba mapafu na kupumua kwa shida.

empirical adj jarabati, -a kutegemea majaribio, (si ya kutegemea nadharia/si -a kubahatisha). empiricism n matendo jarabati. empiricist n mwanafalsafa jarabati. ~ly adv.

emplacement n (mil) mahali pa kuwekea mizinga, n.k.

emplane vt,vi panda/pakia kwenye ndege.

employ vt 1 ajiri. 2 (make use of) tumia. 3 ~ in (often pass) shughulika; (ji)shughulisha. n kazi I am in his ~ nafanya kazi kwake. ~able adj. ~ee n mwajiriwa, mfanyakazi. ~er n mwajiri. ~ment n 1 ajira thrown out of ~ment fukuzwa kazi. be in/out of ~ment -wa na/kuwa bila kazi. ~ment agency n wakala wa ajira. 2 (use) matumizi.

emporium n 1 chete kuu, gulio. 2 mahali penye biashara nyingi; duka kubwa.

empower vt wezesha, -pa idhini/ mamlaka.

empty adj tupu an ~ bottle chupa tupu; (colloq) on an ~ stomach bila kula chakula ~words maneno matupu yasiyo na maana; (math) ~ set seti tupu. n (pl) vitu visivyo na

empurple

kitu ndani k.v. chupa za bia. ~handed adj mikono mitupu. ~headed adj pumbavu vt,vi ~ (out) mwaga, mimina mbali, toa; toka -ote -liyomo, -wa tupu the river empties into the sea mto unaingia baharini. emptiness n.

empurple vt tia rangi ya zambarau. ~d adj -liojaa rangi ya zambarau.

empyrean n mbingu; mbinguni adj -a

mbinguni.

emu n emu (ndege wa Australia mfano wa mbuni).

emulate vt igiza, iga, fuatisha; husudu; jaribu kushinda mwingine (kwa ustadi, tabia, akili, uwezo, ushujaa), shindana na. emulation n. emulative adj. emulator n.

emulous adj -enye moyo au shauku ya kufaulu/kupata (kuendelea, kusitawi) with ~ zeal kwa shauku ya kufaulu.

emulsion n emalshani: ugiligili au weupe ~ paint rangi ya maji. emulsive adj. emulsify vt gandisha.

enable vt wezesha, -pa uwezo. enabling part adj -enye kuwezesha.

enact vt 1 fanya kuwa sheria, toa as by law ~ed ilivyotungwa kisheria. 2 tenda kama kwenye maigizo. enactment n.

enamel n 1 enameli: rangi ngumu ya kupaka ~ ware vyombo vya enameli. 2 tabaka ngumu ya nje juu ya jino, gamba la jino vt paka enameli.

enamoured vt (usu in passive) be ~of tamanisha, penda, pendezwa na; vutiwa na, furahia na taka kutumia.

enbloc adj (Fr) kwa jumla; kwa pamoja.

encage vt funga tunduni.

encamp vt piga kambi. ~ment n kambi (hasa ya jeshi).

encase vt ~ (in) funga katika kasha, sanduku, funika pande zote. ~ment n.

encash vt badilisha hundi kwa fedha taslimu ~ment n.

encaustic adj -a kuokwa, -a kutia rangi kwa kuchoma pamoja na rangi.

enceinte n, adj 1 (arch) (of woman)

encounter

mjamzito. 2 n uzio (katika ngome).

encephalic adj -a ubongo. encephalitis n uvimbe wa ubongo.

enchain vt 1 vuta; funga minyororo; (fig) shika; shikilia. ~ment n.

enchant vt 1 (delight) pendeza mno, furahisha. 2 roga, sihiri; fanya mazingaombwe. ~er n mchawi wa kiume. ~eress n mchawi wa kike. ~ingly adv. ~ment n 1 uchawi; maliwazo. 2 kurogwa. 3 furaha, raha.

enchase vt tia (kama kito) katika

kiunzi k.m. pete; tia nakshi.

encircle vt zunguka, zingira; fanya duara. ~ment n.

enclair adv phrase (F)(used in telegrams, official dispatches, etc) katika lugha ya kawaida, -sio katika lugha ya mficho.

enclasp vt kumbatia.

enclave n nchi iliyozungukwa na nchi nyingine k.m. Lesotho.

enclitic n kiangama (k.m. -we katika mwanawe au -pi katika wendapi?).

enclose vt ~ (with) 1 zunguka kabisa; zungushia ukuta au boma. 2 tia/ funga (kitu) ndani (ya kasha, bahasha, furushi). enclosure n 1 kiwanja kilichozungushiwa ua au boma the enclosure of common land kuzungushia ua ardhi ya wote (kijiji, n.k.) kwa faida ya mtu binafsi. 2 (thing enclosed) kitu kilichotiwa ndani ya kingine (kama barua katika bahasha).

encode vt simba, andika katika lugha mficho.

encomium n (formal) sifa za juu kabisa. encomist n.

encompass vt zingira, zunguka, funika; jumuisha.

encore interj. Rudia! Tena! vt (of a song, etc) taka kurudiwa au kuendelea kwa wachezaji wale wale the audience ~d the singer hadhira ilimtaka mwimbaji arudie tena. n kurudia tena wimbo/mchoro, n.k. kwa mwito wa wasikilizaji.

encounter vt 1 kabiliwa na (adui,

encourage

hatari, matatizo, n.k.). 2 kutana na (rafiki) bila kutegemea. n ~ (with) pambano.

encourage vt ~ somebody in something/to do something tia moyo, tumainisha feel ~d by his progress tiwa moyo na maendeleo yake. ~ment n.

encroach vi ~ on/upon 1 twaa isiyo haki. 2 ingilia mali ya mwingine ~ on somebody's land ingilia ardhi ya mwingine. ~ment n.

encrust;incrust vt ~ (with) funika

kwa gamba; funika kwa vito au madini yenye thamani. vi tanda. ~ment n.

encumber vt ~ (with) 1 zuia, tatiza, -wa mzigo kwa, elemea be ~ed with many responsibilities sumbuliwa na majukumu mengi. 2 jaza, lundika a hall ~ ed with useless things bwalo lilojazwa vikorokoro. encumbrance n.

encylic(al) n waraka wa Baba Mtakatifu adj -a waraka wa Baba Mtakatifu.

encyclopaedia; encyclopedia n ensaiklopidia: kitabu au seti ya vitabu vinavyotoa taarifa kuhusu mambo mengi. encyclopedic/paedic adj. -a ensaiklopidia.

end n 1 mwisho, kikomo the ~ of the road mwisho wa barabara. begin/start at the wrong ~ anza vibaya. get hold of the wrong ~ of the stick elewa vibaya. keep one's ~ up (GB) endelea/wa na uso mkunjufu hata katika matatizo. at a loose ~ bila chochote cha kufanya. on ~ wima place the box on its ~ simamisha kasha wima; mfululizo, bila kukoma four hours on ~ saa nne bila kukoma. ~ on ncha zinapokutana. ~ to ~ kutana/ kutanisha ncha kwa ncha. go (in) off the deep ~ chukua bila kujizuia; shindwa kujizuia. make (both) ~s meet ishi kulingana na kipato chako. (reach) the ~ of the line/road (fig) fikia mahali ambapo huwezi tena

end

kuendelea. 2 kipande kilichobakia a cigarette ~ kipande cha sigara kilichobakia. ~ papers n kurasa tupu za mwisho wa kitabu. ~point n hatua ya mwisho ya jambo. 3 mwisho, kikomo, hatimaye the ~ of the month mwisho wa mwezi the ~ of the story mwisho wa hadithi. (be) at the ~; at the ~ (of) mwisho the fighting was at an ~ mapigano yalifikia kikomo. come to an ~ isha the conference came to an ~mkutano uliisha. come to a bad ~ isha vibaya; adhirika if you don't stop racketeering you will come to a bad ~ usipoacha ulanguzi mwishowe utaadhirika/utafungwa jela. draw to an ~ karibia mwisho. make an ~ of something; put an ~ to something komesha. in the ~ hatimaye. no ~ of (colloq) mno, sana he thinks no ~ of himself anajiona sana. without ~ pasipo kufikia mwisho, bila mwisho. 4 kifo she is nearing her ~ anakaribia kufa. 5 kusudi, madhumuni, lengo gain one's ~ pata kitu mtu alichokusudia to no ~ bila mafanikio. the ~ justifies the means (prov) kusudi zuri huhalalisha njia ya kulifikia, bora kufika. vt,vi maliza, isha the game ~s here mchezo unaishia hapa ~ your argument malizeni ubishi wenu. ~ in something -wa matokeo ya; ishia the plan ~ed in failure mpango haukufaulu. ~ off maliza he ~ed off teaching at 2.00 pm alimaliza kufundisha saa nane mchana. ~ up ishia, maliza, hitimisha if you go on stealing you will ~ up in jail ukiendelea kuiba utaishia kifungoni. ~ing n mwisho, kikomo. ~ less adj -siokuwa na mwisho, -enye kuendelea ~less chain mnyororo usiokuwa na mwisho (ambao mwisho wake umeunganishwa). ~most adj mwisho kabisa. ~ways; ~wise adv pembe hadi pembe, mwishoni, kwa (kutanguliza) mwisho.

endanger

endanger vt hatarisha, ponza.

endear vt ~ somebody/oneself to somebody fanya upendeke his kindness ~ed him to all ukarimu (wema, upaji) wake ulifanya watu wote wampende. ~ oneself to jifanya upendwe na mtu. ~ingly adv. ~ment n ubembelezi; neno, usemi wenye kuonyesha upendo k.m. mpenzi, mahabubu.

endeavour; (US endeavor) vi (formal) jaribu; jitahidi n juhudi, bidii; jitihada. (to) make an ~ fanya bidii (to) make every ~ to fanya kila jitihada.

endemic n, adj ugonjwa ulioenea

unaowapata watu fulani mara kwa mara k.m. malaria hapa Afrika Mashariki.

endogamy n ndoa ndani, ndoa kati ya watu wa ukoo mmoja.

endorse vt 1 andika jina nyuma ya/katika cheki au hati fulani, wekea mkono/sahihi (kama uthibitisho). 2 (accept) idhinisha, unga mkono. 3 (usu pass) andika kwenye leseni kwamba dereva amevunja sheria. ~ment n.

endow vt ~ (with) 1 toa fedha, mali,

n.k. kuwa wakfu. 2 be ~ed (with) jaliwa he is ~ed with great gifts amejaliwa vipaji vingi (akili, maarifa, karama, n.k.). ~ment n 1 mali iliyowekwa wakfu. 2 kipaji, majaliwa ~ment policy bima ya maisha.

endue vt (usu pass) be ~d with jaliwa na, patiwa.

endure vt,vi 1 (last) ishi, dumu, endelea. 2 (remain firm) vumilia, stahamili. endurable adj -a kuvumilia; -a kustahamilika; -a kuchukulika. enduring adj. enduringly adv. endurance n uvumilivu, ustahamilivu, jambo la kuvumilia. beyond endurance -siovumilika. endurance test n kipimo cha uvumilivu.

enema n 1 enema: uingizaji wa maji mkunduni. 2 bomba la kuingizia maji mkunduni.

engage

enemy n 1 ~ (of/to) adui. 2 the ~ majeshi ya adui. 3 mwanajeshi adui. 4 jambo linalodhuru. enmity n uadui, uhasama be at enmity with wa adui na.

energy n 1 nguvu; bidii. 2 nishati. energize vt tia nishati, changamsha. binding ~ n nishati babadu. kinetic ~ n nishati mwendo. potential ~ n nishati tuli. thermal ~ n nishati joto. energetic adj -enye nguvu, bidii, juhudi. energetically adv. energetics n elimunishati.

enervate vt dhoofisha, legeza. enervation n.

enfamille adj (F) nyumbani.

enfant terrible n (F) mtoto/kijana

mkorofi.

enfeeble vt dhoofisha, ondolea nguvu, nyong'onyeza.

enfetter vt tia pingu, zuia kama mfungwa.

enfilade vt 1 -pigia bunduki/mizinga mstari mzima. 2 panga bunduki/ mizinga ili ziweze kupiga mstari mzima. n kupiga mstari mzima.

enfold vt ~ (in) 1 funga kwa

kuzungushia. 2 kumbatia.

enforce vt ~ (on, upon) 1 lazimisha, tiisha, shurutisha utiifu; (of law) tekeleza sheria. 2 tia nguvu. ~able adj. ~ment n.

enfranchise vt 1 -pa wananchi haki ya kushiriki katika uchaguzi k.m. wa wabunge, wajumbe wa halmashauri, n.k. 2 weka huru, toa katika utumwa. ~ment n.

engage vt,vi 1 ajiri ~ an accountant ajiri mhasibu. 2 ahidi, jipa sharti, hakikishia. 3 ~ in shiriki katika, jishughulisha na ~ in politics jishughulisha na siasa. 4 be ~ed to marry chumbia; chumbiwa. 5 (usu pass) vutia nothing ~s her havutiwi na chochote. 6 (mil) shambulia, anza kupigana. 7 ~ (with) (of parts of a machine) fungamana; funganisha pamoja; (motoring) ~ the first gear weka/ingiza gea ya kwanza. 8 ~ upon anza; anzisha. engaging adj

egender

cheshi; -a kuvutia. engagingly adv. ~ment n 1 (promise) ahadi, miadi. 2 shughuli. 3 (betrothal) ahadi ya ndoa/uchumba. ~ ment ring n pete ya uchumba. 4 mapigano, vita. 5 kwa gea. ~d adj 1 -enye kazi. 2 (telephone) inatumika, inaongea.

engender vt sababisha crime is often ~ed by poverty uhalifu agh husababishwa na umaskini.

engine n 1 injini. ~ driver n 1 dereva (hasa) wa treni. 2 (old use) mashine au zana. ~er n 1 mhandisi. 2 (US) dereva wa treni. 3 the ~ers n kikosi cha ufundi/uhandisi. er vt 1 handisi. 2 panga au anzisha jambo fulani. ~er a project panga na anzisha mradi. ~ering n uhandisi.

English adj -a Kiingereza, -a Uingereza n 1 Kiingereza. the Queen's/King's E~ Kiingereza sanifu in plain E~ kwa Kiingereza chepesi. 2 (pl) the E~ Waingereza.

engorge vt -la kwa wingi na kwa pupa. ~ment n.

engraft vt ~ (into/upon) pandisha/ unganisha (mche katika shina la mmea mwingine). ~ (in) (fig) zoeza mwingine mawazo fulani, ingiza (moyoni/akilini mwa mwingine).

engrave vt ~ on/upon. 1 chonga,

tia/kata nakshi. 2 ~ with chonga maandishi. 3 ~ on/upon sisitiza sana ili mtu apokee na kukumbuka; (fig) kaa/weka katika kumbukumbu. engraving n sanaa ya utiaji nakshi; picha, sanamu iliyonakshiwa.

engross vt 1 (occupy, absorb) (usu

pass) jishughulisha sana na he was ~ed in his work aliizamia kabisa kazi yake; (active) shughulisha, vuta. 2 vt (legal) andika (k.m. hati ya kisheria) kwa maandishi makubwa au kwa mtindo rasmi wa kisheria. ~ment n. ~ing adj -a kuvutia sana.

engulf vt meza (kama mawimbi yamezavyo mashua). ~ment n.

enhance vt ongeza, zidisha (ubora, moto, nguvu, n.k.). ~ment n.

enigma n fumbo, swali, mtu/kitu/hali

enough

inayotatanisha. ~tic adj -a kutatanisha, -a fumbo. ~tically adv.

enjoin vt 1 ~ (on somebody) agiza;

amuru. ~ (to) amuru. 2 ~ from kataza.

enjoy vt 1 faidi, furahia. 2 faidika na. vi 1 ~ oneself furahia, furahi. 2 -wa na. 3 ona raha, furahi. ~able adj. ~ ably adv. ~ment n 1 raha, furaha; ridhaa. 2 milki na matumizi; -kuwa na the ~ment of good health kuwa na siha.

enkindle vt washa, amsha, chochea.

enlarge vt,vi kuza, ongeza, ongezeka, tanua. ~ on/upon elezea zaidi. ~ment n ~ of photograph kukuza picha.

enlighten vt elimisha, taalamisha; ongoa. ~ed part adj. -enye kuelimika, -enye kutaalamika; -ongofu. ~ment n.

enlist vt,vi 1 ~ (in) andika/ jiandikisha, andikisha (jeshi). ~ed man n askari. 2 ~ (in, for) pata msaada, saidia. ~ment n.

enliven vt changamsha.

en masse adj (F) kwa jumla, -ote

pamoja, kwa pamoja.

enmesh vt ~ (in) tatiza; tega, kamata, zonga.

ennoble vt 1 fanya mtu awe muungwana. 2 adilisha, kuza (hadhi).

ennui n uchovu (wa akili).

enormous adj -kubwa mno; -a kupita kiasi. ~ly adj. ~ness n.

enormity n 1 uovu uliokithiri. 2 uhalifu mkubwa. 3 ukubwa uliopita kiasi.

enough adj -a kutosha. more than ~ mno, zaidi ya kiasi cha kutosha n kadiri ya kutosha have ~ shiba, tosheka, kinai ~ is as good as a feast shibe ni sawa na karamu. be ~ tosha adv kiasi cha kutosha/kufaa has been good ~ to give me kwa hisani yake amenipa it is ~ basi! sure ~ kama tulivyotazamia. oddly/ strangely ~ kwa ajabu, ni ajabu kwamba.

enquire; enquiry

enquire; enquiry n see inquire; inquiry.

enrage vt kasirisha, ghadhibisha.

enrapture vt pendeza mno,

furahisha sana.

enrich vt ~ (with) 1 tajirisha; sitawisha. 2 (of soil) rutubisha. ~ment n.

enrol vt,vi ~ (in) andikisha;

jiandikisha ~ for a course jiandikisha kuchukua kozi. ~ment n.

en route adv. ~ (from/to) njiani, katika safari, kupitia kwenda mahali.

ensconce vt weka he ~d himself on the couch alikaa kwenye kochi.

ensemble n (F) 1 jumla. 2 (music)

kipande cha muziki kinachoshirikisha wote, kikundi cha wanamuziki wapigao pamoja (kidogo kuliko bendi). 3 (trade use) suti ya kike.

enshrine vt ~ (in) (formal) tunza,

hifadhi sana.

enshroud vt funika kabisa.

ensign n 1 (esp naval) bendera. 2 (US)

cheo cha chini cha askari wa majini. 3 (old use) tepe (inayoonyesha cheo), askari aliyebeba bendera ya kikosi.

enslave vt tia utumwani; tawala kabisa (moyo, tamaa, akili) be ~d by one's passions tawaliwa kabisa na tamaa za mwili. ~ment n.

ensnare vt ~ (in) tega, kamata kwa hila/werevu.

ensue vi ~ (from) tokana na, tokea/ tukia kwa sababu ya, fuatia, tokea baadaye. ensuing adj liyofuata.

ensure vt,vi (US = insure) 1 hakikisha. 2 ~ against salimisha, okoa, linda, hami. 3 -pa, pata. 4 (formerly) see insure.

entail vt ~ (on) lazimisha, fanya iwezekane, hitaji, taka; (leg) weka wakfu. n wakfu.

entangle vt ~ (in) tega, tatanisha, tatiza, zongomeza; (fig) ingia au ingiza matatizoni/katika hali ngumu. ~ment n 1 mtego, tatizo. 2 (pl) mtego wa seng'enge.

entente n (F) maelewano. ~ cordiale n maelewano (hasa kati ya serikali

entertain

mbili).

enter vt,vi 1 ingia; (stage direction in a printed play) ~ Hamlet/Kinjeketile Hamlet/Kinjeketile anaingia. 2 jiunga na shiriki, -wa mwanachama/ mshiriki wa. 3 ~ into (with) anza, fungua, fungulia. ~ into anza kushughulika na ~ into details anza kushughulika kwa undani. ~ into somebody's feelings hurumia, elewa kwa ndani ~ into the spirit of the occasion jiingiza kikamilifu katika shughuli, -wa sehemu ya. 4 ~ (in/up) ingiza/orodhesha (majina, taarifa kitabuni). 5 ~ for; ~ somebody for jiandikisha; andikisha kwa mashindano. 6 ~ on/upon ingia, anza kumiliki.

entrance n 1 mlango/lango/njia ya kupitia, kuingia, kutokea kwa mchezaji katika jukwaa. 2 kuingia (to) force ~ ingia kwa nguvu. 3 haki ya kuingilia. fees ~ n malipo, kiingilio. ~ examination n mtihani wa kuingilia. entrant n 1 mwingiaji. 2 mshindani. entry n 1 kuingia. 2 mlango; ruhusa ya kuingia. no entry hakuna ruhusa kuingia. 3 ingizo. 4 (of a dictionary) kitomeo. 5 orodha/idadi ya washiriki katika mashindano.

enteric adj -a matumbo ~ fever homa ya matumbo, taifodi. enteritis n mwako wa tumbo.

enterprise n 1 jambo kubwa (hasa la ujasiri). 2 moyo wa utendaji, uhodari he has no ~ hana bidii. 3 shughuli commercial ~ shughuli za biashara. enterprising adj jasiri, hodari. enterprisingly adv.

entertain vt 1 ~ (to) kirimu, karibisha. 2 burudisha (to) ~ angels unawares kuwakaribisha wakuu bila kuwafahamu. 3 ~ (with) pendeza, furahisha. 4 (consider) wa tayari kufikiria, kuridhia, kuwazia ~ an appeal kubali kusikiliza rufani ~ an illusion kuwaza na kuwazua juu ya jambo lisilowezekana, kufurahia kama kwamba linawezekana.

enthral

~ment n takrima; burudani. ~ment allowance n jamala/takrima. ~ing adj -a kupendeza, -a kufurahisha. ~ingly adv. ~er n.

enthral vt 1 vutia sana/kabisa furahisha sana. 2 fanya mtumwa, tia utumwani; (usu fig) teka ~led by woman's beauty tekwa na uzuri wa mwanamke.

enthrone vt (of king or bishop) tawaza, simika; (fig) taadhimu. ~ment n.

enthuse vi ~ over (colloq) onyesha

shauku. enthusiasm n shauku. enthusiast n mwenye shauku a sports enthusiast shabiki, mpenzi wa michezo (riadha). enthusiast adj -a shauku (to) become enthusiastic over something -wa na shauku kubwa kuhusu kitu. enthusiastically adv.

entice vt laghai; shawishi. (to) ~ away from shawishi aache jambo moja ashike jingine. ~ment n.

entire adj zima, -ote the ~ village was destroyed kijiji kizima kiliharibiwa. n mnyama asiyehasiwa. ~ly adv. ~ty n.

entitle vt 1 (be ~d) itwa, -wa na jina a book ~d "Mashetani" kitabu kinachoitwa Mashetani. 2 ~d to do something -pewa haki (ya) you are not ~d to have an office car huna haki ya kuwa na gari la kazini. ~ment n.

entity n 1 kitu/chombo kamili. 2 kuishi, kuwepo.

entomb vt zika; -wa kaburi la ~ment n.

entomology n entomolojia: elimu wadudu. entomological adj. entomologist n mwanafunzi/bingwa wa elimu wadudu.

entourage n msafara (wa kiongozi mashuhuri) Presidential ~ msafara wa Rais.

entr'acte n mapumziko (katikati ya

mchezo).

entrails n matumbo, utumbo.

entrain vt,vi (of troops) pakia, ingia (katika gari la moshi).

envy

entrance vt ~ (at, with) vutia/pendeza/furahishwa na.

entrap vt (esp passive) 1 nasa mtegoni. 2 ~somebody (into doing something) ponza tegea. ~ment n mtego.

entreat vt sihi. ~ing adj. ~ingly adv ~y n kusihi.

entree n (F) 1 ruhusa/haki ya kuingia. 2 (course of meal) chakula kinacholetwa baada ya kula samaki na kabla ya nyama.

entrench vt 1 zungushia handaki,

zungushia boma (la kulinda maji, kambi, jeshi). 2 fanya madhubuti. ~ed clauses n vifungu (vilivyofungwa) vya katiba, fungu madhubuti. ~ment n.

entrepot n 1 bohari. 2 eneo la biashara (ya ndani na nje), kituo cha kuhifadhi na kusambaza bidhaa.

entrepreneur n mjasiriamali, mwekezi, mwaminishi. ~ship n.

entrust vt amini, aminisha (kukamilisha au kulinda kitu), kabidhi.

entwine also entwist vt ~ (with/ round) sokota, pota, nyonga (kamba).

enumerate vt taja moja moja, hesabu. enumeration n.

enunciate vt,vi 1 taja, tamka wazi, tangaza, hubiri. 2 elezea nadharia wazi au kwa uwazi. enunciation n.

envelop vt ~(in) funga, gubika, funika. envelope n 1 bahasha. 2 gubiko la baluni au chomboanga.

envenom vt 1 tia sumu/uchungu/ukali. 2 (fig)chukiza.

environs n 1 maeneo yanayozunguka mji. 2 wanamazingira. environ vt zunguka, zingira. environment n mazingira, hali. environmental adj environmentally adv. environmentalist n.

envisage vt taamali, hisi, fikiria ~ a danger hisi hatari.

envoy n mjumbe (wa serikali), balozi

mdogo.

envy n husuda, wivu, kijicho out of ~ kwa wivu, kwa uhasidi filled with

enzyme

~of me/at my success jaa kijicho kwa mafanikio yangu, wanatoa kashfa yote kwa sababu ya kijicho tu. vt onea husuda, husudu, onea wivu; tamani (mali au haki ya mwingine) I ~ you na kuonea wivu I ~ your good fortune nakuonea kijicho kwa bahati yako nzuri, ninahusudu bahati yako. envious adj -enye kijicho. (to) make somebody envious fanya aone kijicho. enviable adj 1 -a kuleta wivu, -a kulilia ngoa. 2 -a kufanikiwa sana, a kuhusudiwa. 3 -enye husuda; hasidi.

enzyme n kimeng'enya.

eon n see aeon.

epaulet; epaulette n mapurendi; nyota

za mabegani (kwa wanajeshi).

epenthesis n kuongeza herufi au sauti

katika neno. epenthetic adj.

epergne n bakuli la kuwekea maua

ephemeral adj -a muda mfupi, -a kupita.

epic n utendi adj -a utendi; (colloq)

-nayofaa kusherehekewa, -a kishujaa, -a kama utendi of ~ proportions kubwa mno.

epicentre n kitovu cha zilizala.

epicure n mteuzi, machagu, kidomo. ~an adj (person) -enye kupenda anasa. epicurianism n.

epicycle n (geom) duara linalozunguka nje ya duara jingine.

epidemic n magonjwa ya mlipuko adj(magonjwa) -a mlipuko. epidemiology n elimu ya magonjwa ya mlipuko.

epidermis n ngozi ya nje. epidermic adj.

epiglottis n kidakatonge, kimio.

epigram n shairi fupi au usemi unaochekesha. ~atic adj (of a person) -enye mafumbo.

epigraph n mchoro, maandishi (juu ya sanamu, sarafu n.k).

epilepsy n kifafa. epileptic adj -a

kifafa. n mtu mwenye kifafa.

epilogue n hitimisho la kazi ya sanaa agh. shairi.

equal

Epiphany n Epifania, sikukuu ya Majusi.

episcopal adj -a maaskofu, -a kuhusu maaskofu. the ~ church n (esp US, Scot) Kanisa la Kianglikana. ~ian adj mfuasi/mwumini wa Kanisa hili. episcopate n 1 kazi ya uaskofu, ofisi/enzi/kipindi cha uaskofu. 2 (bishops) jamii ya maaskofu.

episode n tukio/kisa katika mfululizo wa matukio. episodic adj.

epistemology n epistemolojia: elimu ya ufahamu.

epistle n (old use or joc) barua,

waraka. the E~s n Nyaraka za Mitume katika Agano Jipya. epistolary adj -a waraka.

epistrophe n neno linalorudiwa mwisho wa kila fungu la maneno.

epitaph n wasifu wa marehemu

(agh. huandikwa kaburini).

epithet n wasifu, sifa (maelezo) inayoongezwa katika jina la mtu (kitu) kuashiria tabia yake.

epitome n 1 kifano. 2 muhtasari, ufupisho wa habari. epitomize vt 1 fanya muhtasari. 2 -wa kifano cha.

epoch n (mwanzo wa) kipindi

maalum katika historia ~ making adj -enye kuanza kipindi kipya cha historia. ~al adj.

eponym n jina la mtu/shetani/kitu litolewalo kwa mtu/kitu mahali fulani.

epsilon n (Greek) epsiloni (herufi E,e). Epsom salts n haluli ya chumvi.

equable adj 1 (of climate) sawasawa, -siobadilikabadilika an ~ climate hali ya hewa isiyobadilikabadilika. 2 (of persons) he has an ~ temper habadilikibadiliki (kitabia). equably adv.

equal adj 1 sawa, sawasawa, -a kulingana twice three is ~ to six mbili mara tatu ni/sawa na sita all things being ~ mambo yote yakiwa sawa. on ~ terms kwa usawa (to) get ~ with somebody kulingana na fulani. 2 ~ to something/to doing something -enye uwezo/ujasiri be ~

equate

to the ocasion weza, mudu, -toshindwa. are you ~ to it? waiweza? n 1 (in age) hirimu, marika. live as ~s ishi kama marika kwa usawa. 2 (in condition, quality) mwenzi she has no ~ hana kifani. vt -wa sawa na, lingana na, landana. ~ity n. ~itarian n see egalitarian. ~ize vt sawazisha. ~ization n ulinganifu, usawazishaji. ~izer n kisawazishaji. ~ly adv.

equate vt ~ (with) linganisha na, sawazisha. equation n 1 equation (with) kusawazisha, kulinganisha. 2 (maths) mlinganyo. equation of a circle mlinganyo wa duara.

equanimity n utulivu (wa moyo, tabia), upole.

equator n ikweta, istiwai. ~ial adj -a

ikweta, -a karibu na ikweta.

equerry n mpambe/katikiro wa

mfalme (rais, malkia).

equestrian adj -a kupanda farasi. ~ skill n ustadi wa kupanda farasi ~statue sanamu ya mawe ya mpanda farasi. n mpanda farasi stadi. equi (prefix) sawa. ~angular adj -enye pembe sawa. ~distant (from) adj -enye umbali sawa. n (maths) umbali sawa. ~lateral adj -enye pande zote sawa. ~lateral triangle n pembetatu sawa. ~librate vt sawazisha, linganisha. ~libration n. (in circus) ~librist n mnegaji (juu ya kamba), msawazishaji, mtu mwenye ujuzi wa kusawazisha katika mizani. ~librium n 1 ulinganifu, usawa. be in ~librium simama sawa, -wa na ulinganifu, tulia. 2 (maths) msawazo. ~librium price n bei sawa (ambapo bidhaa na mahitaji vinalingana).

equine adj (formal) -a farasi, -a kama farasi.

equinox n ikwinoksi: siku mlingano

(ambapo jua huvuka mstari wa ikweta na usiku na mchana kuwa sawa). equinoctial adj -a (karibu ya) ikwinoksi.

equip vt ~ (with) tayarisha, andaa,

zatiti. ~age n (former times) zana za

erg

safari, gari na masaisi. ~ment n 1 (collective noun) vifaa. 2 uwekaji/ maandalizi ya vifaa.

equipoise n 1 ulinganifu, mlingano. 2 kilinganishi.

equitation n (usu joc) upandaji farasi. ~ school n shule ya upandaji farasi. equity n 1 usawa, sawa, haki. 2 (often pl) hisa zisizo na riba ya kudumu. equitable adj -a sawa, -a haki equitable interest masilahi ya haki equitable distribution mgawano sawa. equitably adv.

equivalent n adj 1 ~ (to) -a kulingana, sawa, -linganifu, mamoja. ~ equations n milinganyo sawa. ~ sets n seti sawa. 2 kisawe. equivalence n usawa, ulinganifu.

equivocal adj 1 (of words) -a kauleni,

-enye maana mbili au zaidi. 2 -a shaka. 3 (of character) -enye kupotosha, babaishi. equivocate vi tatiza maneno, sema maneno yenye maana isiyo dhahiri (hasa kwa kusudi la kutatiza au kudanganya). equivocation n 1 matumizi ya kauli tata. 2 kupotosha watu. 3 misemo isiyo dhahiri.

era n enzi.

eradicate vt ng'oa, futa, komesha. eradicable adj. eradication n.

erase vt futa, pangusa. erasable adj -enye kufutika. ~r n kifutio. erasure n mfuto.

ere adv, prep (old use, or poet) kabla. ~ long kabla ya muda mrefu. ~now kabla ya sasa.

erect adj -a kusimama wima. ~ly adv. ~ness n. vt 1 (construct) jenga, unda. 2 simamisha, simika. ~ile adj (physiol) -a kuweza kusimika/ kudinda/kusimama/kuwa gumu/ kutanua mishipa ya damu. erection n 1 usimikaji, usimamishwaji; (physiol) kusimika/kudinda dhakari/ kinembe. 2 ujenzi; jengo. erector n mtu/chombo kinachosimika/ simamisha kitu fulani.

eremite n see hermit.

erg n (phys) egi: kizio cha kazi (kipimo

ergo

cha metriki cha kani au nishati).

ergo adv (Lat) (usu hum) basi, kwa

hiyo, hivyo.

ergonomics n taaluma ya mazingira, hali na ufanisi wa wafanyakazi (wanaohusika na mashine).

ermine n 1 jamii ya kicheche wa

Ulaya. 2 ngozi ya kicheche. 3 vazi la ngozi ya kicheche (agh vazi la jaji).

erode vt,vi (of acids, rains etc) momonyoa. erosion n soil erosion mmomonyoko wa udongo. erosive adj.

erogenous adj -enye kutia nyege. ~ zone n sehemu za unyegevu/ nyegereshi

erotic adj -a ashiki. ~a n pl vitabu, picha, mashairi ya kutia ashiki/nyege. ~ism n ashiki. erotomania n wehu wa mapenzi.

err vi (formal) kosa, potoka it is better

to ~ on the side of mercy afadhali kuwa mwingi wa huruma kuliko kuwa mwingi wa mateso. ~oneous adj -enye kosa, -sio sahihi. ~oneusly adv. ~oneusness n kosa. spelling ~ors n makosa ya tahajia clerical ~ kosa la maandishi. ~or less adj -siokosa/waa. in ~or kwa makosa. ~atic adj 1 (of person or his behaviour) -siotabirika, -enye kukosakosa. 2 -potovu; (of things, e.g. a clock) -enye mwendo usioaminika. ~atically adv. ~ atum n kosa (katika uandikaji au uchapaji) an ~atum slip karatasi yenye orodha ya makosa katika kitabu.

errand n 1 safari fupi k.m. kwenda benki na kurudi.to run ~s/to go on ~s for somebody tumwa na mtu. ~ boy n tarishi. 2 nia/madhumuni ya safari hiyo what is his ~? ameendea nini? a fool's ~ n safari ya kuzurura.

errant adj, n 1 -enye kuvinjari, -a kutembeatembea kutafuta mambo ya ujasiri (uhodari n.k.). 2 -enye kwenda ovyo/kupotea; -bembe; tembezi. 3 -a kukosea, -enye kupotoka. ~ly adv.

erstwhile adv zamani, kale.

escape

eructation n (formal) kokomoko, cheuo, mbweu agh. ya volkano.

erudite adj (formal) alimu, -enye maarifa, -enye elimu, juzi. ~ly adv. erudition n maarifa, elimu, ujuzi.

erupt vi fumuka, ripuka, foka, (hasa kwa volkano). ~ion n kufoka kwa volkano; (fig) kuzuka (kwa vita, magonjwa, n.k.); kutokwa na upele, meno. ~ive adj.

erysipelas n (Med) erisipela: ugonjwa wa ngozi uletao homa na ngozi kuwa nyekundu.

escalate vt,vi ongeza, endeleza,

shadidisha hatua kwa hatua. escalation n. escalator n eskaleta: ngazi za umeme katika jengo.

escalope n kipande cha mnofu

(bila mfupa).

escapade n tendo la ujasiri, utundu,

utani linalosababisha maneno au matata.

escape n 1 kutoroka, utorokaji. 2 kuokoka, kuponyoka; njia/chombo cha kuokolea/kutolea kitu/mtu he had a narrow ~ aliponea chupuchupu. ~ velocity n kasi mwelekeo ya kuponyokea: kasi inayohitajika kukiwezesha chombo fulani (hasa cha anga) kujitoa kwenye eneo la nguvu za mvutano fulani; (of gas, smoke, etc) mvujo, kuvuja; chombo cha kutolea mvuke, gasi, n.k. an ~ pipe bomba la kutolea moshi, mvuke n.k. an ~ valve vali ya kutolea hewa, kupumulia n.k. 3 kimbilio: kitu kinachobadilisha/sahaulisha mawazo kwa muda, mfano muziki, michezo, kileo, n.k. ~e n mtoro, mfungwa aliyetoroka. escapism n ukwepaji (wa matatizo). escapist n mkwepaji, mtu mwenye tabia ya kukwepa/ kukimbia (mambo). vt,vi 1 ~ (from) toroka, kimbia, toka the prisoner has ~d mfungwa ametoroka gas ~s from an open pipe gasi hutokea kwenye bomba lililo wazi. 2 okoka, nusurika, epa he ~d from injury amenusurika. 3 -toangaliwa, -

escarpment

totambuliwa; sahauliwa, pitiwa this issue ~d my notice suala hili limenipitia.

escarpment n mharara, genge.

eschatology n (rel) tawi la theolojia linalojishughulisha na kifo, hukumu, pepo na jehanam.

eschew vt (formal) epukana na, kwepa. escort n 1 mlinzi, kikundi cha walinzi. 2 msindikizaji. vi fuatana na, sindikiza.

escritoire n dawati, meza yenye

saraka.

escutcheon n 1 ngao yenye nembo ya cheo au nasaba ya mtu. a blot on one's ~ doa/waa kwenye sifa ya mtu. 2 (of a padlock) kifuniko cha tundu la ufunguo.

esophagus n (also oesophagus) umio.

esoteric adj -a ndani, -a siri; -a kuhusu kikundi fulani tu, faragha (k.m. siri za jandoni).

espalier n 1 mitambazi; mimea inayotambaa kwenye uchaga. 2 uchaga ambamo mimea hutambaa.

especial adj -a kipekee, mahsusi; maalumu for your ~ benefit kwa faida yako mahsusi. ~ly adv zaidi; hasa, hususa.

esperanto n esperanto: lugha bandia iliyoundwa kutumiwa na watu wote duniani.

espionage n ujasusi.

esplanade n uwanja; barabara pana

hasa kando ya bahari, kwa watu kutembelea.

espouse vt (of man) 1 oa. 2 (support) unga mkono. espousal n 1 utetezi. 2 (old use usu pl) espousals n posa, ndoa.

espresso n ~ coffee n kahawa inayote-ngenezwa kwa mvuke mkali, spreso. esprit n (F) uchangamfu, werevu. ~ de corps n moyo wa mshikamano, kupenda, kusitawisha na kuheshimu jamii au shirika.

espy vt (usu joc) chungulia, gundua

(kosa), ona.

Esq (abbr) Esquire.

Esquire n (GB) cheo cha heshima

esteem

kinachoandikwa baada ya jina la ukoo, huandikwa Esq. baada ya jina k.m. John Smith Esq., badala ya Mr. John Smith.

essay1 n insha. ~ist n mwandishi wa insha.

essay2 n (effort) juhudi; jaribio vt 1 jaribu; jitahidi. 2 (arch) (try, prove) hakiki, pima.

essence n 1 asili; nafsi; dhati; hali. 2 (extract, perfume) uto; uturi; marashi; (domestic science) ariki. 3 moyo, kiini, kitovu ~ of the matter kiini/kitovu cha jambo time is the ~ of the contract muda au wakati ndio kiini cha mkataba. essential adj 1 -a lazima, muhimu it is essential that ni muhimu kwamba. 2 -a msingi. essentials n (usu pl) mambo ya msingi, mambo muhimu. essentially adv kimsingi.

establish vt 1 weka, anzisha, unda, asisi. 2 (make firm) imarisha, weka imara, zatiti, rasimisha; thibitisha. 3 (appoint) weka, amuru, taifisha (kanisa) he ~ed his son in his farm alimweka mtoto wake katika shamba lake. 4 (prove) kubalisha, shuhudia, sadikisha ~ a reputation for jenga jina la. ~ed adj imara, thabiti, madhubuti. ~ment n 1 kuimarisha, kuweka, kuanzisha. 2 serikali; shirika; kampuni, n.k.; dini ya taifa kisheria; (of a department) idara na ikama. 3 E ~ment n (GB) wenye nchi, wenye madaraka.

estaminet (US) n kijimkahawa cha bia, mvinyo, kahawa, n.k.

estate n 1 shamba. ~ agent n mkadamu, wakala: mnunuzi/mwuzaji wa kati. housing ~ n eneo la makazi. industrial ~ n eneo la viwanda. fourth ~ n (waandishiwa) habari. 2 milki, mali. personal ~ n mali ya mtu binafsi. 3 tabaka la watu. 4 (old use) hali. 5 stesheni wagoni: gari dogo lenye nafasi ya abiria na mizigo ndani.

esteem vt 1 (formal) sharifu, enzi, tukuza. your ~ed letter barua yako

esthetic

tukufu. 2 (consider) ona, chukulia ~ it a privilege ona/chukulia jambo kuwa ni heshima. n taadhima, enzi. estimable adj -a kusifiwa. estimation n 1 heshima, sifa be held in high estimation tukuzwa, heshimiwa sana. 2 estimation (judgement) maoni, tafkira in my estimation kwa maoni yangu.

esthetic adj see aesthetic.

estimate vt,vi ~ (at) kadiria, kisia. make ~ fanya makadirio. estimative adj. n makadirio. The E ~s makadirio ya matumizi na mapato ya Serikali at a rough ~ kwa kukadiria/kukisia. estimator n.

estop vt (leg) kataza, zuia, zibia. be ~ped zibiwa. ~pel n (leg) katazo, zuio, kuzibia, kuzibiwa: kanuni ya sheria inayomzuia mtu kukana au kukanusha ushahidi aliokwishatoa na kusema kuwa ni kweli.

estrange vt ~ (from) farikisha, tenganisha. become ~d from tenganishwa na, farakana na. ~ment n.

estuary n mlango wa mto.

et al adv (pamoja) na wengine.

et cetera (Lat usu shortened to etc.) 1na kadhalika. 2 (pl) ~s n mengineyo, vitu vya ziada.

etch vt chora juu ya metali kwa kutumia asidi kwa ajili ya kutolea nakala; tengeneza picha kwa asidi; (fig) ganda akilini. ~ing n sanaa ya uchoraji wa kutumia asidi; nakala ya picha iliyochorwa na asidi. ~er n mchoraji asidi.

eternal adj 1 -a milele, -a daima ~ life uzima wa milele. 2 (colloq) isiyoisha. the ~ triangle n mgogoro wa mapenzi ya wawili kwa mmoja n 1 the E~ n Mungu. 2 kitu kinachodumu milele. ~ly adv. eternity n 1 milele, daima dawama, (the next world) ahera, kuzimuni. 2 an eternity n muda mrefu. 3 (pl) ukweli wa milele.

ether n 1 (phy, chem) etha: aina ya nusu kaputi. 2 (poet) anga ya juu.

eunuch

~eal adj 1 (chem) -a etha. 2 (poet) -a mbinguni, -a peponi, kuliko -a duniani.

ethic n an ~ n mfumo wa maadili. ~s n (pl) 1 maadili. 2 elimuadili. ~al adj.

Ethiopian n 1 Mhabeshi. 2 adj -a kihabeshi.

ethnic adj -a kabila/mbari au makabila ya walimwengu; (colloq) -a kikundi cha utamaduni fulani. ~ ally adv. ethnography n ethnografia: maelezo ya kisayansi kuhusu mbari, mila, utamaduni n.k. ya binadamu. ethnographer n. ethnographic adj. ethnology n ethnolojia: sayansi ya makabila/mbari za binadamu, mahusiano kati yao. ethnologist n Mwethnolojia.

ethos n maadili ya jamii au taifa.

ethyl n ethili: radikali ya kikaboni itokanayo na ethani. ~ alcohol n alkoholi ethili.

etiology n (med) elimu ya chanzo cha

magonjwa; utoaji wa sababu za magonjwa.

etiquette n adabu, taratibu za itifaki/ mahusiano, miiko ~ of the bar adabu ya uwakili professional ~ adabu ya weledi/utaalamu; miiko ya kazi.

etude n (mus) utungo wa muziki unaotumiwa kama zoezi.

etymology n etimolojia: elimu ya asili na historia ya neno; maelezo ya asili na historia ya maneno. etymologist n. etymologic (al) adj.

eucalyptus n (bot) kalitusi, mkalitusi.

Eucharist n (rel) Ekaristi. Holy E~ n

Ekaristi Takatifu; Karamu ya Bwana. ~ic(al) adj.

eugenics n yujeniki, udhibiti hali:

sayansi ya uzalishaji watoto wenye afya (kwa nia ya kustawisha hazina ya jeni ya watu).

eulogize vt sifu sana katika hotuba au maandishi. eulogist n. eulogistic adj. eulogy n maneno ya kusifu; taabini.

eunuch n towashi.

eupeptic

eupeptic adj -enye mmeng'enyo mzuri

(wa chakula tumboni). eupepsia n.

euphemism n usafidi, tasifida: (mifano ya) matumizi ya maneno ya staha badala ya yale yenyewe k.m. aga dunia badala ya kufa. euphemistic adj. euphemistically adv.

euphony n utamu wa sauti; sauti ya

kupendeza. euphonic; euphonious adj.

euphoria n wingi wa furaha, hali ya kufurahia. euphoric adj.

euphuism n mbwembwe katika

mwandiko na kusema.

Eurasian n chotara wa Mzungu na Mwasia, -enye wazazi wa Kizungu na Kiasia adj -a Ulaya na Asia.

eureka interj nimeipata!

eurhythmics n ulinganishaji wa mwendo wa mwili hasa kwa mfumo wa kufanya mazoezi ya mwili kwa muziki.

Europe n Ulaya. Eurodollar n dola ya Marekani iliyo katika benki za Ulaya. ~an n Mzungu adj -a kizungu. ~anize vt fanya kizungu E~ an Economic Community n Jumuiya ya Uchumi ya Ulaya.

Euro-vision n. mfumo wa televisheni

ya Ulaya.

euthanasia n eutanasia: kifo cha huruma (kwa mgonjwa aliyeteseka sana kwa maradhi yasiyotibika).

evacuate vt,vi 1 hama. 2 ~ somebody hamisha. 3 (of bowel) nya. evacuation n. evacuee n mtu anayehamishwa/anayenyeshwa.

evade vt 1 (of a blow, attack, obstacle) epa, epuka. 2 (of duty) kwepa, tega. ~ paying tax kwepa kulipa kodi. evasion n 1 kuepa, kukwepa; werevu. 2 kisingizio, maneno ya kukwepa resort to evasions chenga, danganya. evasive adj -a kuepaepa, -a kukwepa. evasively adv. evasiveness n.

evaluate vt tathmini. evaluation n tathmini. evaluator n mthamini.

evanescent adj -enye kusahaulika

upesi; -a kufifia; -a kupita.

evening

evanescence n.

evangelical adj 1 -a kiinjili. 2 -a kiprotestanti, -a kilokole. n mlokole. evangelist n mwinjilisti, mmoja kati ya waandishi wa injili (John, Luka, Matayo, Marko). evangelism n. uinjilisti; ulokole. evangelistic adj. evangelize vt fundisha Injili; shawishi mtu kuingia ukristu.

evaporate vt,vi 1 vukiza; (be absorbed) nywewa. 2 toweka; fariki dunia. evaporation n mvukizo.

Eve n (in the Bible story of the Creation) Hawa, Eva, mwanamke wa kwanza.

eve n mkesha Christmas E~ Mkesha wa Noeli.

even1 adj 1 (level) sawasawa, bapa. 2 linganifu, -enye urari. 3 (of temper) tulivu, -siokasirika kwa urahisi. 4 (of amounts, distances, values) imara, isiyobadilika be/get ~with somebody lipiza kisasi. ~ odds n matumaini sawa at an ~ pace kwa muda/mwendo usiobadilika. break ~ (colloq) -topata faida wala hasara. 5 sawa. an ~ chance n fursa sawa. ~ handed adj -a haki. 6 (of numbers) shufwa. ~ numbers n namba shufwa. ~ powers n vipeo shufwa vt sawazisha. make ~/~ up linganisha, sawazisha. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

even2 adv 1 (used to invite a comparison between what happened and what might have happened) He never ~ opened the letters hata barua hakuzifungua kamwe ~ now she does not believe me hata sasa haniamini. ~ so hata hivyo. 2 ~ if/ though (to call attention to the extreme nature of what to follow) hata kama ~ if you die hata ukifa ~ if you go, it is all the same to me hata kama ukienda ni mamoja kwangu.

even3 n (poet) jioni. ~song n Sala ya Jioni (kwa kabila la Kiingereza). ~tide n (poet) jioni.

evening n 1 jioni. 2 (attrib) ~ dress n

event

vazi la jioni. ~ paper n gazeti la mchana/jioni. ~ prayer n sala ya jioni.

event n 1 tukio. in the natural/ normal/usual course of ~s kwa mfuatano wa mambo. 2 kutokea. 3 matokeo. at all ~s chochote kile kiwacho. in that ~ kama hivyo ndivyo. in the ~ kama inavyotokea. 4 shindano. ~ful adj.

eventual adj -a baadaye; hatimaye. ~ly adv mwishowe.

ever adv 1 (any time) wakati wowote

nothing ~ happens here kwa wakati wowote hakuna kinacho- fanyika hapa. 2 wakati wowote hadi sasa have you ~ been there umepata kufika mahali pale. 3 kuliko wakati wowote it is darker than ~ kuna kiza kuliko wakati wowote mwingine. 4 (chiefly in phrases) daima, kila mara. for ~ and ~ dumu daima, daima dawamu ~since I was a boy tangu nilipokuwa kijana. 5 (colloq) run as fast as you ~ can kimbia kasi kadiri unavyoweza. 6 how did you ~manage? uliwezaje kweli? did you ~ ! Loo! did you ~ hear such a story umewahi kusikia hadithi ya aina hii. 7 (old use) daima I shall ~ be at your service nitakuwa daima tayari kukutumikia. 8 yours ~ (used at the end of the letter) wako daima. 9 ~ so, ~ such a sana. ~green adj (tree, shrub) -siokauka, -enye majani mwaka mzima. n mmea wenye majani mwaka mzima. ~lasting adj 1 -a milele, -a kudumu ~lasting life uzima wa milele. 2 -sioisha ~ lasting quarrels ugomvi usioisha n the E~ lasting n Mungu. ~lastingly adv kila wakati. ~more adv milele for ~ hata milele.

every adj 1 kila. ~ thing pron kila kitu you have ~ reason to be happy una kila sababu ya kufurahi. 2 -ote she used ~ cent alitumia fedha zote he ate ~ single/last bit of the food alikula chakula chote. 3 ~ time adv kila mara. he comes late ~ time

evolve

anachelewa kila mara. ~ one of them kila mmoja; wote (kwa jumla). in ~ way kwa kila hali. ~body/ one pron kila mtu. ~ day pron kila siku adj -a kawaida my ~ day clothes nguo zangu za kawaida. ~ where adv kila mahali. ~ now and again/ ~ now and then/~ so often mara moja moja. ~ bit as sawasawa kwa kila hali she's~ bit as intelligent as you ana akili sawasawa na wewe kwa kila hali.

evict vt ~ (from) fukuza mpangaji

(kutoka shamba/nyumba kwa kutumia sheria). ~ion n. ~ion order n hati ya kumfukuza mpangaji.

evidence n 1 ushahidi, ushuhuda. give ~ toa ushahidi. (be) in ~ onekana wazi au kwa urahisi Hamisi was no where in ~ Hamisi hakuonekana popote. turn Queen's/King's/(US) State's ~ (of a criminal) toa ushahidi dhidi ya washitakiwa wenzako. 2 (usu in pl) alama, ishara. bear/give/show ~ of onyesha ishara za. vt (rare) shuhudia/thibitisha, onyesha. evident adj dhahiri, wazi. evidently adv.

evil adj 1 ovu, fisadi, baya. ~ minded adj -enye mawazo maovu ~ tempered -enye hasira mbaya the ~ one Shetani, Ibilisi. ~ spirits n pepo wabaya. 2 (unfortunate) -enye kisirani, -a ndege mbaya. ~ eye n kijicho fall on ~ days pata visirani. n uovu, ubaya. ~-doer n mwovu. choose the lesser of two ~s chagua -lio afadhali (ingawa yote mawili ni mabaya). ~ly adv vibaya.

evince vt (formal) dhihirisha.

eviscerate vt tumbua, toa matumbo.

evoke vt 1 ita. ~ spirts ita pepo. 2 amsha, leta. ~ feelings amsha, leta hisia. evocative adj. evocation n.

evolve vt,vi 1 kua, geuka my feelings have ~d hisia zangu zimekua. 2 endeleza taratibu/kiasili; (of plan) zindua kiasili. vi funuka. evolution n 1 mageuko/mabadiliko

evulsion

(ya polepole au yasiyoingiliwa kati). 2 nadharia ya mageuko kutoka sahili kuwa tata. 3 mwendo uliopangwa/ maalum (wa majeshi, wacheza dansi, n.k.). evolutionary adj.

evulsion n kutoa kwa nguvu.

ewe n kondoo jike.

ewer n chungu kikubwa (chenye kishikizo kwa ajili ya kuhifadhi maji).

ex (pref) -a zamani. ~-president n rais wa zamani.

exacerbate vt (formal) 1 zidisha (maumivu, ugomvi, hasira, chuki, uchungu, n.k.). 2 (irritate) kasirisha, chukiza. exacerbation n.

exact1 adj 1 sahihi, hasa, barabara,

kamili his ~ words maneno yake hasa. 2 -enye uwezo kamili. an ~ memory n kumbukumbu iliyo barabara. ~ly adv kabisa, kamili that's ~ly right ni sawasawa kabisa it's ~ ly two o' clock ni saa nane kamili; (answer or confirmation) sawa, kabisa, hasa. ~ness; ~itude n.

exact2 vt ~ (from) 1 toza, lipisha kwa nguvu. 2 hitaji, taka this work ~s closest attention kazi hii inataka/ inahitaji uangalifu sana. 3 (compel) shurutisha, lazimisha; sisitiza ~ obedience tiisha, shurutisha/ lazimisha kutii. ~ing adj. ~ion n 1 kutoza, kulipisha kwa nguvu. 2 kitu kinacholipwa k.m. kodi.

exaggerate vt,vi kuza, piga chuku, tiachumvi. exaggeration n.

exalt vt 1 (promote) pandisha (cheo, hadhi). 2 (praise) tukuza sifu sana, kuza. ~ation n nderemo, furaha.

examine vt 1 ~ (for) chunguza. 2 ~ in tahini, pima; pimwa. 3 kozi. examination/exam n 1 mtihani pass an examination pasi/faulu mtihani. 2 uchunguzi. under examination katika kuchunguzwa medical examination uchunguzi wa kitabibu. 3 (leg) kuhoji kwa wakili. examinee n mtahiniwa. examiner n mtahini, mchunguzi.

example n 1 mfano. set an ~ onyesha mfano. for ~ kwa mfano,

excess

mathalani. 2 kielelezo. 3 funzo, fundisho let this be an ~ to you liwe fundisho kwako make an ~ of somebody adhibu kama fundisho/mfano kwa wengine. exemplar n sampuli, mfano. exemplary adj. exemplify vt onyesha kwa mfano, -wa mfano.

exanimate adj -sio na uhai.

exasperate vt udhi, kasirisha,

ghadhibisha, kera. exasperation n.

excavate vt chimbua, fukua (hasa kwa ajili ya utafiti wa vitu vya kale). excavator n mtu au mashine inayochimbua. excavation n. uchimbuaji; sehemu inayochimbuliwa au iliyochimbuliwa (yaani shimo).

exceed vt 1 zidi, -wa zaidi ya. 2 vuka/pita (kiwango kilichowekwa). ~ingly adv mno.

excel vt,vi ~ (in/at) fanya vizuri

kuzidi wengine, -wa bora kabisa, tia fora. ~lence n. ~lence (in/at) ubora, uzuri. ~lent adj bora sana, aali. ~lently adv. E~lency n Mheshimiwa, Mtukufu. Your E~ lency Mheshimiwa.

excelsior n. (US) 1 alama ya ubora wa bidhaa. 2 takataka za randa (za kufungia vitu vinavyovunjika kwa urahisi k.m. kauri).

except (prep) isipokuwa, ila. vt ~ from acha, -tohesabu. present company ~ed ukiacha waliopo hapa. ~ing (prep) (used after not, always and without) kuacha, kutoa not ~ing bila kuacha/kutoa. ~ion n 1 jambo la pekee, jambo lisilofuata kawaida. with the ~ion of isipokuwa. 2 (objection) kinzano, maudhi, kikwazo. take ~ion to udhiwa/kerwa na, kinza. ~ionable adj -nayochukiza. 3 (gram) -siofuata kanuni. ~ional adj -sio -a kawaida, -a pekee, bora sana. ~ionally adv.

excerpt n dondoo. vt dondoa.

excess n 1 ziada. an ~ of ziada ya. in ~ of zaidi ya kupindukia, kuzidi. to ~ mno, -a kupindukia. 2 (pl) ~es n

exchange

maovu/matendo mabaya ya kupindukia; kujiachia. ~ive adj kubwa mno; -a ziada, -liozidi. ~ luggage n mizigo yenye uzito uliozidi. ~ively adv.

exchange n 1 kubadilishana an~ of views kubadilishana mawazo in ~ for badala ya. 2 (of money) kubadilisha/ mabadilishano ya fedha rate of ~ kima cha mabadilishano ya fedha foreign ~ fedha za kigeni. ~ Control n Udhibiti wa fedha za kigeni. 3 ofisi. labour ~ n ofisi ya kazi, leba telephone ~ ofisi ya simu. 4 soko. Stock E ~ n Soko la Hisa. vt badilishana ~ presents peana zawadi ~ greetings salimiana, amkiana. ~ blows pigana. ~ words (with) bishana. ~able adj.

exchequer n 1 the E~ n (GB) Wizara ya F(edha. Chancellor of the E~ n (GB) Waziri wa Fedha. 2 ugavi wa fedha; hazina.

excise1 n ushuru. ~ duty n (leg) ushuru. ~ officer n afisa wa ushuru. ~ revenue n mapato ya ushuru.

excise2 vt kata (sehemu ya mwili,

kitabu, n.k.); ondoa, toa. excision n.

excite vt 1 sisimua, chochea an exciting book kitabu cha kusisimua the freedom fighters ~ d the peasants to rise against the colonialists wapigania uhuru waliwachochea wakulima kupigana na wakoloni. be ~d sisimka don't ~ yourself tulia. 2 (cause) amsha ~ attention tazamisha, vuta macho ~ desire tamanisha, tia shauku/ashiki/tamaa, sisimua drugs that ~ the nerves madawa yaamshayo neva. ~ment n msisimko, taharuki, mpwitompwito be in a state of ~ment sisimkwa, taharuki, -wa na mpwitompwito. excitable adj. excitability n. ~dly adv.

exclaim vt,vi 1 guta (kwa mshangao, maumivu/hasira n.k.), tamka ghafla (kwa mshangao (hasira, maumivu). 2 ~ against shutumu, pinga vikali. exclamation n tamko/neno la

excursion

mshangao; usiyahi exclamation mark (US exclamation point) alama ya mshangao (!). exclamatory adj -a mshangao. exclamatory sentence n sentensi ya mshangao.

exclude vt ~ (from) 1 (remove, shut out) toa, acha, tenga ~ him from the list mtoe katika orodha be ~d from achwa ~ from the mind ondoa katika mawazo. 2 (refuse) zuia ~ from membership of a club zuia mtu kuingia katika kilabu. exclusion n. excluding prep mbali na, kuondoa, bila ya excluding the children there were 20 people mbali na watoto kulikuwa na watu 20. exclusive adj 1 (of persons) nayejitenga (kwa kujiona bora), -siyechanganyika na wengine, pweke. 2 (of a group/society) maalum (kwa watu fulani tu). 3 -a pekee Dictionary making is not his exclusive employment utungaji kamusi si kazi pekee anayoifanya. 4 exclusive of pasipo, bila kuhesabu, mbali na. exclusively adv.

excogitate vt (formal or hum) handisi, fikiria, buni (mpango). excogitation n.

excommunicate vt (rel) tenga na kanisa. excommunication n.

excoriate vt (formal) chubua, chuna

(ngozi); (fig) kosoa sana. excoriation n.

excrement n kinyesi. ~al adj.

excrescence n tezi, kinundu (kitu

kisicho cha kawaida kinachojitokeza katika mwili au mmea). excrescent adj -a kuzidi kadiri inayotakiwa, -a zaidi.

excreta n takamwili (zitokazo kama kinyesi, mkojo, jasho). excretion n. excrete vt -nya, toa takamwili.

excruciating adj (of pain, bodily or mental) -a kutesa sana, kali sana.

exculpate vt ~ (from) toa katika hatia/ lawama, burai, ondolea tuhuma. exculpation n. exculpatory adj.

excursion n 1 matembezi/safari fupi (agh. ya kikundi cha watu). ~

excuse

ticket n tikiti ya bei nafuu. 2 (Astron) mchepuko kutoka njia kuu.

excuse n 1 udhuru, sababu; kisingizio. in ~ of kwa kisingizio cha vt 1 (pardon) samehe, wia radhi. ~ me kumradhi, niwie radhi, samahani ~ my coming late nisamehe kwa kuchelewa. 2 ~ from ruhusu, achilia. excusable adj. excusably adv.

ex-directory adj (of telephone numbers) isiyoorodheshwa (kwa faragha/usalama).

execrate vt chukia mno, kirihi, laani, apiza. execration n. execrable adj karaha, makuruhu; (of weather) mbaya sana.

execute vt 1 tekeleza, fanya, timiza. 2 (leg) tekeleza; funga/bana kisheria ~ a will tekeleza wasia; tia sahihi ~ a legal document tia sahihi mkataba wa kisheria. 3 adhibu kifo, ua ~ a criminal ua mhalifu (kwa sheria). 4 (of concert) cheza, onyesha (jukwaani). executant n mtekelezaji mpango; mpiga muziki. execution n 1 (performance) utekelezaji, utimizaji (wa jambo). put/carry something into execution tekeleza, timiza jambo. 2 ustadi katika uchezaji/ upigaji (mf. muziki). 3 (of weapons) uharibifu, uangamizaji. 4 kuua (kisheria). executioner n chakari. executive adj 1 -a utendaji. executive duties n kazi za utendaji executive secretary katibu mtendaji. 2 -enye mamlaka/madaraka ya uamuzi. ~ order n amri ya Rais n 1 the executive n serikali. Executive Committee n Halmashauri Kuu. 2 (in the civil service) mtendaji, mtekelezaji. 3 (business) bosi, meneja.

executor; executrix n kabidhi wasii: msimamizi wa mirathi.

exegesis n ufafanuzi/fasili ya maandiko (hasa matakatifu). exegete n. exegetic(al) adj.

exempt vt ~ (from) samehe (kodi, kazi), achilia, ruhusu. ~ion n

exhaust

ruhusa (ya kutofanya), kusamehewa, ondoleo, msamaha.

exequies n (pl) maziko.

exercise n 1 (use) matumizi;kutumia the ~ of the imagination matumizi ya ubunifu the ~of his duty shows his zeal utekelezaji wa wajibu wake unaonyesha bidii aliyonayo ~ of patience subira. 2 (practice) mazoezi he does ~s every morning anafanya mazoezi kila siku asubuhi. 3 jaribio, shindano, zoezi the pupils were given an ~ by their teacher wanafunzi walipewa zoezi na mwalimu wao. ~ book n daftari (la mazoezi). 4 (usu pl) mazoezi ya kijeshi, drili. 5 (US pl) sherehe graduation ~ mahafali. vt,vi 1 tumia ~ authority tumia madaraka. ~ patience fanya subira. 2 fanya mazoezi; zoeza; jizoeza you don't ~ enough hufanyi mazoezi ya kutosha. 3 (usu passive) sumbua, hangaisha (moyo) this problem is exercising our minds tatizo hilo linasumbua akili zetu. exercitation n (arch) 1 mazoezi. 2 onyesho la umahiri.

exert vt ~ (on/upon) tumia, weka/

wekea. ~ pressure tumia nguvu, gandamiza. ~ oneself fanya jitihada, jitahidi. ~ion n 1 bidii, juhudi. 2 matumizi ~ion of authority kutumia madaraka. 3 (difficulty) ugumu.

exeunt v (Lat) see exit.

exfoliate vt, vi 1 (of bark, skin, minerals, etc) bambua. 2 para, parura (magamba, n.k.). 3 achana; jigawa katika tabaka, fanya tabaka. 4 (ji) tandaza. exfoliation n.

exgratia n (lat) ~ payment n malipo ya hiari (yasiyowajibu kisheria).

exhale vt,vi toa pumzi; toa mvuke (harufu, uvundo) ~ air from the lungs toa hewa mapafuni. exhalation n.

exhaust1 n ekzosi. ~ pipe n bomba la ekzosi.

exhaust2 vt 1 chosha kabisa ~

oneself by hard work jichosha kwa

exhibit

kazi ngumu. 2 tumia -ote, ondoa -ote, maliza -ote. ~ a drum maliza pipa zima. 3 sema yote ~ a subject sema yote kuhusu mada fulani. ~ion n 1 kuishiwa nguvu, uchovu kabisa, mavune. 2 kutumia -ote. ~ive adj kamilifu, -a kumaliza kabisa. ~ively adv.

exhibit n 1 maonyesho. 2 (leg) kizibiti, ushahidi. 3 (US) maonyesho. vt 1 onyesha hadharani (kwa mnada au kwa mashindano). 2 dhihirisha, onyesha (uwezo, n.k. wa mtu). ~or n mwonyeshaji. ~ion n 1 maonyesho. 2 kuonyesha, (tabia, maarifa n.k.). make an ~ ion of oneself fanya vituko hadharani, jiaibisha. 3 (GB) ruzuku ya fedha (apewayo mwanafunzi shuleni au chuoni). ~ioner n mwanafunzi apokeaye ruzuku shuleni/chuoni. ~ionism n 1 tabia ya kujitangaza, (kujitwaza); kuonyesha sehemu za siri za mwili hadharani. 2 ~ionist n mjitwazaji: mtu anayeonyesha sehemu za siri hadharani.

exhilarate vt (usu passive) sisimka

sana, jaza matumaini/furaha, furahisha sana. exhilarating news n habari za kusisimua. exhilaration n ukunjufu, ubashasha.

exhort vt ~ somebody to something/to do something (formal) sihi, shawishi ~ somebody to vacate an old building sihi mtu kuhama kutoka jumba kuukuu. ~ation n. ~ative adj.

exhume vt (dig up) fukua; chimbua (hasa maiti kaburini). exhumation n.

exigency n dharura, hali ya kuhitaji sana. exigent adj 1 -a kuhitaji kushughulikiwa haraka. 2 (derog) -enye madai mno.

exiguous adj (formal) dogo mno, si -a kutosha. exiguity; ~ness n.

exile n 1 kuhamisha; kufukuzwa mbali na kwao. 2 mkimbia kwao. in ~ mbali na kwao (sababu ya siasa, n.k.) go into ~ enda uhamishoni. vt fukuza, hamisha (kwa nguvu).

exoteric

exist vi -wa hai, ishi, wapo he ~ed on grass aliishi kwa kula majani where does it ~ huishi/hupatikana wapi? makao yake wapi? do spirits~? mizimu ipo? ~ence n 1 kuweko, kuishi there is no such thing in ~ence hakuna kabisa kitu cha namna hiyo come into ~ence kuwepo. 2 an ~ence n maisha lead a happy ~ence kuwa na maisha mazuri. ~ent adj -a wakati huu, nayobaki. ~ential adj -enye kuhusu maisha. ~entialism n falsafa inayokiri kwamba dunia haina mantiki na binadamu yu peke yake, hivyo binadamu yu huru kuchagua mwenyewe na anawajibika kwa vitendo vyake. ~entialist n mfuasi wa falsafa hiyo.

exit n 1 kutoka kwa mchezaji jukwaani make one's ~ ondoka. 2 mlango wa kutoka (kwenye ukumbi wa sinema, n.k.). vi 1 toka, ondoka. 2 (drama) Pl exeunt toka jukwaani. E~ Ayubu Ayubu anatoka. exodus n (sing only) kutoka, kuhama, kuondoka kwa watu wengi pamoja. (rel.) Book of E~ n Kitabu cha Kutoka. the Exodus n Kutoka kwa Waisraeli Misri (1300 KK).

ex-officio adv, adj (Lat) kwa cheo, kwa

wadhifa wake.

exogamy n ndoanje: desturi ya kuoza watu wasio wa kabila/taifa moja. exogamic adj.

exonerate vt ~ somebody (from) toa katika lawama/hatia,achilia huru. exoneration n.

exorbitant adj (of a price, charge or demand) -a kupita kiasi, kubwa mno, ingi mno the price of this is ~ bei ya hiki ni kubwa mno, ni ghali sana. ~ly adv.

exorcise vt ~ (something from); (somebody of) punga pepo, lema. exorcism n. exorcist n mpungaji pepo.

exoteric adj (of doctrines, modes of

speech) -a watu wote, -a kufahamikana na watu wote.

exotic

exotic adj (of plants, fashions, words, ideas) 1 -a kigeni, -a kutoka nchi za nje. 2 geni, sio -a kawaida, -a ajabu. ~ fashions n mitindo ya ajabu. exotism n.

expand vt,vi 1 panua, tanua; panuka; kuza the farm was ~ed by 100 hectares shamba lilipanuliwa kwa hekta 100. 2 kunjua; funua. 3 (of a person) -wa mkunjufu. 4 ~ on fafanua, eleza zaidi. ~ed n (maths). ~ed form n ufafanuzi. ~ible adj. expanse n eneo pana na wazi. expansion n 1 (tech) mtanuko. 2 uenezi, upanuzi. expansion pipe n bomba panuzi. expansion policy n sera ya upanuzi. expansive adj 1 -enye kutanua; -enye kutanuka, kuvimba, -a mtanuko. 2 (of persons, speech) kunjufu, wazi. expansively adv. expansiveness n.

exparte adj (leg) -a kupendelea kufadhili, kusaidia, kufaidi upande mmoja tu adv kwa kupendelea kufadhili, kusaidia, kufaidi upande mmoja.

expatiate vi ~ upon simulia kwa maneno mengi, eleza/andika kwa kirefu. expatiation n. expatiatory adj.

expatriate vt 1 ~ oneself hama/ondoka kutoka nchini mwako; ishi nje ya nchi yako; kataa uraia wako. 2 kanusha, fukuza nchini. n 1 mtu akaaye nje ya nchi yake. 2 mtaalamu kutoka nchi ya kigeni. expatriation n.

expect vt, vi tazamia; tarajia when do you ~ him mnamtazamia lini? we were ~ing some money from him tulitarajia kupata fedha kutoka kwake I ~ not sitegemei. I ~ so natumaini. (of woman) be ~ing (a baby) wa mja mzito. ~ancy n kungojea, matazamio; matarajio; mategemeo. state of ~ancy n hali ya matazamio. life ~ancy n matarajio ya muda wa kuishi. ~ant adj -a kungojea an ~ ant mother mja mzito n (candidate) mgombea. ~antly adv. ~ed adj -

expend

liotarajiwa. ~ed income n mapato yanayotarajiwa. ~ation n 1 mategemeo; matarajio. contrary to ~ations kinyume cha matarajio. fall short of/not come up to one's ~ations kuwa pungufu ya matarajio. 2 (pl) matazamio ya urithi. ~ative adj -a kutazamiwa.

expectorate vt,vi 1 kohoza. 2 (formal) tema makohozi/damu/balaghamu. expectorant n dawa ya kikohozi.

expedient adj (usu pred) -a kufaa, -a manufaa kwa lengo fulani ~ plan mpango wa kufaa kwa lengo fulani. expedience;expediency n 1 manufaa. 2 (derog) kuangalia faida yako tu.

expedite vt (formal) himiza, harakisha. expeditious adj (formal) -a haraka, -enye kuwahi. expeditiously adv kwa wepesi, kwa haraka. expedition n 1 (formal) wepesi, haraka, hima. with expedition upesi (safari yenye lengo maalumu). 2 expeditionary force n kikosi cha jeshi kinachopelekwa vitani ugenini.

expel vt 1 ~ (from) fukuza, ondosha

~ from a community/society fukuza kutoka jamii/chama. 2 toa (pumzi, hewa, n.k.).

expend vt 1 ~ something on/upon something/in doing something tumia (fedha, nguvu, akili, fikira, n.k.). 2 maliza, tumia yote. ~able adj -enye kutolewa mhanga the general considered his troops ~ able jenerali aliona kwamba majeshi yake yanaweza kutolewa mhanga. ~iture n 1 matumizi, harija, gharama. capital ~iture n matumizi wekezi. recurrent ~iture n matumizi ya kawaida. revenue ~iture n matumizi ya mapato. 2 kiasi cha matumizi. expense n 1 gharama, harija. at the expense of kwa kusabilia/kuchuuza kwa hasara ya, kwa gharama ya spare no expense fanya bila kujali gharama, usijali gharama! at somebody's expense kwa gharama/fadhila ya;

experience

(fig) dhidi ya we had a good laugh at his expense tulicheka dhidi yake. put somebody to the expense of hasiri, ingiza gharama. free of expense isiyo gharama expense account hesabu ya matumizi. 2 (pl) gharama. trading expenses n gharama za biashara preliminary expenses gharama za mwanzo supplementary expenses gharama za ziada. expensive adj -ghali, -a bei kubwa. expensively adv expensiveness n.

experience n 1 uzoefu (wa mambo yamaisha), tajriba he has much ~ in leading young people ana uzoefu mkubwa katika uongozi wa vijana. 2 tukio (linaloathiri maisha ya mtu). vt pitia, pata uzoefu katika jambo fulani I have ~d many problem in my life nimepitia matatizo mengi katika maisha yangu. ~d adj -enye uzoefu; mjarabu an ~d driver dereva mwenye uzoefu. experiential adj -nayotokana na uzoefu wa mtu; -a tukio/hisia.

experiment n jaribio, jaribu by way of ~ kwa majaribio. make ~s fanya majaribio. vi jaribu. ~ation n. ~al adj -a kujaribia, -a majaribio an ~al school shule ya majaribio. ~ally adv.

expert n bingwa, stadi. ~ witness

n shahidi bingwa adj stadi, mahiri. ~ise n 1 ubingwa. 2 (comm) ripoti ya tathmini. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

expiate vt lipia, fidia kosa.

expiation n.

expire vi 1 (of a period of time) isha, malizika, fikia mwisho his duty ~s today zamu yake inaisha leo. 2 (liter) fa. expiration n 1 (formal) upumuaji, utoaji pumzi. 2 expiration (of) mwisho, kwisha, kumalizika (kwa). expiratory adj -a kupumulia. expiry n expiry (of) mwisho, kwisha, kumalizika (kwa muda fulani). expiry date n tarehe ya mwisho kutumika.

explain vt 1 ~ something to somebody eleza; fafanua; fasili ~ the riddle to him mfumbulie fumbo.

explore

2 dhihirisha, toa sababu. ~ something away eleza vinginevyo (kumtoa mtu hatiani), (ji)tetea I can ~ naweza kuelezea. explanation n 1 maelezo; ufafanuzi; fasili say something in explnation of one's conduct toa maelezo ya mwenendo wake. 2 (reason) sababu, kisa, hoja (za kuelezea). explanatory adj fafanuzi, -a kueleza this statement is self explanatory hoja hii inajieleza.

expletive n mapayo (k.v. matusi, viapo, n.k.).

explicate vt (formal) eleza na fafanua kwa undani, chambua. explicable adj (formal) -a kuelezeka, -a kufafanulika. explication n. explicatory adj -a kuelezea. explicit adj 1 wazi, dhahiri. explicit faith n imani kamilifu. 2 (of a person) -nyofu, msema kweli. explicitly adv. explicitness n.

explode vt,vi 1 (blow up) lipua; lipuka. 2 (of feelings) bubujik(w)a ~ with anger hamaki ~ with joy bubujikwa furaha. 2 (of an idea, theory) tangua, lima, haribu. explosion n 1 mlipuko gas explosion mlipuko wa gesi. 2 explosion (of) (of feelings) kupandwa (na jazba; uanguaji kicheko, n.k.). 3 mfumuko, ongezeko kubwa la ghafla (agh. la watu, magonjwa n.k.). explosive adj -enye kulipuka explosive issue suala nyeti. n kilipukaji high explosive baruti kali. explosively adv.

exploit1 n tendo (la ujasiri, ushujaa,

sifa, n.k.).

exploit2 vt 1 chimba (madini, mgodi);tumia/endeleza (nguvu za maji/za asili) 2 (derog) nyonya. ~er n mnyonyaji; mchimbaji; mtumiaji, mwendelezaji. ~ation n unyonyaji; utumiaji, uendelezaji.

explore vt 1 talii, tafiti, peleleza.

2 chungua; gundua; chunguza. ~r n mpelelezi; mgunduzi; mchunguzi, mtafiti the ~rs preceded the colonialists wapelelezi waliwatangulia wakoloni.

expo

exploration n upelelezi; ugunduzi; uchunguzi. exploratory adj.

expo n see exposition.

exponent n ~ (of) 1 mfasiri,

mwakilishi, mtetezi. 2 namba kipeo. ~ial adj. ~ial function n kipeo husisho.

export n 1 biasharanje. 2 mahuruji,

bidhaa nje. vt uza/toa nje ya nchi kuuzwa. ~er n muuzaji bidhaa nje. ~able adj. ~ation n.

expose vt 1 (uncover) weka/acha wazi, funua ~ to danger hatarisha ~ food funua chakula. 2 (disclose) fichua; kashifu. 3 (display) onyesha (bidhaa, n.k.). 4 (photo) ingiza mwanga. 5 ~ oneself onyesha sehemu za siri za mwili hadharani. n 1 muhtasari wa jambo fulani. 2 ufichuaji kashfa. exposition n 1 ufafanuzi, ufasiri; maelezo. 2 (abbr expo) maonyesho ya kimataifa. expositive adj. exposure n 1 mfichuo. 2 kuwa wazi indecent exposure kuwa uchi hadharani. 3 (photo) picha exposure meter kipima mwanga. 4 mwelekeo (wa chumba au nyumba).

expostulate vi ~ (with somebody) (on/about something) pinga, lalamikia (kiungwana). expostulation n.

expound vt ~ (to) eleza, fasili, eleza kinaganaga.

express1 adj 1 halisi; dhahiri, wazi. ~ condition n sharti dhahiri an ~ command amri dhahiri. 2 (speedy) -a kwenda mbio sana, isiosimama mara kwa mara, -a haraka an ~ letter barua ya haraka an ~ train treni ya moja kwa moja; treni kasi. ~ way n (US) barabara pana (kwa ajili ya magari yaendeshwayo kwa kasi). n 1 treni kasi. 2 (US) kampuni ya kusafirisha mizigo kwa haraka na usalama. 3 huduma za haraka (zitolewazo na posta, reli na barabara za kusafirisha mizigo, n.k.). ~ly adv 1 kabisa, kwa dhati, kwa hakika you are ~ly forbidden to go huruhusiwi kabisa kwenda. 2 hasa, kwa

extempore

madhumuni ya the function was ~ly for children only tamasha ilikuwa hasa kwa watoto tu.

express2 vt 1 peleka kwa njia ya

haraka barua/mzigo; eleza; dhihirisha, onyesha; simulia. ~ oneself jieleza n.k. 2 ~ (from/out of) (formal) kama, kamua. ~ion n 1 (facial) sura she had an ~ion of sorrow alikuwa na sura ya huzuni. 2 (words) neno, usemi, msemo. beyond/past ~ion isiyoelezeka (to) give ~ion to something dhihirisha/ eleza jambo fulani. find ~ion in jitokeza katika, jidhihirisha kwa. 3 (feeling) onyesha hisia she sang with ~ion aliimba kwa kuonyesha hisia. 4 (Maths) uonyesho. 5 (pl) cognate ~ions n misemo ya mshabaha, misemo inayoshabihiana, misemo inayofanana. 6 kusema freedom of ~ ion uhuru wa kusema/kutoa mawazo. ~ionless adj. ~ive adj. ~ive (of) -enye maana, -enye kuelezea, -enye kuonyesha hisia. ~iveness n. ~ionism n (of painting, part, etc) fasihi halisia-nafsi. ~ionist n.

expropriate vt ~ (from) pokonya,

nyang'anya; taifisha. expropriation n.

expulsion n ~ (from) ufukuzaji, utoaji the ~ of students from this college ufukuzaji wa wanachuo kutoka kwenye chuo hiki.

expunge vt ~ (from) (formal) futa

maandishi n.k. (toka kitabuni n.k.).

expurgate vt ondoa maneno machafu n.k. katika kitabu. expurgation n.

exquisite adj 1 bora sana, -zuri sana.

2 (of pain, pleasure, etc) kali; tamu. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

ex-service adj. ~ man n mwanajeshi

aliyeacha kazi.

extant adj -liopo hadi leo, -enye kuwapo (hasa nyaraka, n.k.).

extempore adv (spoken or done) bila kujiandaa, papo hapo speak ~ sema bila kuandaa adj -enye kutungwa na kusemwa papo hapo an ~ speech

extend

hotuba ya papohapo. extemporaneous; extemporary adj. extemporize vi ongea bila kujiandaa, faragua.

extend vt,vi 1 (stretch out) nyosha,

tandaza (mwili, mikono, n.k.). 2 (stretch) vuta, endeleza, eneza (waya, kamba, n.k.). 3 (prolong) ongeza, refusha ~ a line refusha mstari. ~ credit ongeza muda wa mkopo. ~ time ongeza muda. 4 (reach) -enda hadi, fikia the region ~s as far as that river mkoa unafikia mto ule. 5 ~ something (to somebody) toa, -pa (msaada, mwaliko, salamu n.k.) kwa mtu fulani ~ a welcome karibisha. 6 (usu passive) fanya kutumia nguvu he won without being fully ~ed alishinda bila kutumia nguvu zote. extension n 1 upanuzi, uenezi the extension of trade upanuzi wa extension biashara. 2 nyongeza an extension to a hotel nyongeza ya hoteli. extension education n elimu ya nje ya vyuo. 3 (of telephone) mkondo. 4 (gram.) mnyambuliko. extensive adj 1 -a kuenda mbali, -enye eneo kubwa, -kubwa. extensive farming n kilimo chenye eneo kubwa. 2 kubwa sana the storm caused extensive damage kimbunga kilisababisha hasara kubwa sana. extensiveness n. extensively adv. extent n 1 ~ (of) urefu, eneo, ukubwa. 2 (degree) kadiri to a certain/to some ~ kwa kiasi fulani to what ~? kwa kiasi gani? to such an ~ that kiasi kwamba. extensor n (biol) musuli wa mpanuko.

extenuate vt punguza/poza ubaya/ukubwa/makali ya kosa. extenuating adj. extenuating circumstances n mambo ya kupunguzia ukubwa wa kosa/hatia. extenuation n. extenuatory adj.

exterior adj -a nje. (maths) ~ angles n pembe za nje. n 1 nje, sura/umbo la nje. on the ~ kwa nje, kwa juu juu. 2 picha ya maisha ya nje. ~ize vt see externalize.

extract

exterminate vt angamiza; teketeza,

maliza; ua wote. extermination n. exterminatory adj.

external adj 1 -a nje, lio nje. ~

examiner n mtahini wa nje. ~ auditing n ukaguzi hesabu wa nje ~ economy uchumi wa nje, iktisadi za nje. 2 (med) for ~ use -a kutumika kwenye ngozi tu; (foreign) -a nchi nyingine, -a kigeni, -a nje. ~ affairs n mambo ya nje. 3 (unessential) -a juu juu. n (sl) ~s n sura ya nje, maonekano, -sio -a kiini. ~ize/ exteriorise vt fanya -a nje/geni. ~ly adv.

exterritorial adj -a nje ya sheria za

nchi (k.m. mabalozi n.k.). ~ity n.

extinguish vt 1 zima. 2 komesha, fisha. 3 futa. ~ debt futa deni. fire ~er n. kizimamoto. extinct adj 1 (of species, ect) -liokufa, -liokwisha, -siopo sasa. 2 -liozimika extinct volcano zaha/volkano zimwe. extinction n 1 kufa, kukomesha, kufisha. 2 kuzimika, kuzima.

extirpate vt 1 (root out) ng'oa. 2 (destroy) haribu kabisa, komesha kabisa, angamiza. extirpation n. extirpator n.

extol vt sifu sana, tukuza ~ somebody to the skies tukuza mtu sana.

extort vt ~ (from) pata kwa kutumia nguvu; pokonya, ghusubu. ~ion n kutoza (kupata) kwa nguvu, kutaka bei kubwa sana kwa kitu, kughusubu. ~ionate adj 1 -a kupokonya, -a kughusubu. 2 (of price) ghali mno.

extra adj -a ziada, -a nyongeza. ~

fare n nauli ya ziada adv zaidi sana, zaidi na zaidi. ~ special n zuri mno try ~ hard jitahidi zaidi na zaidi (kuliko kawaida). n 1 ziada music is an ~ at our school muziki ni somo la ziada shuleni kwetu. 2 (film) mwigizaji mdogo, mwigizaji wa ziada. 3 (of newspaper) toleo maalum pref. -a nje, -a ziada.

extract vt 1 toa; (tooth, root) ng'oa;

(nails, etc) kongoa, zidua; (from

extracurricular

bundle etc) chopoa. (fig) ~ information pata habari (kwa hila/ vitisho). 2 (of liquid) zidua. 3 (from a book, speech, etc) dondoa. n kiziduo; dondoo, sehemu. ~ion n 1 kutoa, uziduaji. 2 (crushing) kusindika. 3 (lineage) asili. of Tanzanian ~ion -a asili ya Tanzania. ~ive adj. ~or n.

extracurricular adj nje ya masomo,

nje ya mihutasari.

extradite vt (leg) rejesha (mkosaji)

ahukumiwe katika nchi aliyofanya makosa. extradition n.

extrajudicial n (leg) -a nje ya mahakama ~ statement maelezo nje ya mahakama.

extramarital adj -a nje ya ndoa ~relations mapenzi nje ya ndoa.

extramural adj 1 (of a town/city) -a nje ya mipaka. 2 -a nje ya chuo ~ students wanafunzi wa jioni wanaochukua mafunzo ya Chuo Kikuu. ~ prisoner n mfungwa wa nje.

extraneous adj -a nje; -siofungamana na, -siohusiana na.

extraordinary adj 1 -a ajabu, -a pekee, -sio -a kawaida. ~ beauty n uzuri wa pekee. 2 (irregular) -a dharura. ~ meeting n mkutano wa dharura. 3 maalum. ambassador ~ n balozi wa ziada. extraordinarily adv.

extrapolate 1 (math) bashiri thamani ya tarakimu (kwa kutumia tarakimu zilizopo). 2 tabiri (mambo ya baadaye kutokana na habari zinazofahamika tayari). extrapolation n

extrasensory adj -a nje ya hisia. ~

perception n (abbr ESP) maono ya mambo bila kutumia hisia zo zote.

extraterrestrial adj -a nje ya dunia ~life/creatures maisha/ viumbe wa nje ya dunia.

extra-territorial adj see exterritorial.

extravagant adj 1 badhirifu. 2 (of ideas, speech, behaviour) -a kupita kiasi. extravagance n budhara, ubadhirifu. ~ly adv. extravaganza n (arts) maonyesho yenye madoido

eye

mengi.

extreme adj 1 kabisa, mno ~ cruelty

ukatili mno to the ~ left kushoto kabisa. 2 (fig) -a kuzidi kiasi, bila kadiri ~ views mawazo yasiyo na kadiri. n 1 mwisho, kipeo. e~ unction n Mpako wa Mwisho. 2 (pl) sifa zenye kutofautiana sana love and hate are ~ upendo na chuki ni sifa zinazotofautiana sana. go to ~s vuka mpaka, zidi. ~ly adv. extremist n mtu asiye na kadiri, mtu mwenye siasa kali sana. extremism n siasa isiyo na kadiri. extremity n 1 ncha, kikomo, mwisho. 2 upeo (hasa wa mateso au huzuni). 3 (pl) mikono na miguu. 4 (pl) vitendo vya kikatili (vya kulazimisha utii, kulipiza kisasi, n.k.).

extricate vt ~ (from) nasua, toa. extricable adj. extrication n.

extrinsic adj -a nje, si -a kiini, si -a msingi.

extrovert n 1 (psych) msondani. 2 bashashi, mcheshi. extroversion n.

extrude vt,vi 1 toa/toka/sukumia/ tokeza nje. 2 (tech) subu kwa kalibu. extrusion n. extrusive adj.

exuberant adj 1 -enye kusitawi sana, tele. 2 changamfu sana, kunjufu sana, -enye kufurahia maisha in ~ health -enye afya nyingi. exuberance n. ~ly adv.

exude vt,vi toa, toka (maji, jasho, n.k.); rishai, rishaika. exudation n.

exult vi ~ (at, over) furahia sana, shangilia sana. ~ation n.~antly adv.

eye n 1 jicho where are your ~s huoni? an ~ for an ~ jicho kwa jicho; kulipiza kisasi. ~s right/ left/front macho kulia/kushoto/ mbele as far as the ~ can see upeo wa macho if you had half an ~ ungekuwa na akili kidogo. in the ~s of the law kufuatana na sheria in my ~s kwa mawazo yangu. under/before my very ~s mbele yangu kabisa; bila kuficha. up to the ~s in (work, etc) tingwa na. with

eye

an ~ to kwa kutazamia I can do it with my ~s closed ni rahisi sana kwangu. be all ~s tazama kwa makini. be in the public ~ fahamika/julikana, onekana mara kwa mara hadharani. close/shut one's ~s fumba macho. jifanya kutoona. give somebody a black ~/black somebody's ~ tia ngeu. have an ~ for jua kutambua/kuelewa. have an ~ to lenga. keep an ~ on, angalia kwa makini keep one's ~s open/ skinned/peeled angalia/chunga sana. make ~s at angalia kwa mapenzi. make somebody open his ~ shtua. Mind your ~! (infomal) Angalia! open the ~s fumbua jicho. open somebody's ~s to onyesha, elewesha, fahamisha. see ~ to ~ patana na, elewana na. see something with half an ~ ona mara moja. set/clap ~s on ona. never take one's ~s off angalia kwa makini sana. 2 tundu, kitundu ~ of needle tundu la sindano. 3 (of a storm) kiini. (in compounds) ~ball n mboni ya jicho. ~-ball to ~-ball ana kwa ana. ~-bath/~-cup n chombo cha dawa ya macho. ~-brow n nyusi. raise one's ~-brows onyesha mshangao up to one's ~ brows in work -wa na kazi nyingi mno, tingwa na kazi. ~-full n upeo wa macho. have an ~-full (of) tazama kwa muda mrefu. ~-glass n rodi; (pl) miwani. ~lash n ukope. ~let n tundu, kitundu. ~lid n kigubiko cha jicho. hang on by the ~lids ning'inia, shikiza kwa shida. ~-

eyrie, eyry

opener n kitu kinachozindua. ~-piece n lenzi ya kukuzia (darubini, n.k.). ~-shade n kinga ya macho. ~-shadow n rangi ya kupambia macho. ~shot n upeo wa macho. ~sight n uwezo wa kuona kwa macho. bad ~sight n kiwaa. ~-socket n tundu la kishimo cha jicho. ~sore n chukizo. ~ strain n uchovu wa macho. ~tooth n jino chonge give one's ~teeth (for) fanya lolote (ili kupata kinachotamaniwa). ~wash n 1 dawa ya kukoshea macho. 2 (colloq) ghiliba. ~ witness n shahidi aliyeona. ~d adj -a macho. brown ~d girl n msichana mwenye macho ya kahawia. vt tazama, angalia.

eyrie, eyry n see aerie.

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INSTITUTE OF KISWAHILI RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P. O. Box 35110, DAR-ES-SALAAM, TANZANIA.

ęTaasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI) 2000 Second Edition 2000
ISBN 9976 911 29 7
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