TUKI ENGLISH-SWAHILI DICTIONARY
Kamusi ya Kiingereza-Kiswahili

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I,i n herufi i; (herufi ya tisa katika alfabeti ya Kiingereza); namba moja (1) ya Kirumi pron mimi.

ibex n mbuzi mwitu (mwenye pembe kubwa zilizopinda) wa milima ya Alps na Pyrenees).

ibid; ibidem adv (Lat) katika kitabu (msitari, kifungu, ukurasa) kile kile kilichotajwa.

ibis n kwarara.

ice1 n 1 barafu. break the ~ (fig) anza kuchangamkiana na mgeni; anza kitu kigumu/nyeti; vunja ukimya cut no ~ (with somebody) -toathiri; -toingia. keep something on ~ weka kwenye friji/jokofu; (fig) weka akiba be skating on thin ~ (fig) tembea mleoleoni, chezea hatari. 2 chakula kitamu kilichogandishwa. cream ~s n malai. 3 (compounds) ~ Age n Enzi ya Barafu. ~ berg n siwa barafu; (fig) mtu baridi. ~boat n mashua barafu. ~ bound adj (of harbours, etc.) -liokingwa na barafu. ~box n sanduku la barafu (la kuwekea chakula). ~cap n kilele barafu (k.m. kilele cha mlima wa Kilimanjaro). ~-cream n aiskrimu. ~cube n kipande cha barafu (agh. kilichogandishwa katika friji). ~ fall n poromoko barafu. ~field n uwanda barafu. ~floe n barafu tandavu (inayoelea).~-lolly n shikirimu ya kijiti. ~ man n (US) mtembeza/ muuza barafu. ~pack n mapande ya barafu yaliyotanda juu ya bahari; mfuko wa barafu (agh. hutumika kutuliza homa). ~-show n maonyesho juu ya barafu. ~pick n chombo cha kuvunjia barafu. ~rink n uwanja wa ndani wa barafu. ~-skate n kiatu cha kutelezea barafuni.

ice2 vt,vi 1 fanya kuwa baridi sana. ~d drinks n vinywaji baridi sana. 2 ~ over/up funika, funikwa na barafu;tanda kwa barafu the pond was ~d over bwawa lilifunikwa na barafu. the wings of the aircraft had ~d up mabawa ya eropleni

identify

yafunikwa na barafu. 3 funika (agh. keki) kwa sukari unga.

icicle n mchirizi wa barafu.

icing n 1 kiikizo. 2 mkusanyiko wa barafu kwenye mabawa ya eropleni.

icy adj -a kama barafu, baridi sana; -liofunikwa kwa barafu. icy cold adj baridi sana. icily adv (lit, fig) kwa kupooza.

ichneumon n 1 nguchiro mla mayai ya mamba. 2 (also ~ fly) nzi mtagia mayai kwenye mabuu ya wenzake.

icon n taswira (in the Eastern Church) ikoni: sanamu/picha ya mtakatifu, sanamu/picha takatifu. ~clast n mpinzani wa mila ya kuabudu sanamu k.m. katika Ulaya Mashariki na Walokole wa Uingereza katika karne ya 17; (fig) mtenguamila.

id n (psych) (the) ~ silka.

idea n 1 dhana, wazo, nia I have no ~ sijui, sina habari/wazo lolote. 2 (plan) mpango; azimio; nia, lengo. 3 (opinion) fikira, shauri. 4 (feeling) imani, hisia, jinsi ya kufikiri the young ~ fikira ya kitoto. 5 (conception) kujua, kutambua, utambuzi. put ~s into somebody's head mpe mtu tumaini. 6 (in exclamations): what an ~! haya mambo gani!

ideal adj 1 -lio bora, kamilifu. 2 (unreal, fanciful) -a njozi. n maadili/ wazo/mfano bora/kamilifu. ~ly adv. ~ize vt fanya/ona kama kamilifu. ~ization n. ~ism n 1 kanuni za maisha fulani. 2 (in art) (opposite of realism) ulimbwende. 3 (in philosophy) udhanifu.~ist n mdhanifu. ~istic adj.

identical adj 1 ~ (to/with) sawa sawa. 2 pacha, -a kufanana be ~ fanana. 3 ~ twins n mapacha. ~ly adv.

identify vt 1 tambua; tambulisha. 2 ~ something with something fananisha. 3 ~ with somebody/ something jihusisha; tegemeza; shirikisha, funganisha. identification n. identity n 1 sura, kufanana, kuwa sawa kabisa give one's identity jitambulisha. identikit n sura ya mtu iliyochorwa (agh. ya

ideogram

mhalifu) prove one's identity thibitisha nafsi. identity card/disc/certificate n kitambulisho. 2 utambulisho.

ideogram ideograph n idiogramu:

maandishi yasiyohusishwa na sauti bali dhana au kitu. ideographic adj.

ideology n itikadi. ideological adj.

ideologically adv.

id est (i.e.) yaani.

idiolect n lugha ya binafsi.

idiom n 1 lugha; lahaja. 2 nahau; mbinu. ~atic adj 1 -enye nahau, -a mbinu. 2 -a nahau. ~atically adv.

idiosyncrasy n upekepeke, tabia (nia, desturi, mwenendo, mazoea n.k.) ya mtu peke yake.

idiot n 1 zuzu. 2 (colloq) mpumbavu. idiocy n uzuzu; (folly) upumbavu mtupu. ~ic adj. ~ically adv.

idle adj 1 -sio na kazi; -liotulia,

-siotumika. 2 vivu, legevu. 3 -sio faa; -a bure. vi,vt 1 ~ (away) -wa bila kazi; -wa vivu/zembe. 2 (of a car) endelea kuwaka (wakati gari limesimama). ~r n. idly adv. ~ness n.

idol n 1 sanamu; kijimungu. 2 (great favourite) kipenzi he is the ~ of his parents anapendwa na wazazi wake. ~ater n 1 mwabudu sanamu, mwabudu kijimungu. 2 mpenzi. ~atress n mwanamke mwabudu sanamu. ~atrous adj -a kuabudu sanamu. ~atrously adv. ~atry n 1 kuabudu sanamu; mapenzi makubwa. ~ize vt abudu kama mungu; penda mno. ~ization n.

idyll n 1 masimulizi mafupi (hasa mashairi) ya habari za maisha ya shambani/vijiji. 2 kipindi cha amani na furaha. ~ic adj -zuri sana; -a kupendeza sana (kuhusu maisha ya shambani).

if conj 1 ikiwa, iwapo, kama ~ you ask me, I will help you kama ukiniomba nitakusaidia ~ he should come please call me iwapo atakuja niite ~ you will wait a moment I will help you kama utasubiri kidogo

ilk

nitakusaidia ~ I were rich I would buy a car laiti ningekuwa tajiri ningenunua gari ~ we'd started in time we would have finished earlier kama tungeanza mapema tungemaliza mapema. 2 (if meaning when, whenever) kama/kila ~ you mix yellow and blue you get green ukichanganya manjano na buluu unapata kijani. 3 (even) ~ hata kama we'll finish even ~ it takes us all week tutamaliza hata kama itatuchukua wiki nzima even ~ ingawa, ijapokuwa l'll escort her even ~l'll be late for the movie nitamsindikiza ingawa nitachelewa sinema. 4 as ~ kana kwamba it isn't as ~ we don't know the work si kana kwamba hatujui kazi. 5 (colloq) (if replacing whether, to introduce an interrogative clause) kama let me know ~ you are coming niambie kama utakuja. 6 (a wish or unfulfilled condition) ~ only laiti (kama) n too many ~ s and buts ngonjera, taraghani.

igloo n msonge (wa barafu).

igneous adj (of rocks) -lioundwa na volkano.

ignite vt, vi washa, tia moto. ignition n mwako. ignition key n ufunguo wa gari.

ignoble adj -sioheshimika; -a aibu. ignobly adj. ignominious adj -a aibu, -a kufedhehesha, -a kutahayarisha, -a kuadhirika. ignominy n aibu, fedheha, utwezo.

ignorance n ~(of) n ujinga. ignoramus n mjinga. ignorant adj 1 ignorant (of) -jinga, -siojua (to) be ignorant of a subject kuwa mbumbumbu; -tojua jambo fulani. 2 -a kijinga an ignorant question swali la kijinga.

ignore vt -toangalia, -tojali.

iguana n gongola: mjusi mkubwa kuliko gonda.

ikon n see icon.

il- pref kinyume cha, -sio.

ilk n of that/his ~ (colloq hum) -a

ill

namna (jinsi, jina) ile.

ill adj 1 (usu pred) -gonjwa. fall/be taken ~ -wa mgonjwa, ugua. 2 (attrib) baya, -ovu, -a madhara. it's an ~ wind that blows nobody any good (prov) hakuna baya lisilokuwa na uzuri wake. ~ weeds grow apace (prov) ubaya huvuma haraka kuliko wema. 3 (compounds) ~-advised adj -sio na busara, pumbavu. ~ affected (towards) adj -siopendelea jambo fulani.~-bred adj -liolelewa vibaya; jeuri. ~-breeding n tabia mbaya. ~-favoured adj -baya, -enye sura mbaya, -a kuchukiza. ~-gotten adj -liopatikana kwa njia mbaya (magendo, wizi n.k.). ~-humoured adj -enye usununu. ~-judged adj -lioamuliwa vibaya. ~-looking adj -enye sura mbaya. ~-mannered adj -sio na adabu nzuri, fidhuli. ~-natured adj -kali, -enye hasira. ~omened adj -enye bahati mbaya, kisirani, chimvi. ~-tempered adj -gomvi. ~-timed adj -liopangiwa muda mbaya, -liofanywa wakati mbaya/usiofaa. n 1 madhara, uovu. do ~ fanya baya/uharibifu. 2 mkosi, kisirani; matatizo, shida the ~s of life matatizo ya maisha. 3 (compounds) ~-disposed (towards) adj -enye nia ya kudhuru; -a kutopenda jambo fulani. ~-fated adj -enye kisirani, -enye mkosi. ~-luck n bahati mbaya. ~-starred adj -enye bahati mbaya -enye nyota mbaya. ~ treat; use vt tesa, dhulumu. ~-treatment;~ usage n ukatili, uonevu, dhuluma. ~-will n uadui; ukatili, roho mbaya adv vibaya; ovyoovyo, -kwa kutoridhisha. be/feel ~ at ease -jiona vibaya/pweke; -ona haya. speak ~ of somebody sema mtu vibaya, sengenya. ~ness n ugonjwa.

illegal adj haramu, -a kinyume cha sheria, -sio halali ~ act kitendo cha kinyume cha sheria. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

illustrate

illegible adj -siosomeka. illegibly adv. illegibility n.

illegitimate adj. 1 -a kinyume cha sheria. 2 -a haramu ~ child mwana haramu. 3 (of a conclusion in an argument, etc) -sio na mantiki, -liohitimishwa vibaya. ~ly adv. illegitimacy n.

illiberal adj 1 -siostahili mtu huru; -

siopenda uhuru (wa mawazo, maisha n.k.) -enye fikra finyu, -siokuwa na uvumilivu. 2 bahili. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

illicit adj haramu; -liyokatazwa ~ trade biashara ya haramu ~ relationship uhusiano usio halali/usioruhusiwa. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

illimitable adj -kubwa sana, -sio na

mipaka/kikomo.

illiterate adj (person) -tojua kusoma wala kuandika ~ person mtu asiyejua kusoma na kuandika; mjinga. illiteracy n.

illogical adj -sio na mantiki. ~ly adv. ~ity; ~ness n.

illuminate vt 1 tia nuru, angaza, mulika. 2 pamba (barabara n.k.) kwa taa. 3 pamba herufi kwa rangi ya dhahabu. 4 (explain) eleza, fafanua. illumination n 1 mwanga, nuru, mwangaza. 2 (pl) (coloured illustration) herufi za mapambo za rangi ya dhahabu/fedha; rangi za kumetameta. 3 (usu pl) kupamba mji (barabara n.k.) kwa taa; taa za kupambia mji (barabara n.k.). illumine vt (liter) 1 tia nuru. 2 -pa mwanga wa kiroho.

illusion n 1 njozi, uongo entertain/ indulge in ~ jitia katika ndoto/fikra za uwongo. be under an ~ danganyika. cherish an ~/the ~ that... penda kuamini. have no ~s about somebody/something -todanganyika; fahamu fika 2. kudanganyika kimawazo. ~ ist n mfanya mazingaombwe. illusive; illusory adj -a kinjozi, -a uongo.

illustrate vt 1 eleza kwa mifano, picha

im

au kielezo. 2 chora picha/vielezo katika kitabu/jarida. illustrator n mchoraji picha/vielezo katika vitabu. illustration n 1 kielezo. 2 (explanation) kueleza kwa mifano. illustrative adj -enye kutoa ufafanuzi au mifano kwa jambo fulani. illustrious adj maarufu, mashuhuri; adhimu. illustriously adv.

im- (pref) kinyume cha; siyo, pasipo, bila.

image n 1 sanamu, picha an ~ of Jesus Christ sanamu (picha) ya Yesu Kristo. 2 kifani, mfano, nakala he is the ~ of his father anafanana na baba yake God created man in his own ~ Mungu amemuumba binadamu kwa mfano wake. be the (very/spitting) ~ (of something/ somebody) fanana kabisa na mtu/kitu fulani. 3 taswira; fikra, dhana. 4 tamathali za usemi speak in ~ zungumza/andika kwa kutumia tamathali za usemi. 5 sura (kama inavyoonekana katika kioo, maji, kamera n.k.). vt 1 chora/chonga sanamu, picha (ya kitu fulani). 2 akisi. ~ry n matumizi ya tamathali za usemi katika mazungumzo/ maandishi; sanamu, picha, michoro.

imagine vt 1 (for a mental picture of) waza, fikiria, dhani I can't ~ being a doctor sifikirii kuwa daktari. 2 dhania, kisia, amini I ~ him to be clever namkisia kwamba yu hodari. imaginable adj -a kuweza kufikirika/ kubunika. imaginary adj -a mawazo tu, -a kufikirika, -a kubuni. imagination n 1 ubunifu. 2 wazo, fikra, dhana. imaginative adj bunifu, -enye uwezo wa kufikiri/kubuni; -enye mawazo/fikra nyingi.

imam n imamu.

imbalance n kutolingana uzito/nguvu, kutokuwa na urari (k.m. wa hesabu).

imbecile adj -punguani; -pumbavu. n

punguani; bozi, zembe, pumbavu. imbecility n 1 upuuzi; upunguani. 2 (pl) matendo/maoni ya kipumbavu/ kipuuzi.

immediate

imbed vt see embed.

imbibe vt 1 (formal) -nywa, sharabu. 2 (learn) jifunza, hifadhi akilini (mawazo, maarifa n.k.).

imbroglio n ghasia, machafuko, nazaa, (hasa ya kisiasa au hasira).

imbue vt ~ with (formal) tia moyoni, jaza (shauku) ~d with sympathy/ hatred etc. -liojaa huruma/chuki n.k.

imitate vt 1 iga, fuatisha, nakili it is

advisable to ~ good manners ni bora kuiga tabia njema parrots ~ human speech kasuku huiga sauti ya binadamu. 2 fanana; fananisha na, wa kama a paper was designed to ~ a Bank note karatasi ilisanifiwa ili ifanane na noti ya benki. imitator n mwigaji. imitation n 1 uigaji. 2 mfano, bandia. 3 mwigo imitations of animal cries miigo ya sauti za wanyama. imitative adj -a kuiga; -a kufuatisha. imitativeness n.

immaculate adj safi kabisa, pasipo

mawaa; pasipo kosa, pasipo dhambi. the ~ conception n (RC Church) Bikira Maria, Mkingiwa Dhambi ya Asili. immaculacy n. ~ly adv.

immanent adj ~ (in) (of qualities)

-a ndani, -a asili; (of God) -a kuwepo kila mahali daima. immanence n.

immaterial adj 1 ~ (to) (unimportant) -sio na umuhimu/maana sana, si kitu it is quite ~ haidhuru; haina maana ~ alterations mabadiliko yasio na maana. 2 -sio na mwili, -a pepo, -a roho.

immature adj -changa, -siopevuka ~ seeds mbegu changa ~ girl kigori. immaturity n uchanga, hali ya kuwa bado kukomaa/kupevuka.

immeasurable adj -siopimika; -a

kupita kiasi; -sio na mwisho/mpaka, kadiri. immeasurability n.

immediate adj 1 (instant) -a mara moja; -a sasa hivi ~ answers majibu ya mara moja. 2 (close) -a karibu sana; -a jirani the ~ relatives ndugu wa karibu the ~ heir to the throne mrithi wa ufalme anayefuata.

immemorial

immediacy n. ~ly adv 1 sasa hivi; papo hapo; moja kwa moja; mara moja. 2 karibu moja kwa moja (conj) mara tu ~ I have the news I will let you know mara nipatapo habari nitakuambia. ~ness n.

immemorial adj -a zamani za kale,

-a kale sana. from time ~ tangu zama (ni) za kale.

immense adj -kubwa sana. ~ly adv

mno, kwa kiasi kikubwa; (colloq) sana; kwa wingi; hasa; tele. immensity n ukubwa (wa kupita kadiri); (pl. immensities) vitu vikubwa mno.

immerse vt ~ (in) 1 chovya; tosa; zamisha; tumbukiza. 2 (occupy fully) shughulisha, zama katika shughuli (mawazo, kitabu n.k.). immersion n 1 mchovyo; mzamo; tumbukio. 2 (occupation) kushughulika, uzamaji katika shughuli (mawazo, kitabu n.k.). immersion heater n kichemshio (cha umeme).

immigrate vi ~ (to/into) ingia nchi kwa kusudi la kukaa, hamia nchi nyingine. immigrant mhamiaji. immigration n uhamiaji immigration officer ofisa uhamiaji.

imminent adj (of events, esp dangers) -a karibu sana, -a kuelekea kutokea upesi rains are ~ mvua ziko karibu his death is ~ kifo chake kiko karibu. ~ ly adv. imminence n.

immobile adj -sioenda; -siojijongeza;

-sioweza kuendeshwa; tuli kabisa. immobilize vt -fanya isiweze kusogea/kujongea; simamisha kabisa, fanya jeshi/gari lishindwe kusonga mbele; zuia fedha zisitumike. immobilization n. immobility n.

immoderate adj -a kupita kiasi, -ingi mno, -a kukithiri, -sio na kadiri. ~ly adv.

immodest adj 1 pasipo haya. 2 -chafu, -baya, -potovu ~ acts matendo machafu/ya upotovu. ~y n 1 upujufu, ukosefu wa haya/adabu. 2 uhayawani, upotovu. ~ly adv.

immolate vt ~ (to) (formal) tolea

impair

kafara, dhabihu, tambika. immolation n kutolea kafara, kudhabihu, kutambika.

immoral adj 1 -baya, -ovu. 2 -enye

tabia mbaya, -sio adilifu; (licentious) fisadi;fasiki/asherati ~ purposes dhamira ya kifisadi/potovu. 3 (of books) chafu. ~ity n 1 ubaya, uovu. 2 tabia mbaya, upotovu, ukosefu wa maadili; ufisadi acts of ~ vitendo vya kiovu/kifisadi.

immortal adj -a kuishi milele, -siokufa; -siosahauliwa n the ~s miungu ya Kiyunani na ya Kirumi; wasiokufa. ~ity n maisha ya milele, uzima/uhai usio na mwisho, kutokufa; sifa njema ya milele/inayodumu. ~ize vt -pa maisha ya milele; -pa sifa za daima.

immovable adj 1 -siohamishika (k.m. jengo, mimea) ~ property mali isiyohamishika. 2 thabiti, imara, madhubuti n (pl) ~s mali zisizohamishika. immovability n. immovably adv.

immune adj ~ (from/against /to)

(from disease) -enye kingamaradhi; (from harm by poison etc.) -sioweza kudhurika kwa sumu n.k.. immunity n 1 (exemption) kinga diplomatic ~ kinga ya kidiplomasia (kuhusu kodi ya forodha, upekuzi n.k.). 2 (from disease) kinga maradhi. immunize vt -pa kingamaradhi; kaga; fanya sugu. immunization n. immunology n. elimu ya kingamaradhi.

immure vt (formal) funga, tia ndani; weka kizuizini.

immutable adj (formal) -siobadilika, -siogeuka. immutably adv. immutability n.

imp n shetani mdogo, kishetani, pepo mbaya. ~ish adj -tundu. ~ishly adv. ~ishness n.

impact n ~ (on) 1 mgongano; dharuba. 2 athari, matokeo. vt gonga; pambanisha; songanisha (kwa kugonga).

impair vt haribu; dhoofisha. ~ mentn.

impala

impala n swalapala.

impale vt fuma. ~ment n.

impalpable adj -sioonekana; -sio shikika; -siohisika; -sioeleweka. impalpability n. impalpably adv.

impanel vt see empanel.

impart vt 1 ~(to) pa, gawa. 2

arifu, pasha ~ news to somebody pasha mtu habari.

impartial adj adilifu, -adili;

-siopendelea, -enye haki. ~ly adv kwa uadilifu, kwa idili. ~ity n uadilifu, idili.

impassable adj -siopitika the rivers are ~ mito haipitiki, haivukiki. impassability n.

impasse n 1 kichochoro kisichotoka/ kilichofungwa mwishoni. 2 shida kubwa; kipingamizi, kizuizi.

impassioned adj -enye hamaki/hamasa. impassive adj baridi, -tulivu,

-sioonyesha hisia. ~ly adj. ~ness n. impassivity n.

impatient adj 1 ~ for something/to do something -a haraka, -enye pupa, bila subira. 2 ~ (at something/with somebody) -sio vumilivu, -sio mili grow ~ kosa subira, -wa mwenye pupa. 3 be ~ of kasirishwa na kitu fulani. ~ly adj. impatience n.

impeach vt 1 onyesha wasiwasi juu ya tabia ya mtu. 2 tuhumu. ~ somebody for/of/ with something, ~ somebody for doing something (legal) shtaki mtu (agh. kwa kosa la kutumia madaraka vibaya). ~ment n.

impeccable adj maasumu, -siokosea,

bila kosa. impeccability n. impeccably adv. impeccant adj.

impecunious adj (formal) fukara, mkata.

impede vt zuia, kwamisha. impediment n kizuizi, kikwazo (of speech) kigugumizi (of marriage) kipingamizi cha ndoa. impedimenta n (pl) mizigo ya msafiri, vikorokoro (agh. vya majeshi).

impel vt ~ (to) sukuma; lazimisha;

himiza; chochea. ~lant adj, n. ~ler

impersonal

n.

impend vi karibia, -wa karibu. ~ence; ~ancy n. ~ing adj.

impenetrable adj. ~ (to) 1 -siopenyeka; -siopitika ~ to water -siopenya maji. 2 (unintelligible) sioeleweka, -siotambulikana, -a fumbo. impenetrability n.

impenitent adj -siotubu; -a moyo mgumu. ~ly adv. impenitence n.

imperative adj 1 -a haraka, muhimu, -a kuangaliwa mara moja. 2 -a kuamuru; (necessary) -a lazima, -a sharti. 3 -a kusikiwa, -a kutiiwa; -liotolewa (-liofanywa) kwa thabiti. n (gram) kitenzi cha kuamuru k.m. Go! Nenda! ~ly adv.

imperceptible adj -sioeleweka; -siotambulika (kwa sababu ya udogo). imperceptibly adv.

imperfect adj 1 -enye dosari, -kosefu, (in growth, development) -viza, -liovia. 2 (gram) ~ (tense) n isiotimilifu. n (gram) hali inayoendelea/isiyotimilifu. ~ion n. ~ly adv.

imperial adj 1 -a kifalme (hasa wa Kiingereza); -a kibeberu ~ laws sheria za ufalme/kifalme. 2 (grand, magnificent) bora, -kubwa. 3 (of weights and measures) -a Kiingereza ~ measurements vipimo vya Uingereza (k.v. painti, galoni. n 1 kionja mchuzi. 2 kipimo cha ukurasa (63 x 95 cm). ~ly adv. ~ism n ubeberu (kiuchumi, kisiasa, kiutamaduni). ~ist n. ~istic adj. imperious adj 1 -a kuamrisha he is very ~ anajiona; -a sharti. 2 -a haraka sana. imperiously adv. imperiousness n. imperium n dola, ufalme wenye mamlaka makubwa.

imperil vt hatarisha.

imperishable adj -sioharibika; -siooza; -a kudumu milele.

impermeable adj. ~ (to) (formal) -siopenyeka.

impermissible adj -sioruhusiwa.

impersonal adj 1 -sioathiriwa na hisia (za mtu binafsi); -siohusishwa na

impersonate

mtu maalum. 2 (of verbs) vitenzi visivyohusishwa na vitu hai it is raining mvua inanyesha. 3 -sio a kibinadamu ~ forces nguvu za asilia (k.v. upepo). ~ ly adv.

impersonate vt iga, jifanya (mtu mwingine), jisingizia. impersonation n 1 kuiga/kuigwa. 2 hali ya kuiga. impersonator n.

impertinent adj 1 -fidhuli, -safihi,

-a ufyosi/fyosi he was ~ at me alinifidhulikia. 2 -siohusiana (na kitu kinachonenwa). impertinence n. ~ly adv.

imperturbable adj (formal) -tulivu,

-siosisimka, -siohangaika/ hangaishwa. imperturbability n.

impervious adj ~ (to) 1 -siopitisha kitu, -siopenyeka ~ to water -siopenya maji, -siovuja. 2 (fig) -kaidi, -siosikia he is ~ to criticism hasikii ushauri.

impetigo n upele ambukizi wa malengelenge.

impetuous adj -a harara; -a haraka; -a bidii (bila kufikiri); -a kishindo. ~ly adv. impetuosity n.

impetus n kichocheo, nguvu, msukumo.

impiety n 1 kufuru. 2 tendo/neno la

kukufuru. impious adj -a kukufuru, bila heshima. impiously adv.

impinge vi,vt ~on/upon athiri, husu.

~ment n.

implacable adj -siosuluhishika;

-sioridhika; -siotulizika. implacability n. implacably adv.

implant vt 1 ~ in tia/kaza/jenga fikira moyoni, tia/kaza ndani imara. 2 (bio) pandikiza, gandamanisha (mnofu au mmea) katika kiumbe kingine. ~ation n.

implausible adj -siowezekana kuwa kweli, -a shaka. implausibly adv.

implement n kifaa, chombo (cha kazi). vt tekeleza ~ a contract tekeleza mkataba. ~ation n.

implicate vt ~ (in) husisha/ingiza mtu (lawamani/hatarini). implication n 1 kuhusisha/kuingiza lawamani/

impose

hatarini. 2 maana, kidokezi.

implicit adj ~ (in) 1 inayojitokeza (bila kutajwa), -liodokezwa. 2 thabiti. ~ belief n imani thabiti. ~ly adv. imply vt (indicate) dokeza, -wa na maana, onyesha bila kutaja.

implore vt ~ (for) omba sana, sihi, rairai ~ something from somebody omba sana kitu kutoka kwa mtu fulani. imploring adj. imploringly adv.

implosion n mlipuko kwa ndani. implode vi pasukia/lipukia ndani.

impolite adj -sio na adabu, pasipo heshima; -sio staha.~ly adv. ~ness n.

impolitic adj -sio busara.

imponderable adj (phy) 1 -siokadirika, -sio nzito. 2 (fig) -siopimika, dogo sana. n (pl. ~s) visivyokadirika, visivyopimika, sifa/hisia zisizopimika.

import vt ~ (from/into) 1 ingiza bidhaa kutoka nchi za nje. 2 maanisha, -wa na maana; onyesha. n (usu pl) 1 maduhuli: bidhaa ziingizwazo ~s & exports maduhuli na mahuruji: bidhaa zinazoingia na zinazotoka. 2 uingizaji. 3 maana, umuhimu matters of ~ mambo ya maana. ~er n. ~ation n.

important adj 1 -a maana, muhimu. 2 (of a person) -enye madaraka makubwa, kubwa look ~ jifanya kuwa mtu wa maana. ~ly adv. importance n.

importunate adj 1 -a kuombaomba, -a

kuchosha kwa maombi, -enye udhia. 2 (of affairs) -a muhimu na haraka. ~ly adv. importunity n. importune vt importune (for) 1 ombaomba sana. 2 (of a prostitute) dai; omba mno; tongoza.

impose vt,vi 1 ~ on somebody amuru, lazimisha. 2 (exact) ~ on toza, lipiza ~ a tax on something toza kodi kitu. 3 ~ upon something tumia nafasi/nzuri/kasoro n.k. (kwa manufaa) ~ an obligation upon somebody lazimisha mtu ~ hands on

impossible

somebody wekea mikono. imposing adj -a kuvutia (kwa sababu ya ukubwa, sura n.k). imposingly adv. imposition n kutoza; kuweka; kutumia (vibaya). imposition of something upon somebody kutoza mtu ushuru wa kitu imposition of conditions kuweka masharti.

impossible adj -siowezekana; -siofanyika it is ~ for me to haiwezekani make it ~ for somebody to fanya iwe ngumu kwa mtu (kufanya) you are ~ wewe ni mtu mgumu, huwezekani. the ~ n kisichowezekana suppose the ~ fikiria jambo lisilowezekana (kutokea). impossibly adv. impossibility n kutovumilika.

impost n kodi; ushuru; ada.

impostor n ayari, laghai (ambaye anajifanya mtu mwingine). imposture n ulaghai, utapeli.

impotent adj pasipo nguvu, dhaifu,

-siofaa neno; (of males) hanithi, -siofaa. ~ly adv. impotence n.

impound vt 1 kamata (mali) kisheria. 2 fungia (wanyama waliopotea) bomani.

impoverish vt 1 fukarisha, fanya kuwa maskini. 2 (weaken) punguzia nguvu, dhoofisha, chakaza. ~ed adj maskini; -liochakaa, dhaifu. ~ment n 1 umaskini, ufukara. 2 udhaifu.

impracticable adj -siotekelezeka,

muhali; (of routes) -siopitika, -sioweza kutumika. impracticably adv. impracticability n. impractical adj -siofaa/weza kutendwa; -sioweza kutenda.

imprecate vt ~ on/upon somebody (formal) laani mtu. imprecation n laana, apizo imprecatory adj.

imprecise adj -sio sahihi, -enye kosa.

imprecision n. ~ly adv.

impregnable adj -sioshindika; -a

kuweza kuzuia/kuhimili mashambulio yote, -sioingilika. impregnably adv. impregnability n.

impregnate vt ~ (with) 1 tia/-pa mimba. 2 kifu. 3 jaza.

impresario n 1 meneja wa kikundi cha

impromptu

sanaa. 2 mdhamini wa burdani, hadhara.

impress vt ~ (on/upon)/with 1

gandamiza, (imprint) piga chapa/ mhuri n.k. 2 (influence) shawishi; athiri, vutia ~ something on somebody's memory tia kwenye/athiri fikra za mtu I was not much ~ed sikuvutiwa sana how did that ~ him? jambo hilo lilimvutia namna gani? be favourably ~ed pendezwa mno. n chapa; alama ya muhuri. ~ion n 1 chapa, alama. 2 toleo, chapa (jumla ya nakala za vitabu zilizopigwa chapa pamoja). 3 (notion) fikra, wazo, maono; picha it is my ~ion nionavyo be under the ~ion that fikiria kwamba, pata picha/wazo, ona. ~ionism n mbinu ya uchoraji, uandishi, uandikaji (usiotiwa madoido). ~ionist n. ~ionistic adj. ~ionable adj -epesi kuathiriwa, -epesi kushawishika. ~ ionability n. ~ive adj -a kuvutia; -enye kuathiri; -enye kuchochea hisia (za ndani) ~ive ceremony sherehe iliyovutia. ~ively adv. ~iveness n.

imprest n masurufu: fedha anayopewa mtumishi wa umma kutumia kwa kazi maalum.

imprimatur n (RC Church) kibali rasmi; ithibati ya kupiga chapa kitabu the book has received the ~ of the Government kitabu kimepata ithibati ya serikali; (fig) kibali, idhini.

imprint vt ~ with/on 1 chapa; piga

muhuri. 2 tia moyoni ideas ~ed on the mind fikra zilizotiwa moyoni n alama, wazo moyoni.

imprison vt funga, tia kifungoni/ gerezani/jela. ~ment n kifungo life ~ment kifungo cha maisha.

improbable adj si yamkini, -sioelekea kuwa kweli; -sioelekea kufanyika I think the story is ~ ninafikiri hadithi hii si yamkini. improbably adv. improbability n kutoelekea kuwa kweli.

impromptu adj -a papohapo,

improper

-siotayarishwa kabla ~ speech hotuba ya papo kwa papo (bila kutayarishwa kabla) adv papo hapo; bila maaandalizi he spoke ~ aliongea pale pale.

improper adj 1 -siofaa vulgar language is ~ before children lugha ya matusi haifai mbele ya watoto; -sio vizuri, si adabu it is ~ for children to shout while adults are talking sio vizuri kwa watoto kupiga kelele watu wazima wanapoongea. 2 (indecent) -chafu. 3 -sio sawa, sio sahihi. ~ly adv. impropriety n utovu wa adabu, (indecency) upujufu, uchafu; jambo lisilofaa.

improve vt,vi 1 endeleza; -wa -zuri zaidi; fanya vizuri zaidi. ~ on/upon tengeneza vizuri zaidi things are improving mambo yanaanza kutengemaa; (of health) pata nafuu. 2 tumia vizuri (wakati, faida, hali). ~ment n 1 kuendeleza. 2 maendeleo; kufanya vizuri zaidi. improvable adj -enye kutengenezeka, -enye kustawishika.

improvident adj (formal) -siofikiria wakati ujao; badhirifu. ~ly adv. improvidence n. ubadhirifu.

improvise vt,vi 1 faragua. 2 tunga (tengeneza, vumbua) papo hapo ~d song wimbo uliotungwa wakati ulipokuwa ukiimbwa; tengeneza kwa haraka bila vifaa vyake hasa. improvisation n. ufaraguzi.

imprudent adj -sio busara, -a kijinga. ~ly adv. imprudence n tendo la kijinga.

impudent adj -fidhuli, -juvi, -safihi;

jeuri. ~ly adv. impudence n ufidhuli, usafihi.

impugn vt (formal) bisha, tia/tilia

shaka. ~able adj -enye kubisha, bishi.

impulse n 1 msukumo give an ~ to

endesha, sukumiza; (desire) shauku, raghba, hamu, mihemko ya ghafula. on the ~ of the moment mvuto wa ghafla insane ~ msukumo wa kiwazimu irresistible ~ msukumo

in

usiozuilika. 2 mhemko wa ghafla on (an) ~ mara moja, bila kutafakari. impulsion n msukumo, kutaka kwa ghafla; kichocheo. impulsive adj (of persons, their conduct) -a msukumo; -a harara; -a kuamua ghafla. impulsively adv. impulsiveness n.

impunity n kupona/kuepuka adhabu. with ~ bila hofu ya kuadhibiwa wala kuumia.

impure adj 1 -chafu; -enye najisi; -liochanganywa. 2 -a ashiki, -kware. n unajisi. impurity n uchafu, takataka; najisi.

impute vt ~ (to) (formal) shutumu, tuhumu, zulia; dhania. imputation n tuhuma, shutuma; kudhania, kuzulia imputation on a character kusingizia, kusuta.

in1 adv part (contrasted with out) 1 ndani ya (used with many vv) come ~ ingia. give ~ salimu amri. 2 be ~ -wa nyumbani; fika, wasili is the train ~ yet? garimoshi limefika? (of crops) vunwa; patikana mangoes are ~ now embe zinapatikana sasa; ingia the new fashion is ~ mtindo mpya umeingia the new Director is ~ power mkurungezi mpya ameshika madaraka/ameingia kwenye madaraka. 3 be ~ for something patikana na jambo baya; -wa tayari kufanya jambo, pata. have it ~ on something taka kulipiza kisasi. be ~ on something (colloq) husika kwenye shirika, -wa na sehemu/fungu kwenye jambo/kitu. day ~, day out; week ~, week out; year ~, year out siku nenda rudi, kila siku, mara nyingi. ~ and out kuingia na kutoka mara kwa mara. be (well) ~ with somebody patana na, -wa katika hali ya urafiki na, elewana na mtu. 4 (preceding a n). an ~-patient n mgonjwa aliyelazwa hospitalini.

in2 prep (for use of/ in/ with many nn and vv) 1 (of place) -ni, katika, kwenye the village ~ which he was born kwenye kijiji alichozaliwa ~

in

Tanzania Tanzania; children playing ~ the street watoto wanaocheza mtaani ~ school/church/mosque shuleni/kanisani/msikitini. 2 (of direction) kwa ~ this direction kwa upande huu ~ all directions (kwa) pande zote. 3 (indicating direction of motion or activity) ndani ya, katika he put his hands ~ the pockets aliweka mikono yake mifukoni they fell ~love walipendana cut the orange ~ two kata chungwa katika vipande viwili. 4 (of time when) kwenye, mnamo, wakati wa ~ 1990 mnamo mwaka wa 1990, mnamo mwaka 1990 ~ his youth katika ujana wake ~ the morning wakati wa asubuhi. 5 (of time) katika, baada ya ~ the presence of wakati akiwepo I shall be back ~ a short-time nitarudi katika muda mfupi/baada ya muda mfupi. 6 (indicating inclusion) kwenye seven days ~ a month siku saba kwenye mwezi ~ his thirties kwenye miaka ya thelathini. 7 (indication of ratio) kwa one ~ five moja kwa tano. 8 (of dress etc) -wa na/-enye/katika, -liovaa the woman ~ white yule mwanamke mwenye nguo nyeupe ~ uniform katika sare. 9 (indicating physical sorroundings, circumstances etc) go out ~ the rain nenda, toka kwenye mvua sleep ~ the open lala nje/sehemu ya wazi. 10 (indicating state or condition) ~ good order katika hali nzuri ~ a hurry kwa haraka ~ secret kwa siri ~ poverty kwenye/katika umasikini. 11 (indicating form, shape, arrangement) ~ three parts katika sehemu tatu ~ groups katika makundi. 12 (indicating the method of expression, the medium, means, material etc) speaking ~ Kiswahili akisema kwa Kiswahili ~ two colours kwa rangi mbili ~ few words kwa maneno machache. 13 (indicating degree or extent) kwa ~ large quantities kwa kiasi kikubwa ~ great numbers kwa idadi kubwa. all

inane

kwa jumla. 14 (indicating identity) you will always have a good friend ~ me nitakuwa rafiki yako siku zote. 15 (indicating relation, reference, respect) ~ every way kwa kila njia young ~ year mdogo kwa miaka weak ~ the head sio na akili, punguani. 16 (indicating occupation, activity etc) he is ~ the army ni askari. 17 ~ camera (leg) faragha; (colloq) kwa siri. ~ that kwa sababu, kwa kuwa. ~ as/so far as kwa kiasi kwamba, kwa vile. ~ itself hasa, katika uhalisi wake. ~ as such/much as adv kwa sababu/ kwa kuwa. 18 ~ for it! patwa, patikana you are ~ for it! umepatikana. be ~ for something fungwa. ~lieu of badala ya. ~ itself yenyewe.

in3 n (only in) the ~s and (the) outs

chama cha kisiasa kilichoshika hatamu na kile kilichoondoka; sehemu tofauti; undani wa jambo.

inability n kutoweza.

inaccessible adj -siofikika, -sioendeka (of book) -sioeleweka. inaccessibility n.

inactive adj 1 -a kimya, -liotulia, zima. 2 (dull) -vivu, -legevu, -zito. inactivate vt fanya kuwa tuli. inactivity n. inaction n kimya; kuzubaa.

inaccurate adj si sahihi. inaccuracy n. inadequate adj ~ for something/to do something -siotosha; -siofaa; -pungufu. ~ly adv. inadequacy n.

inadmissible adj -sioruhusiwa, -sio halali, -siokubalika, -a kutokubalika. inadmissibility n.

inadvertent adj (formal) -sio -angalifu, -a kupitiwa, -a kughafilika. ~ly adv. inadvertence n kutokuwa mwangalifu, kupitiwa.

inalienable adj (formal) (of rights etc)

-sioondolewa; -sioachanika; -sioachanishika.

inalterable adj -siogeuzika;

-siobadilika. inalterability n.

inane adj -sio na maana, -puuzi,

inanimate

-pumbavu. ~ly adv. inanity n.

inanimate adj 1 -fu, -siokuwa na uhai. 2 (spiritless, dull) baridi, -liopooza, chapwa ~ conversation mazungumzo (maneno) yaliyopooza.

inanition n (formal) 1 utupu. 2 udhaifu/kuwa hoi kutokana na njaa.

inapplicable adj ~ (to) -siofaa, -siopasa.

inappreciable adj 1 -dogo sana. 2

-siothaminika, -siotambulika.

inapproachable adj -siosogelewa, -siofikika; (of person) -sioambilika.

inappropriate adj ~ to -siofaa. ~ness n.

inapt adj 1 -siohusiana (na somo/jambo linalojadiliwa). 2 (unskilled) -si stadi, mbumbumbu. ~itude n kutohusiana na; kukosa ustadi.

inarticulate adj (of speech) 1

-siotamkwa vizuri; -sioweza kusema dhahiri, -sioweza kujieleza kwa ufasaha. 2 -siounganika.

inattention n kutokuwa makini; uzembe; kutokuwa na usikivu. inattentive adj.

inaudible adj -siosikika. inaudibility n. inaugural adj -a kuzindua, -a kuanzisha, -a kufungua ~ ceremony sherehe ya kuzindua. inaugurate vt 1 zindua, fungua, ingia rasmi. 2 (begin) anzisha, simika/tawaza. 3 tambulisha (afisa mpya, profesa n.k.) katika sherehe maalum/rasmi. inauguration n.

inauspicious adj -a ndege mbaya, -a kisirani, -a nuksi. ~ly adv.

inauthentic adj isio kweli wala halisi; isioaminika wala kutegemewa. ~ity n.

inboard adj (naut) -wa ndani ya kiunzi.

inborn adj -a kuzaliwa nao; -a asili; -a silika, -a maumbile.

inbound adj (of ship) -a kuelekea nyumbani.

inbred adj 1 -a kuzaliwa nao; -a asili.

2 -liozaliwa na wazazi wa nasaba moja. inbreeding n uzao baina ya wazazi wa nasaba moja.

incentive

inbuilt adj (of feelings qualities etc) -a kuzaliwa nayo; -a kuundwa nayo.

incalculable adj 1 -siopimika (kwa kuwa -kubwa au -ingi). 2 -siotabirika. 3 (of a person, character etc) geugeu; -sioaminika.

incandescent adj -a kutoa nuru ikiwa na joto. incandescence n.

incantation n nuio, tabano.

incapable adj ~ (of) -sioweza. drunk and ~ adj -levi kabisa. incapability n.

incapacitate vt ~ somebody (for/from) 1 ondolea nguvu/ uwezo/haki n.k.; -towezesha. 2 toa (kwa kutofikia kiwango), -topasisha. incapacity n. ~ (for something/for doing something/to do something) kutoweza; ukosefu wa uwezo.

incarcerate vt (formal) funga jela. incarceration n.

incarnadine (poet) adj -ekundu. vt fanya kuwa nyekundu.

incarnate adj 1 -enye mwili (kiwiliwili), (of somebody's character) -enye umbo (hasa la binadamu) a devil ~ shetani mwenye umbo la binadamu. 2 (of an idea, ideal etc) -a kujitokeza kama binadamu. vt 1 -pa umbo la mtu; -pa mwili. 2 tekeleza wazo. 3 (of a person) -wa mfano wa binadamu (kisifa). incarnation n 1 kuwa na mwili; kuwa na umbo (hasa la binadamu). the incarnation n kupata mwili (kwa Yesu Kristo). 2 kuwa mfano halisi ( wa tabia n.k.).

incautious adj -sio hadhari, si -angalifu; -a harara. ~ly adv.

incendiary n 1 (person) mchomaji mali (kwa moto) kwa nia mbaya. 2 mchochezi adj 1 -a kuchoma, -a kuteketeza; chochezi. 2 (bomb) -a kusababisha moto. incendiarism n.

incense1 n ubani; udi; (smoke) buhuri burn ~ fukiza.

incense2 vt kasirisha, ghadhibisha.

incentive n ~ (to something/to do something/to doing something) kichocheo, kifuta jasho,

inception

marupurupu; motisha give ~ toa motisha.

inception n (formal) mwanzo; chanzo.

incertitude n (formal) wasiwasi, shaka. incessant adj -a kufululiza; -naorudiwa, -siokwisha. ~ly adv.

incest n kujamiiana kwa maharimu.

~uous adj -a kujamiiana kwa maharimu, -enye kosa la kujamiiana baina ya maharimu.

inch n 1 inchi. 2 kiasi kidogo, chembe. ~ by ~ kidogo kidogo. by ~es kidogo tu the bus missed me by ~es basi lilinikosakosa kidogo tu; kidogokidogo. every ~ kabisa, hasa she is every ~ a doctor ni daktari hasa. within an ~ of karibu sana. not yield an ~ kutokubali hata chembe. vt,vi sogea kidogokidogo.

inchoate adj (formal) -a kuanza; -lioanza tu; -siokamilika, -siokuzwa inchoative adj -a kuonyesha mwanzo wa tendo/hali. (gram) ~ verbs n vitenzi vianzishi (vya tendo/hali) k.m. get katika get dark na fall katika fall ill.

incidence n 1 jinsi jambo linavyoathiri mambo the ~ of disease jinsi ugonjwa ulivyoathiri (kwa kuenea, hatari zake n.k.). 2 (phys) tokeo angle of ~ pembe ya kuingilia.

incident1 adj ~ to (formal) -a kawaida/kutegemewa katika (jambo fulani) the social obligations ~ to life in diplomatic services shughuli za kijamii ambazo ni za kawaida katika kazi za kibalozi.

incident2 n 1 kadhia, tukio. border ~ n tukio (la mapigano madogo) mpakani. 2 (in a play/poem) tukio katika mchezo/shairi. 3 (modern use) tukio linalozibwazibwa na utawala (ili lisijulikane). 4 tukio linalovutia wengi. ~al adj. ~al (to) 1 inayo-ambatana na (lakini si -a lazima). 2 -dogo -dogo; -a dharura; -a ziada. 3 -nayoweza kutokea; -a kawaida (katika mazingira fulani) discomforts ~ to pregnancy matatizo ya kawaida wakati wa ujauzito. ~ally adv.

incognito

incinerate vt choma (mpaka kuwa majivu), teketeza. incinerator n tanuri la kuchomea taka. incineration n uchomaji (mpaka kuwa majivu); uteketezaji.

incipient adj -a kwanza, -inayoanza.

incise vt kata, chanja, toja. incision n mkato, chanjo; (small) mtai; (ornamental) chale, tojo. incisive adj 1 -kali, -enye kukata. 2 (of a person's mind) -enye akili, -erevu; -a kuenga. 3 (of remarks) -kali. incisively adv. incisor n (of human beings) kato, chonge; meno ya mbele.

incite vt ~ somebody (to something/ to do something) chochea; shawishi, vuta. ~ment n.

incivility n (formal) ufidhuli, utovu wa adabu, ujuvi.

inclement adj (formal) (of weather or climate) kali; baridi; -a dhoruba inclemency n.

inclination n 1 mwinamo an ~ of the

head kuinamisha kichwa an ~ of the body kuinama (kwa kuonyesha heshima) ~ of a roof mwinamo wa kipaa. 2 ~ (to something/to do something) mwelekeo; matakwa, kupenda. 3 (math) mbetuko. incline vt,vi 1 inama; inamisha; inika. 2 (liter) (usu passive) elekeza. 3 (math) betuka. 4 incline to/towards something elekea. n mwinamo; mteremko.

inclose;inclosure n see enclose; enclosure.

include vt -wa pamoja na; tia/weka

ndani; -wa na ndani Price is sh. 500/= postage ~d bei ni sh. 500/= pamoja na gharama za posta. inclusion n. inclusive adj. inclusive (of) 1 pamoja na. 2 -ote pamoja inclusive terms (at a hotel etc) gharama ya huduma zote, bei yote (bila kuwa na gharama nyingine k.m. za chakula n.k.). inclusively adv.

incognito adj -liojificha; -siotambulika (kwa kutumia jina la bandia) adv

incognizant

bila kutambulika.

incognizant adj -a -sio na dhamira/

hisia, -a kutotambua be ~ of something kutokuwa na habari. incognizance n.

incoherent adj -sioeleweka, (of speech) -sioshikamana, -siofungamana, -sio na taratibu. ~ly adv. incoherence n.

incombustible adj (formal) -siochomeka; -siowaka, -sioungua.

income n mapato, chumo, pato, kipato live within one's ~ ishi kwa kutumia pato lake. national ~ n pato la taifa. ~ tax n kodi ya mapato.

incoming adj -nayoingia, -liofika. ~ tide n maji kujaa.

incommensurate adj ~ (to/with) 1 -siolinganishika, -siofananishika. 2 -siolingana (kwa ukubwa, hadhi n.k.) -siopimika, -siofanana.

incommode vt (formal) sumbua, udhi,

bughudhi.

incommunicable adj 1 -sioelezeka. 2 (of a person) baridi. incommunicado adj (of somebody in confinement) -liotengwa; -siowasiliana, -liokatiwa mawasiliano (na watu wengine). incommunicative adj -siowasiliana, -siosema.

incommutable adj -siobadilishika, -a hali moja.

incomparable adj 1 ~ (to/ with) -siolinganishika, -sioweza kufananishwa, -siofanana (na kitu). 2 -a kupita -ote; bora sana. incomparably adv.

incompatible adj ~ (with) kinyume; -siopatana, -siochukuana (na); -sioingiliana na excessive smoking is ~ with good health kuvuta sigara kupita kiasi ni kinyume cha afya bora. incompatibility n.

incompetent adj -siojimudu, -sioweza. ~ly adv. incompetence/ incompetency n.

incomplete adj -siokamili, pungufu. ~ly adv.

incomprehensible adj -sioeleweka. incomprehesion n kutoelewa, kushindwa kuelewa.

inconvenience

incompressible adj -sioweza

kushindiliwa; -siobanika; gumu sana.

inconceivable adj -siowazika;

-siofahamika; (colloq) -sioaminika; -a kushangaza.

inconclusive adj (of evidence, arguments, discussions, actions) -enye shaka; -siohitimishwa; -sioamuzi; -siosadikisha. ~ly adv.

incondite adj (of literary compostion

etc) -siosanifiwa; -sio -a kistadi.

incongruous adj ~ (with) -siopatana; -siofaa mahali. ~ly adv. incongruity n hitilafu, tofauti.

inconsequent adj -siofuatana; -siofungamana (na yaliyosemwa au kutendwa hapo awali) (of a person) -nayesema/-nayefanya mambo bila mpango. ~ly adv. ~ial adj.

inconsiderable adj -dogo, -sio na thamani.

incosiderate adj -siojali hisia za wengine, -siofikiria wengine.

inconsistent adj ~(with) 1 -siopatana, -siowiana, -siofuata utaratibu. 2 kinzani. ~ly adv. inconsistency n.

inconsolable adj -siofarijika, -siotulizika.

inconsonant adj -siopatana.

inconspicuous adj -sioonekana kwa

urahisi; -siojitokeza; -dogo sana. ~ly adv.

inconstant adj -enye kubadilika, -sio

(na) msimamo, geugeu. inconstancy n.

inconsumable adj 1 -sioungua. 2 (in

Pol Econ) -siofaa kutumiwa (bila kutengenezwa kwanza).

incontestable adj -siopingika; -siokanika; -siokanushika.

incontinent adj -sioweza kujizuia;

(med) -sioweza kujizuia kukojoa na kunya. incontinence n. ~ly adv (lit.) mara moja; huria; holela.

incontrovertible adj (formal)

-siokanika; -siopingika.

inconvenience n usumbufu, taabu, takilifu; maudhi. vt sumbua, taabisha, udhi. inconvenient adj -sumbufu; -siofaa. inconveniently

inconvertible

adv.

inconvertible adj -siobadilishika,

-siosarifika. inconvertibility n.

incorporate vt, vi ~ (in/into/with)

unga, unganisha, shirikisha, ungana na, -wa shirika. incorporate adj -liounganishwa; -lioshirikishwa. incorporation n.

incorporeal adj (formal) -sio na mwili (umbo la wazi).

incorrect adj -kosefu, -sio sahihi.

~ness n. ~ly adv.

incorrigible adj (of a person, his faults, etc) -siorudika; -siorekebishika.

incorruptible adj 1 -sioharibika,

-siochakaa, -siooza. 2 (honest) -sioshawishika, -siohongeka. incorruptibility n.

increase n nyongeza, ongezo,

ongezeko ~ in kuongezeka; kukua, kupanuka be on the ~ anza kukithiri, ongezeka. vt, vi ongeza, zidisha; kithiri. increasingly adv.

incredible adj -siosadikika; (colloq) -a kushangaza; -sioaminika, -a ajabu sana. incredibility n incredibly adv. incredulous adj -siosadiki, -sioamini be ~ tosadiki ~ smile tabasamu la mshangao. incredulity n.

increment n 1 nyongeza. 2 faida, mapato. ~al adj.

incriminate vt tia hatarini; ponza. incrimination n. incriminatory adj.

incrust vt,vi see encrust.

incrustation n utando, mtomo, gamba; kufanya gamba.

incubate vt,vi 1 atamia (mayai); atamiza mayai (kwa kutumia taa kubwa). 2 (of bacteria etc.) pevuka; pevusha, kuza. incubation n kuatamiza, kukuza incubation period muda wa kupevuka (agh. wa vijidudu vinavyoleta ugonjwa). incubator n kitamizi, kiangulio, kitotoa. incubative adj. incubatory adj.

incubus n (nightmare) jinamizi; ndoto mbaya; balaa.

inculcate vt ~ something (in somebody) (formal) funda, fundisha,

indecision

kazia mawazo inculcate in young people the `ujamaa' ideology, fundisha/kazia vijana itikadi ya ujamaa. inculcation n.

inculpate vt (formal) tia hatiani; shutumu; laumu inculpative adj. inculpatory adj.

incumbent adj be ~ on/upon somebody (to do something) hapana budi, -wa wajibu, -a kubidi it is ~ upon me imenipasa, imenibidi, ni wajibu wangu, ni juu yangu. n 1 padri wa mji, kasisi. 2 mtu ashikiliaye cheo fulani ~ Member of Parliament mbunge aliyepo. incumbency n.

incur vt ingia/pata ~ a debt ingia/pata

deni ~ expenses gharamia, lipia ~ the expenses lipia gharama.

incurable adj -sioponyeka, -siotibika. n mtu asiyeponyeka. incurably adv.

incurious adj -siodadisi, -a kutodadisi. incuriosity n.

incursion n ~ on/upon vamio la ghafla (la askari wa adui); (fig) kuingilia, mwingilio.

incurved adj -liobonyea, -liobinukia

ndani. incurvation n.

incus n fuawe (ya sikio).

indebted adj ~ to somebody -enye kuwiwa, -enye deni; -a kupaswa kushukuru be ~ wiwa, -wa na deni; paswa kushukuru; fadhiliwa he is ~ to me anawiwa nami. ~ness n.

indecent adj 1 (of behaviour, talk etc) (immodest, obscene) -sio na heshima, -a aibu. ~ assault n shambulio la kuaibisha mtu hadharani. ~ exposure kuonyesha uchi hadharani. ~ behaviour n tabia mbaya. 2 (colloq) -sio sahihi, -siofaa. indecency n. ~ly adv.

indecipherable adj -siosomeka;

-siotambulikana, -sioweza kueleweka; siosimbulika.

indecision n kusita moyoni, kutoamua, kutoweza kuchagua/kukata shauri. indecisive adj -a shaka, -sio dhahiri; -a kusita; -sio amuzi. indecisiveness n. indecisively adv.

indeclinable

indeclinable adj (gram)

-sionyambulika.

indecorous adj (formal) -sio adilifu,

-sio na heshima/staha; -siofaa. ~ly adv. indecorum n utovu wa adabu/ heshima/staha; ufidhuli; jambo lisilofaa.

indeed adv 1 kweli, hasa, ndiyo, naam. 2 (to intensify) sana I am very glad ~ nimefurahi sana thank you very much ~ asante sana; hasha. 3 (as a comment to show interest, suprise, irony etc) kweli, hasa who is she ~! kweli/hasa yeye ni nani!

indefatigable adj (formal) -siochoka, -siochoshwa.

indefeasible adj (formal) -siotanguka.

indefectible adj -sioshindwa; -siokosa;

-sioharibika.

indefensible adj -siolindika ~ behaviour -sioweza kutetewa.

indefinable adj -sioelezeka; siofasilika.

indefinite adj -sio dhahiri; -sio na

mwisho, -sio na mipaka the ~ article see a, an. ~ly adv.

indelible adj (of marks, stains, ink or (fig) of disgrace) -siofutika; -sioondoleka ~ ideas fikra zisizofutika ~ pencil marks alama za penseli zisizofutika.

indelicate adj (of a person, his speech, behaviour etc) si -a adabu, -siofaa, -chafu, pujufu. indelicacy n.

indemnify vt 1 ~ somebody (for something) lipa, fidia, (agh. gharama aliyoipata mtu mwingine). 2 ~ somebody (from/against something) linda, kinga. indemnification n. indemnity n fidia bima.

indemonstrable adj -sioonyesheka, -siodhihirika.

indent vt,vi 1 tia pengo, bonyeza.

2 (in printing) jongeza msitari ndani you must ~ the first line of each paraghaph lazima kujongeza ndani msitari wa kwanza wa kila aya. 3 ~ (on somebody) for something (comm) agiza bidhaa kwa njia ya agizo maalum. n (comm UK) hati ya kuuza bidhaa nje; hati maalum ya

India

kuagizia vitu. ~ation n 1 kuagiza; kuagizwa. 2 pengo; kighuba; kujongeza.

indenture n mkataba, (agh. wa watumishi au mwanagenzi) take up one's ~s pata/pokea/rudishwa nakala ya mkataba (baada ya kipindi kwisha); maliza mkataba (wa utumishi). vt fanya mkataba (wa utumishi).

independent adj 1 ~ (of) huru ~ means pato lisilotegemea kazi. 2 -enye kujitawala, -lio huru, -enye kujitegemea. n ~ MP n mbunge anayejitegemea. ~ly adv. independence n uhuru; upweke, upekee; kujitegemea. independency n.

indepth adj -a kina an~ analysis uchanganuzi wa kina.

indescribable adj -sioelezeka, -a kushangaza. indescribably adv.

indestructible adj -sioweza kuharibika. indestructibility n.

indeterminate adj -sio wazi, -sio -a dhahiri; si yakini. indeterminable adj. indeterminably adv. indeterminacy n. indetermination n.

index n 1 kielezo, alama, ishara. ~

finger n kidole cha shahada. 2 faharasa the ~ card kadi ya faharasa. 3 ~number/figure n nambari faharasa. 4 (alg) nambapeo. vt faharisisha, orodhesha. ~er n.

India n Uhindi ~ paper karatasi

nyembamba sana. ~man n (formerly) meli (iliyosafiri baina ya Uhindi na Ulaya). ~-rubber n kifutio. Indian n 1 Mhindi. 2 American ~n/West ~n Mhindi mwekundu adj 1 -a Kihindi. ~ n Ocean n Bahari ya Hindi. ~n club n rungu la mazoezi. ~n corn n mahindi. in ~ n file -moja baada ya ingine. ~n ink n wino mweusi agh hutengenezwa Uchina na Ujapani. ~n red adj -ekundu, udongo mwekundu. ~n summer n mwisho wa majira ya joto; (US) (fig)

indicate

kurudiwa na mawazo ya ujana uzeeni.

indicate vt (fig) onyesha; elekeza; dokeza; ashiria. indication n alama, dalili, ishara. indicative adj 1 -a kuarifu indicative mood hali ya kuarifu. 2 ~indicative of/that -wa dalili, alama ya. indicator n indiketa; kiashirio; dalili, alama.

indices n pl of index.

indict vt (leg) shitaki rasmi. ~able adj. ~ment n shtaka rasmi lililoandikwa.

indifferent adj ~ (to) 1 -siojali he is ~ to everything hajali chochote. 2 -a kawaida; (of medium, quality) -a vivi hivi, -a kadiri. ~ly adv. indifference n kutojali, kutojiingiza, kutojihusisha it is a matter of indifference to me sijali.

indigenous adj ~ (to) -a asili, -enyeji. ~ tribe n mbari/kabila la asili.

indigent adj (formal) fukara. indigence

n.

indigestion n kuvimbiwa. indigested adj 1 -sio na umbo. 2 -siofikiriwa vyema; -siomeng'enywa; -sio na mpango. indigestible adj -siomeng'enyeka.

indignant adj -a kuudhika, -enye

uchungu (hasira, hamaki, hasa kwa sababu ya kudhulumiwa) feel ~ at something udhika kwa jambo fulani he was ~ to learn about the news alikasirishwa na habari. ~ly adv. indignation n uchungu,hasira (isababishwayo na dhuluma/tabia mbaya); msononeko.

indignity n ufidhuli, kitu kinachomvunjia mtu heshima.

indigo n nili. ~ (blue) n bluu iliyoiva. indirect adj 1 -sionyooka, -a kuzunguka, sio dhahiri ~ rule utawala wa kuwatumia viongozi wananchi usio wa moja kwa moja ~ taxation kodi isiyo dhahiri. 2 -siokusudiwa, -siolengwa an ~ outcome matokeo yasiyokusudiwa. 3 (gram) ~ speech n kauli taarifa iliyotajwa. ~ object n yambiwa.

individual

~ly adv. ~ness n.

indiscernible adj -siofahamika; -sio tambulika, -siobainika.

indiscipline n utovu wa adabu; ukosefu wa nidhamu.

indiscreet adj 1 si -a busara/akili.

2 -sio na hadhari; -sio na adabu. indiscretion n kuvunja miiko ya jamii; kusema/kutenda bila hadhari.

indiscrete adj -siogawanyika katika sehemu.

indiscriminate adj -sio chagua kwa busara/mpango. ~ly adv. indiscrimination n.

indispensable adj ~ to -a lazima/ sharti/msingi. indispensability n.

indisposed adj 1 -gonjwa kidogo he is ~ yu mgonjwa kidogo. 2 ~ for/to do something -a kutopenda/ kutotaka/kutoridhika he is ~ to go hapendi/hataki kwenda. indisposition n 1 ugonjwa, kutojisikia vizuri. 2 ~ for/to do something kutopenda, karaha.

indisputable adj -siokanika,

siopingika, dhahiri. indisputability n.

indissoluble adj 1 -siotanguka, -siovunjika, -a daima. 2 -sioyeyuka.

indistinct adj si wazi/dhahiri shahiri/ bainifu,-siotambulikana vizuri. ~ly adv. ~ness n. indistinguishable adj -sio tafautishika; -siotambulikana; -siobainika; -sioonekana dhahiri.

indivertible adj -siogeuzika; -sioweza kupelekwa upande mwingine.

individual adj 1 -a binafsi. 2 -a mmoja mmoja ~ help msaada wa mtu mmoja mmoja ~ problems matatizo ya binafsi. n 1 mtu binafsi. 2 (colloq) mtu, binadamu. ~ly adv. ~ism n 1 ubinafsi. 2 nadharia ya ubinafsi. ~ist n mbinafsi; mfuasi wa nadharia ya ubinafsi. ~istic adj -enye ubinafsi, -a kujipendelea; -a nadharia ya ubinafsi. ~ity n 1 nafsi, (tabia, sifa za mtu binafsi). 2 hali ya pekee. 3 (usu pl) ~ities n mapendeleo, matakwa ya mtu binafsi. ~ize vt 1 bainisha,

indivisible

pambanua. 2 shughulikia kipekee/kimoja kimoja. ~ization n.

indivisible adj -siogawanyika, -sio

changulika. indivisibility n.

Indo- pref (in compounds) -a Kihindi I~ European language familia ya lugha zizungumzwazo sehemu za Ulaya na Magharibi ya Asia.

indoctrinate vt ~ somebody with funza, fundisha, funda (hasa dhana au fikra maalum), tia kasumba. indoctrination n.

indolent adj 1 -a ukunguni, -vivu, -tepetevu. 2 (med) -sioleta maumivu. indolence n.

indomitable adj -sioshindika; thabiti; -siokata tamaa.

indoor adj (attrib only) -a ndani (hasa ndani ya nyumba), -a kufanywa ndani ya nyumba. ~s adv ndani ya nyumba, ndani keep ~s kaa nyumbani.

indorse vt see endorse. ~ment n. indrawn adj 1 -liovutwa (ndani). 2 -sio changamfu, baridi, -liojivuta.

indubitable adj pasipo shaka; bayana, wazi; hakika.

induce vt 1 ~ somebody to do something vuta, shawishi, pembeja. 2 (cause) anzisha, sababisha ~ labour (in child birth) anzisha uchungu. 3 (of electricity) dukiza; toa umeme. ~ment n mvuto, kishawishi, kivutio, motisha.

induct vt ~ somebody (to/into as) ingiza; simika; (US) ita jeshini. ~ion n 1 kuingiza, kusimika. 2 kudukiza umeme; kupitisha umeme. 3 matumizi ya visa kufikia kanuni/wazo la jumla. 4 (maths) hoja tama. 5 (US) kuitwa jeshini. ~ coil n pindi la kuingiza umeme. ~ -pipe n bomba la kuingiza umeme. ~ -valve n vali ya kuingiza umeme. ~or n kidukiza/kiingiza umeme. ~tive adj 1 -a kufuata mantiki kupata wazo la jumla. 2 -a kudukiza/ kuingiza umeme au sumaku.

indue vt see endue.

indulge vt, vi 1 endekeza;deka ~

inebriate

somebody in his whims etc. endekeza matakwa ya mtu. ~ oneself jipendeza, jiachia, jifurahisha. 2 ~ in jiingiza ~ oneself in excessive drinking jiingiza katika ulevi wa kukithiri ~ oneself in prayer jitoa kwa sala, shikilia sala ~ in sin jiingiza katika dhambi. ~nt adj -pole, -ema mno, taratibu ~nt parents wazazi dekezi/wema mno. ~ntly adv. ~nce n 1 kudekeza, kuendekeza. 2 (of desires) ~ in kujiachia, kujitoa kwa kujiingiza katika uzoefu wa kujifurahisha. 3 (rel) rehema, kipenda roho, upendeleo. 4 kitu mtu anachopendelea; starehe to have a cup of coffee every evening is my ~nce kahawa ndio kitu ninachopendelea kila jioni.

induna n jumbe.

indurate vt,vi fanya sugu/-gumu; gandamiza; shupaza. induration n. indurative adj.

industry n 1 bidii ya kazi, uchapaji kazi. 2 viwanda, tasnia. industrial adj -a kiwanda. industrial action n mgomo take industrial action goma. industrial alcohol alkoholi ya viwanda industrial dispute mgogoro wa kiwanda/kazi industrial estate eneo la viwanda industrial workers wafanyakazi wa viwandani industrial states nchi za viwanda industrial relations uhusiano wa wafanyakazi kiwandani. industrial revolution n mapinduzi ya viwanda. industrialism n utasinia, mfumo wa uchumi unaotegemea viwanda. indutrialist n 1 mwenye kiwanda, mtasinia. 2 shabiki wa viwanda. industrialize vt jenga kiwanda, anzisha/endeleza mfumo wa viwanda. industrialization n ujenzi wa viwanda. industrious adj -enye bidii ya kazi, -chapakazi.

indwelling adj (formal) -enye kukaa

ndani; -enye kukaa moyoni.

inebriate vt (formal or joc)levya. n

mlevi adj -levi. inebriation;

inedible

inebriety n ulevi.

inedible adj -siolika .

ineffable adj (formal) -siyoelezeka.

~ happiness n furaha isiyoelezeka, furaha isiyokifani.

ineffaceable adj -siofutika.

ineffective adj -sio na nguvu uwezo/ ufanisi; hafifu, dhaifu, -siofaa. ~ness n.

ineffectual adj -sioweza kufanikisha jambo; -siojiamini.

inefficient adj -zembe, -sio na ufanisi -siofanya kazi vizuri. ~ly adv. inefficiency n uzembe.

inelastic adj yabisi/kavu; -sionyumbuka, -siovutika; -sioweza kubadilika/kufaa hali fulani. ~ity n. inelegant adj si -zuri, -sio na madaha, -siopendeza. ~ly adv. inelegance n.

ineligible adj ~ (for) -siostahiki,

-siofaa, -siojuzu (kuchaguliwa/ kuteuliwa n.k.). ineligibility n.

ineluctable adj -siozuilika; -sioepukika, -siokwepeka death is ~ kifo hakiepukiki.

inept adj 1 -siostadi, -sioelekevu. 2

-pumbavu, -siofaa, -a upuuzi. ~ly adv. ~itude n upumbavu, upuuzi.

inequality n 1 kutokuwa sawa; tofauti, (ya cheo, utajiri n.k.). 2 (pl) (of surface) kutokuwa tambarare.

inequity n upendeleo; dhuluma. inequitable adj (formal) -sio haki.

ineradicable adj -sioondoleka; -siong'oleka; -siofutika.

inert adj 1 -fu, kama kifu, kama kufa. 2 -tepetevu, baridi. ~ia n 1 ukunguni, uzito. 2 (phy) inesha.

inescapable adj -sioweza kuepukwa, -sioepukika.

inessential adj -sio -a lazima, siyo

muhimu, -sio -a msingi.

inestimable adj -siokadirika (kwa ukubwa, thamani, wingi, n.k.).

inevitable adj -sioepukika; -siozuilika

~ accident ajali isiyoepukika accidents are ~ ajali hazina kinga fig) -a kuonekana/kusikika kila mara; -a kutarajia (kuwepo/kutokea).

infant

inevitability n.

inexact adj -sio sahihi, -enye kosa,

-enye hitilafu; si halisi. ~itude n terminological ~itudes (joc euphem) uongo.

inexcusable adj -siosameheka. inexhaustible adj 1 -sioisha,

-siomalizika (kwa kuwa ingi), -ingi mno. 2 (unwearied) -siochoka. inexhaustibility n.

inexorable adj -sio na huruma, -siosamehe; -kali; -siobadilika wala kuzuilika. inexorably adv.

inexpedient adj -siofaa, siyo faida. inexpedience n. inexpediency n.

inexpensive adj -sio ghali, rahisi, -a bei nafuu. ~ness n.

inexperience n ukosefu wa uzoefu/ujuzi. ~d adj -sio na uzoefu/ujuzi/tajriba.

inexpert adj si -stadi, si -bingwa.

inexpiable adj (of offence) -siolipika; -siosameheka; (of resentment etc) -siotulizika, -siofutika.

inexplicable adj -sioelezeka; -siofumbulika.

 

 

inexplicit adj si wazi/bayana/dhahiri; -a mafumbo; -sio fafanuliwa.

inexpressible adj -sioelezeka ~ sorrow majonzi yasiyoelezeka. inexpressive adj -sioonyesha, -siojulisha; -sio elezeka kwa maneno inexpressive of anger (uso usioonyesha kukasirika).

inextinguishable adj -siozimika;

-siotulizika.

in extremis adj -a kukaribia kufa, mahututi; (fig) -wa katika shida kubwa.

inextricable adj -siochangulika;

-siodadavulika; -sioachanishika; -siochanganulika.

infallible adj 1 -enye hakika, -sioweza kukosa/kukosea. 2 -sioshindika; -sio kosea, -a uhakika. infallibility n.

infamous adj 1. -enye sifa mbaya, -ovu sana, -a aibu/fedheha. infamy n tabia/kitendo kibaya.

infant n 1 mtoto mchanga/mkembe ~

school shule ya awali/chekechea. ~ mortality n vifo vya watoto

infantry

wachanga. 2 (leg) mtoto (chini ya miaka 18). 3 (attrib) changa; -a kitoto. ~icide n 1 kosa la uuaji wa mtoto mchanga. 2 uuaji wa watoto

wachanga. ~ile adj 1 -a kitoto ~ile paralysis polio. 2 -a mwanzoni. ~ilism (med) n kuvia. infancy n 1 ukembe. 2 mwanzo; uchanga aviation is no longer in its infancy urukaji hewani umekomaa a nation still in its infancy taifa linaloinukia. 3 (leg) utoto, umri chini ya miaka 18.

infantry n askari wa miguu. ~man n askari (katika kikosi cha miguu).

infatuate vt be ~d with/by somebody pumbazwa, lewa (upendo, ashiki n.k.); tia ashiki (hamu, upendo); (with worldly goods etc) ghururika na dunia. infatuation (for) n hali ya kutia ashiki, kupenda mno/ovyo.

infect vt (with) ambukiza; eneza; chafua; (fig) athiri become ~ed ambukizwa; (of wound) ingiwa vidudu; (air, water) chafua. ~ion n 1 maambukizo, ambukizo; kuambukiza; kuenea; kuingia vidudu. 2 ugonjwa wa kuambukiza. 3 (fig) athari ~ious adj 1 -a kuambukiza; -a kuenea. 2 (fig) -enye kushawishi/kuvutia.

infelicitous adj -siofaa; -siokubalika, -siostahili. infelicity n udhaifu.

infer vt (from something) (that) ona, fahamu (kwa kujua sababu yake); hitimisha/amua (kutokana na). ~able adj. ~ence n. ~ential adj.

inferior adj dhalili; -a chini, duni n mtu wa chini (kwa cheo, uwezo n.k.), udhalili. ~ity n udhalili. ~ity complex n udhalili, (hali ya) kutojiamini, kutojitosheleza.

inferno n jehanamu, motoni; tukio la kutisha (agh. mteketeo mkubwa). infernal adj -a jehanamu; -a shetani; ovu kabisa; (colloq) baya sana, -a kuchusha, -a kuchukiza. infernally adv.

infertile adj gumba, tasa; (of land) -sio na rutuba; kame. infertility n.

infest vt (of rats, insects etc) jaa tele,

inflame

tapakaa/zagaa a house ~ed with rats nyumba iliyojaa/tapakaa panya. ~ation n

infibulation n mfyato, ufyataji: hali ya kufunga kuma kwa bizimu/kushona kuzuia kujamiiana.

infidel n kafiri adj kafiri. ~ity n

(conjugal) uzinzi; udanganyifu,

kukosa uaminifu.

infighting n (boxing) mapigano ya

karibu; (fig) mashindano makali, mashindano ya kikatili.

infill (also infilling) n 1 kujenga majengo ya kujazia. 2 kifusi, vifaa vya kujazia pengo.

infiltrate vt,vi ~ something (into something); ~ (into/through) (water) penya; penyeza. ~ soldiers penyeza askari (katikati ya maadui); (of ideas) ingia akilini. infiltration n.

infinite adj 1 -sio na kikomo, -sio na mwisho, (maths) isiyokoma. 2 -siopimika, -kubwa sana; -ingi sana. the ~ n Mungu. ~ly adv. ~simal adj -dogo mno; (maths) kiduchu. infinitude n (formal) wingi usio na mwisho, pasipo kiasi. infinity n pasipo mwisho/kikomo; (maths) namba isiyo na kikomo. infinitive n (gram) kitenzijina adj -a kitenzi jina. infinitival adj.

infirm adj 1 dhaifu (hasa kwa sababu ya uzee au ugonjwa). 2 goigoi, -sio thabiti, pungufu wa akili/mawazo ~ of purpose -a kusitasita. ~ity n. ~ary n hospitali; (schools etc) zahanati. ~arian n.

infix vt ambika kati. n (gram) kiambishi kati.

inflame vt, vi 1 washa; waka; tia moto, choma. 2 hamasisha, tia hamaki, chochea; kasirisha. 3 (of sore etc.) vimba; vimbisha. inflammable adj 1 -a kuwaka, -a kuwashika; -a kuchomeka, -a kushika moto. 2 -a hamaki. inflammation n 1 mwako, moto. 2 (swollen place) uvimbeuchungu. inflammatory adj 1 (med) -enye uvimbe. 2 -a

inflate

kuhamakisha/kuhamasisha/kuchochea.

inflate vt ~ something (with) 1 shinikiza; jaza (upepo). 2 (expand) vimbisha, panua ~d language maneno mazuri yasiyo na maana. 3 (fig) tia moyo/kiburi/tumaini. ~ with pride vimbisha kichwa. 4 (enlarge) ongeza, kuza; fumuka/futuka ~ the currency ongeza fedha katika nchi ili kupandisha bei ya vitu. inflation n 1 kuvimba. 2 kupanda kwa gharama za maisha (kutokana na ongezeko la fedha). 3 (econ) mfumko/mfutuko (wa bei). inflationary adj.

inflect vt 1 badili, geuza. 2 (gram)

nyambulisha majina, vitenzi n.k. 3 pinda. 4 (phy) (of light) pindisha. 5 (mus) badili sauti. ~ive adj. ~ion n 1 mabadiliko. 2 (gram) unyambulisho wa maneno. 3 kupinda (nuru). 4 (mus) mahadhi. inflexible adj 1 -siopindika, -sionyumbuka. 2 (fig) -gumu, -siobadili; -shupavu; thabiti, madhubuti. inflexibility n. inflexibly adv.

inflict vt ~ something (on/upon). 1 piga, umiza, tesa ~ a penalty toa adhabu, tesa. 2 lazimisha, shurutisha ~ one's friendship on somebody shurutisha urafiki. ~ion n.

inflight adj -enye kutukia/kutolewa wakati ndege inapaa.

inflorescence n 1 shaziua: hali ya kuwa na maua. 2 (lit or fig) kuchanua; ustawi.

inflow n 1 kumiminikia ndani, kutiririkia ndani. 2 (tech) bomba la kutiririkia (maji). ~ing adj.

influence vt athiri; vuta, shawishi. ~(on/upon) n 1 uwezo wa kuathiri/ kuvutia. 2 mvuto, ushawishi, athari. 3 uwezo (kutokana na nafasi) he used his ~ to get his wife the job alitumia uwezo wake kumpatia kazi mke wake. influential adj -enye kuvutia, -enye kushawishi; -enye uwezo an influential person mtu mashuhuri. influentially adv.

influenza n (colloq abbr flu) mafua,

homa ya mafua.

ingenuous

influx n kumiminikia ndani; kuingia kwa wingi.

inform vt,vi 1 ~ somebody (of something) julisha, arifu, pasha habari, fahamisha a well-~ed person mjuzi, mweledi wa mambo. I am ~ed nimeambiwa, nimesikia habari. 2 ~ against/on somebody shtaki; toa habari juu ya; semea. ~ant n kijumbe mtoa habari. ~er n mtoa habari, mbega. ~ation n 1 ~ation (on/about) kuarifu, kuarifiwa/kupashwa habari. 2 habari, taarifa a piece of ~ation taarifa fupi. ~ ation bureau n ofisi ya habari. ~ative adj -enye taarifa nyingi, -a kuarifu; -a kujuvya, -enye kuelewesha.

informal adj 1 (irregular) -sio rasmi, si -a taratibu, -a kienyeji. 2 -lio nje ya taratibu. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

infra- adv chini, baadaye. ~ dig pred adj -siolingana na hadhi yake pref. ~ -red adj -a miali isiyoonekana (chini ya upinde). ~-structure n muundo msingi, kikorombwezo.

infraction n kosa, uvunjaji sheria.

infrequent adj -a mara chache, -a nadra. ~ly adv. infrequency n.

infringe vt 1 vunja; asi; halifu. 2 ~

(upon) ingilia don't ~ on other's rights usiingilie haki za wengine. ~ment n.

infuriate vt ghadhibisha, kasirisha sana.

infuse vt 1 ~ into/with jaza, tilia (moyo, ujasiri n.k.). 2 lowesha; lowana (ili kutoa ladha); nywesha; nywea. infusion n 1 kujaza, kutilia. 2 unyweshaji (dawa, mimea n.k.). 3 uchanganyaji infusion of new blood uchanganyaji wa damu mpya.

ingathering n mkusanyo, mavuno.

ingenious adj 1 (of a person) -erevu, stadi; bunifu, vumbuzi. 2 (of things) -liofanywa kwa maarifa/werevu. ~ly adv. ingenuity n.

ingenuous adj (formal) -sio na hila,

nyofu, -kunjufu; -adilifu, kweli. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ingenue n (msichana)

ingest

mtulivu/mnyofu; mwanamwali (agh. katika tamthiliya).

ingest vt (formal) (lit. or fig) (food etc)akia, meza. ~ion n.

inglorious adj 1 -a aibu/fedheha,

pasipo heshima. 2 -siofahamika; duni. ~ly adv.

ingoing adj -pya; -nayoingia,

-nayohamia.

ingot n kipande, kidonge (cha metali chenye umbo la tofali); kibongemetali.

ingraft vt see engraft.

ingrained adj 1 -liotopea, -liokolea

sana ~ habits tabia iliyotopea/ iliyojengeka. 2 -ingi, -liojazana, -lioshika. ~ dirt n uchafu ulioshika.

ingratiate vt ~ oneself with somebody jipendekeza, jikomba, rairai. ingratiatingly adv.

ingratitude n utovu wa shukrani, kutokuwa na shukrani, kutoshukuru. ingrate (arch) adj -sio na shukrani,-siofadhila. n mtu asiye na shukrani.

ingredient n kiambato.

ingress n (formal) kuingia; mwingilio; haki ya kuingia free ~ kusabilia, kuingia; kiingilio bure.

ingroup n kikundi cha ndani.

ingrowing adj -a kukua ndani, (k.m.

ukucha). ingrown adj. ingrowth n.

inhabit vt sakini, ishi. ~able adj. ~ant n mkazi.

inhale vt,vi vuta hewa (hadi ndani ya mapafu), jaza mapafu ~cigaratte smoke jaza moshi wa sigara ndani ya mapafu. ~r n kivutia hewa.

inharmonious adj si -linganifu, -sio

patana.

inherent adj -a asili ~ defect dosari ya asili. ~ly adv.

inherit vt,vi rithi she ~ed her mother's kindness alirithi ukarimu wa mama yake. ~ance n urithi; mirathi. ~or n. ~able adj.

inhibit vt zuia, kataza. ~ somebody (from doing something) zuia mtu kufanya jambo. be ~ed zuiwa; (psych) jizuia. ~ion n kuzuia, kusita; (psych) kujizuia. ~ory adj.

inject

inhospitable adj -sio karimu; (of places) -siokalika. inhospitality n utovu wa ukarimu; kutokalika.

inhuman adj -a kinyama, -katili, sio -a kiutu. ~ity n ukatili, unyama. ~e adj -a kikatili, -sio na huruma.

inhume vt (liter) zika, fukia.

inimical adj ~ (to) (formal) -a (kuleta)

uhasama; -a kudhuru.

inimitable adj (formal) -sio na kifani; -sioigika.

iniquitous adj (formal) ovu sana, dhalimu. ~ly adv. iniquity n udhalimu, uovu.

initial adj -a mwanzo; -a kwanza, -a

awali ~ capital mtaji wa kuanzia ~ letter herufi ya kwanza; (esp pl) herufi za mwanzo za majina ya watu k.m. F.R. (for Felix Rajabu). vt tia herufi za kwanza za jina kama sahihi. ~ly adv.

initiate vt 1 anza; anzisha. 2 ~ somebody into a group ingiza mtu katika kikundi. 3 ~ somebody into something fundisha, funda. ~ somebody into traditional customs tia mtu jandoni/unyagoni/kumbini. n mtu aliyeingizwa chamani/kundini; mtu aliyetiwa jandoni. initiation n mwanzo; kuingiza; kufundwa, kufunzwa n.k.; jando. initiator n. initiative n 1 ari, uwezo wa kuanzishia mambo/kuvumbua njia n.k.; moyo wa kujituma he has no initiative hana ari mwenyewe do something on one's own initiative fanya jambo mwenyewe have the initiative -wa na nafasi ya kuanzisha take the initiative (in doing something) anza (kufanya jambo). 2 haki, uwezo wa raia wa kutoa hoja zao nje ya bunge (kama ilivyo Uswisi).

inject vt ~ (something into somebody/something); ~somebody/something (with something) ingiza/jaza (uowevu) kwa nguvu; piga sindano ~ something into somebody's arm piga sindano mkononi mwa mtu. ~ion n

in-joke

1 kuingiza. 2 (dawa ya) sindano give an ~ piga sindano fuel ~ion utemaji fueli.

in-joke n mzaha/utani wa wachache

injudicious adj (formal) si -a busara;

si -a akili; -sio -a hekima. ~ly adv.

injunction n amri ya kisheria (agh.

iliyoandikwa) prohibitory ~ amri ya kukataza.

injure vt 1 dhuru, umiza. 2 jeruhi.

~d adj -liojeruhiwa ~ somebody's feelings muumiza mtu. the ~d n majeruhi. injurious adj injurious (to) -a kudhuru, -a kuumiza; -a kutia hasara. injury n 1 dhara; uharibifu do somebody an injury umiza mtu. 2 jeraha sustain no injury nusurika, -topata jeraha.

injustice n udhalimu, jambo lisilo la

haki do somebody an ~ elewa vibaya (bila sababu); -totendea (mtu) haki.

ink n wino. ~-bottle/pot n chupa ya wino, kidau. ~-pad n kikausho. ~ stand n kishikizo cha chupa ya wino. ~-well n kidau. vt paka/tia wino. ~ in andika kwa wino. ~ out futa kwa wino. ~y adj -liopakwa wino; -eusi kama wino, -a giza sana.

inkling n kidokezo, fununu give somebody/have/get an ~ (of something) -pa/pata/sikia fununu (ya kitu).

inlaid pt, pp of inlay.

inland adj 1 -a bara ~ regions mikoa ya bara. 2 -enye kupatikana ndani ya nchi. ~ Revenue n (GB) kodi ya bidhaa za ndani; (colloq) Idara ya Kodi (ya bidhaa za ndani) adv kuelekea bara.

inlaws n pl (colloq) (of parents) wakwe, (sing.) mkwe father~ baba mkwe; (of sisters/brothers) shemeji/wifi.

inlay vt (in/into/with) tia njumu/ vipambo/vipande vya mbao/metali kwenye ubapa wa kitu k.m. sakafu, mlango n.k.. n 1 njumu; vipambo; vipande vya mbao n.k.; kitu kilichotiwa njumu. 2 (dentistry) uzibaji/jino kwa dhahabu, plastiki n.k.

inoffensive

inlet n 1 njia; mlango. 2 (creek) hori, ghuba ndogo. 3 (of cloth) upapi.

in loco parentis adv (Lat) kwa niaba ya, badala ya wazazi.

inmate n mkazi (mwenzi) (agh. katika hospitali, jela n.k.).

in memoriam adv (Lat) kwa ukumbusho.

inmost adj -a ndani kabisa, chokomeani; (fig) -a siri sana; -a faragha mno.

inn n hoteli, mkahawa. ~ keeper n mwenye hoteli. I~ of Court n (GB) vyama vya mawakili; nyumba za vyama hivyo London.

innards n pl (colloq) 1 tumbo na matumbo. 2 sehemu ya ndani.

innate adj -a hulka, -a asili, -a maumbile. ~ly adv.

inner adj -a ndani; -a ndani zaidi. the ~ man n nafsi, undani wa mtu; tumbo. ~most adj chokomeani.

inning n (baseball/cricket) 1 kipindi. 2

(pl) zamu ya timu kupiga mpira; (fig) muda wa kutawala (wa chama); kipindi cha harakati za maisha. have a good ~s (colloq) -wa na maisha marefu na ya furaha.

innocent adj 1 ~ (of) -sio na kosa/hatia; maasumu. 2 -sio na ubaya, -siodhuru. 3 -siojua/tambua uovu. 4 -jinga. n 1 maasumu. 2 mjinga; punguani. ~ly adv. innocence n.

innocuous adj -siodhuru, -sio na madhara, -sioumiza.

innovate vt vumbua, anzisha jambo

jipya. innovator n mvumbuzi. innovation n uvumbuzi, bidaa.

innuendo n kijembe, masengenyo, chongezi.

innumerable adj -siohesabika, -ingi

mno.

inoculate vt ~ somebody (with/ against something) chanja (ili kukinga na maradhi); (fig) tia kasumba. inoculation n chanjo; kuchanjwa have an inoculation against small pox chanjwa ndui.

inoffensive adj -siodhuru; -sio -kali,

inoperable

-sio shari.

inoperable adj (of tumours etc) -siotibika kwa operesheni; -sioweza kufanyiwa operesheni.

inoperative adj (of laws, rules etc)

-siofanya kazi, -siotumika, -liotanguka.

inopportune adj (esp. of time) si -a

wakati wake, -siofaa (kwa wakati ule) it is ~ si wakati wake. ~ly adv.

inordinate adj (formal) -sio na mpaka, -siozuiliwa vizuri; -a kuzidi, -ingi mno. ~ly adv.

inorganic adj 1 -sio na uhai; -sioelezeka kiitimolojia. 2 -sio -a kikaboni ~ chemistry kemia isiyo ya kikaboni. ~ally adv.

in-patient n mgonjwa aliyelazwa hospitali.

inpouring n (formal) mmiminiko adj -enye kumiminika.

input n pembejeo.

inquest n ~ (on) uchunguzi rasmi wa kisheria (agh. wa kifo ambacho chanzo chake hakijulikani).

inquietude n wasiwasi, jakamoyo.

inquire vt 1 uliza ~ the way uliza njia ~ how to do something uliza jinsi ya kufanya. 2 ~ about/ concerning/ upon ulizia, uliza kuhusu (jambo fulani) ~ about the accident uliza kuhusu ajali. ~ after ulizia hali (ya afya ya mtu). ~ for taka, omba (kuona). ~ into chunguza, dadisi. ~r n mdadisi. inquiring adj dadisi. inquiringly adv. inquiry n 1 maulizo; kuuliza inquiries maulizo. 2 kutafuta habari, uchunguzi hold an inquiry into peleleza, chunguza court of inquiry (mil) mahakama ya kuchunguza mashtaka (dhidi ya mtu) preliminary inquiry uchunguzi wa awali. inquisitive adj dadisi, -a kulabizi, -enye udaku inquisitive person mdadisi, mdukizi. inquisitively adv. inquisitiveness n. inquisition n uchunguzi (agh. rasmi) the inquisition (also called the Holy Office) Mahakama ya Kanisa Katoliki ya kukomesha uasi (hasa karne ya 15

insensitive

na 16). inquisitor n. inquisitorial adj.

inroad n shambulio la ghafla (ili kuharibu). make ~ on/upon ingilia.

inrush n mmiminiko.

insane adj -enye wazimu, -enye kichaa an ~ asylum hospitali ya vichaa. ~ly adv. insanity n wazimu, kichaa.

insanitary adj -enye kudhuru afya;

chafu, -sio safi (kiafya).

insatiable adj ~ (of/for) (formal) -siotosheka, -sioridhika kamwe/kabisa; -lafi. insatiably adv. insatiate adj (formal) -sioridhika, -siotosheka.

inscribe vt ~ (on/in/with) andika; weka alama, chora ~d stock (comm) bidhaa ambazo majina ya wanaozimiliki yameorodheshwa. inscription n mwandiko; maneno yaliyoandikwa kwenye mnara wa ukumbusho, sarafu, medali n.k.

inscrutable adj -siotambulikana; -siofahamika, -sioeleweka; -a fumbo.

insect n mdudu. ~ powder n dawa (poda) ya kuulia wadudu. ~icide n kiuwa wadudu. ~ivorous adj -enye kula wadudu.

insecure adj 1 -sio salama/imara/ madhubuti; -a hatari. 2 -enye shaka, -enye wahaka. insecurity n.

inseminate vt 1 otesha, zalisha. 2 tia mbegu, himilisha. insemination n uhimilishaji artificial insemination uhimilishaji bandia, kuzalisha kwa chupa.

insensate adj 1 (formal) -sio hisi, -siotambua. 2 pumbavu, -siofikiri.

insensible adj 1 -liopoteza fahamu

(kwa kuumia, ugonjwa n.k.); -siohisi, -siotambua. 2 ~ (of) -siofahamu. 3 ~ (to) -siohisi, -liokufa ganzi; -siojali;-sio na imani/huruma. 4 (of changes) dogo/-a polepole sana. insensibly adv. insensibility n (formal) kutoona; kutotambua; kutohisi.

insensitive adj ~ to -siohisi; -siojali

(hisia za) wengine. ~ly adv.

insentient

insensitivity n.

insentient adj -sio na hisia, -sio na uhai.

inseparable adj ~ (from) -siotengeka, -siochangukana ~ friends marafiki wasiotengana, (marafiki wa) chanda na pete; marafiki wa damu.

insert vt ingiza, tia, weka. n kitu kilichoingizwa. ~ion n kuingiza, mwingizo; kitu kilichoingizwa/tiwa.

in-service attrib adj (-a) kazini ~ training mafunzo kazini.

inset n 1 kitu kilichotiwa (ndani ya kitu kingine). 2 kipachikwa: ramani/picha ndogo iliyopigwa chapa katika ramani/picha kubwa. vt ingiza, pachika.

inshore adj, adv. -a ufukoni; karibu na ufuko ~ current mkondo wa ufukoni.

inside n 1 ndani; upande wa ndani ~ out ndani nje (nje ndani) (fig) know something ~ out fahamu fika/kwa undani/barabara turn every thing ~ out pindua kila kitu kabisa. 2 sehemu ya ndani ya barabara/njia. 3 (colloq) tumbo na matumbo adj -a ndani -a (kutoka) ndani. ~ track n (in racing) njia ya ndani; (fig) kushika mpini; hali ya kufaidika an ~ job (sl) wizi wa ndani (kwa msaada wa mmoja wa wahusika/wenye mali) adv, prep 1 ndani. ~ of (colloq) katika; chini ya we cannot finish the construction ~ of two weeks hatuwezi kumaliza kujenga kwa wiki mbili. 2 (GB sl) ndani, jela. ~r n 1 alwatani, mwenyeji, mjuzi wa mambo (kutokana na nafasi yake katika chama, shirika n.k). 2 wanachama.

insidious adj -enye kudhuru kwa siri.

~ly adv. ~ness n.

insight n. ~ (into/something) umaizi, utambuzi. gain ~ into something pata ujuzi wa kitu.

insignia n alama za cheo (kama

nishani, tepe, taji n.k.).

insignificant adj -sio na maana; -sio na thamani; -dogo. ~ly adv. insignificance n.

inspire

insincere adj -nafiki; si -aminifu,

-danganyifu. ~ly adv. insincerity n.

insinuate vt 1 ~something/oneself (into) penyeza/jiingiza (polepole na kwa hila). 2 ~ (to somebody) that dokeza, singizia; pigia kijembe. insinuation n.

insipid adj chapwa, -sio na ladha. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ~ity n.

insist vt,vi ~ on/that sisitiza; shikilia. ~ent adj. ~ence n.

in situ adv (Lat) mahali pake pa asili. insofar adv see in.

insole n soli ya ndani (katika kiatu),

wayo wa ndani.

insolent adj ~ (to) fidhuli, jeuri; -enye dharau. ~ly adv. insolence n.

insoluble adj 1 (of substances) -sioyeyuka. 2 (of problems etc) -siotatulika, -siofumbulika.

insolvent adj muflisi, -sioweza kulipa deni, -liofilisika. n muflisi; suta, mtu asiyeweza kulipa deni. insolvency n.

insomnia n kurukwa na usingizi, kukosa usingizi. ~c n.

insomuch adv hata, kwa kiasi. ~ as/ that kwa kiasi kwamba.

insouciance n kutojali; kutohusika. insouciant adj -siojali.

inspan vt (S. African) fungia (farasi, ng'ombe n.k.) gari.

inspect vt kagua, angalia. ~ion n kukagua; ukaguzi.~or n 1 mkaguzi ~or of weights and measurements Mkaguzi wa mizani na vipimo. 2 (of police force) mrakibu. ~orate n ukaguzi.

inspire vt ~ something (in somebody); ~ somebody (with something/to do something) 1 tia moyo, tia msukumo, vutia. 2 fungulia mlango wa heri. ~d adj -enye wahyi. inspiration n 1 msukumo, kariha, zinduko. 2 inspiration (to/for) mfano wa kuvutia, mtu/kitu kitiacho msukumo, mvuto. 3 wazo zuri/la heri lijalo ghafla. 4 ufunuo, wahyi, mwongozo wa kiungu.

instability

instability n kutotengemaa; kuyumba-yumba, kutokuwa thabiti/imara; udhaifu, kutosimama tisti.

install; instal vt ~ somebody/ something (in something) 1 simika. 2 weka, funga chombo mahali (kwa matumizi). 3 sakini, jipanga. ~ation n 1 msimiko; uwekaji wa chombo; usakini. 2 chombo kilichowekwa (kwa matumizi).

installment n sehemu, fungu (la deni, malipo, mali, maandiko, hadithi n.k.); hisa ~ system mfumo wa kubandika, mfumo wa malipo ya kidogo kidogo; pay by ~s lipa kidogo kidogo.

instance n 1 mfano, namna for ~ kwa mfano, mathalani in this ~ hapa, kwa upande huu/namna hii in the first ~ kwanza. 2 at the ~ of somebody kwa ombi la fulani vt toa kama mfano; taja.

instant adj 1 -a mara moja, -a papo

hapo. 2 -a haraka. 3 (abbr. inst) (comm; dated) -a mwezi huu the 2nd ~ siku ya pili ya mwezi huu. ~ly adv mara moja conj mara. n mara do it/this ~ly fanya sasa hivi wait an ~ ngoja kidogo, ngoja kwanza I'll come in an ~ nitakuja sasa hivi. ~aneous adj -a mara moja, papo hapo. ~aneously adv.

instead adv badala ya if Jimmy is not willing to go with you, take John ~ kama Jimi hataki kwenda nawe mchukue Joni badala yake. ~ of (prep phrase) badala ya.

instep n kiganja cha mguu (juu ya

wayo); sehemu ya juu ya wayo.

instigate vt ~ something/somebody to do something chochea. instigator n mchochezi. instigation n uchochezi ~ to revolt chochea maasi.

instil vt ~ something into somebody 1 ingiza, tia taratibu/polepole, kidogo kidogo. 2 fundisha kidogo kidogo. ~lation n.

instinct n silika pred,adj -~ with

-liojaa a poem ~ with sorrow shairi lililojaa huzuni. ~ive adj -a silika,

insular

bila kufikiri. ~ively adv.

institute1 n taasisi; chuo I~ of

Kiswahili Research Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili I~ of Finance Management Chuo cha Usimamizi wa Fedha.

institute2 vt 1 anzisha, asisi ~ proceedings anzisha mashauri. 2 ~ somebody (to) teua. institution n 1 kuanzisha asasi. 2 chama, shirika; taasisi. 3 sheria/desturi/ya kawaida. 4 jumba la ustawi wa jamii (k.v. nyumba ya watoto yatima/wazee). institutional adj -a jengo la ustawi wa jamii. institutionalize rasimisha; anzisha/geuza kuwa sheria/desturi; peleka/weka mtu (yatima, kichaa n.k.) katika nyumba ya ustawi wa jamii.

instruct vt 1 funza, fundisha. 2 (give orders) agiza, amuru. 3 pasha habari, arifu. ~or n mwalimu. ~ion n 1 mafunzo, mafundisho. 2 (pl) maagizo; mwongozo, maelekezo. ~ional adj -a mafunzo; -a kielimu. ~ive adj -a kufundisha,-a kuelimisha. ~ively adv.

instrument n 1 chombo, zana, kifaa. 2 (mus) ala. 3 chombo; mtumishi. 4 (leg) hati rasmi. ~ation n upangaji wa muziki wa ala; utengenezaji wa zana za kisayansi. ~al adj 1 -a kutumika; -a kusaidia; -a kuhusika he was ~ al in her getting a promotion alihusika na kupanda kwake cheo. 2 -a ala ~al music mziki wa ala. ~alist n mpiga mziki wa ala. ~ality n wakala, njia.

insubordinate adj asi; -kaidi; -a dharau. insubordination n.

insubstantial adj 1 -sio kitu/dutu, -sio halisi. 2 -sio na maana; -sio na msingi.

insufferable adj 1 -siovumilika,

-siostahimilika. 2 -enye majivuno mengi, -enye kujiona sana.

insufficient adj haba, pungufu,

-siotosha. ~ly adv. insufficiency n.

insular adj 1 -a kisiwa. 2 -enye tabia

insulin

kama za watu wa visiwani; (agh) -enye mawazo, maarifa n.k. finyu ya mumo humo tu. ~ism n. ~ity n. insulate (from) vt 1 funika kwa mpira, hami (ili nguvu ya umeme, joto isitoke n.k.). 2 tenga, kinga. insulator n kihami. insulation n.

insulin n insulini: dutu inayotumika

kutibu ugonjwa wa kisukari.

insult vt tukana; fedhehesha. n tusi. ~ing adj. ingly adv.

insuperable adj -sioshindika; -sioondoleka. insuperability n.

insupportable adj -siovumilika, -siostahimilika.

insure vt ~ (against) kata bima ~ one's life kata bima ya maisha. the ~d n mwenye bima. the ~r n mweka kampuni ya bima. the insurant n (leg) mlipaji wa bima. insurance n 1 bima. 2 malipo ya bima insurance policy hati ya bima. 3 (safeguard) kinga.

insurgent n askari mwasi adj -asi;

pinzani.

insurmountable adj -sioshindika,

-sioondoleka.

insurrection n upinzani (dhidi ya serikali); maasi. ~ary adj. ~ist n mpinzani; mwasi.

intact adj -zima, kamili; -sioharibiwa,salama.

intaglio n kutia nakshi kwa kuchonga;

kito chenye nakshi.

intake n 1 kipenyo, kiingizio, mlango, mkondo. 2 idadi (iingiayo/iingizwayo katika kipindi fulani) university ~ idadi iingiayo chuo kikuu. 3 eneo lililokaushwa maji (yatokanayo na bahari n.k.).

intangible adj tatanishi, -sioweza kueleweka kwa urahisi; -sioshikika ~ ideas mawazo yasiyoshikika ~ assets (of business) mali isiyopimika (k.v. hadhi, uaminifu n.k.).

integer n namba kamili; kitu kizima;

(math) namba kamili. integral adj 1 -a lazima, muhimu (katika kamilisha kitu/jambo) the arms and legs are integral parts of a human being

intensify

mikono na miguu ni sehemu muhimu za mwili wa binadamu. 2 -zima, -kamilifu. 3 (math) -a rejeo; -lio na namba kamili. integrally adv. integrate vt 1 unganisha; fungamanisha; kamilisha; changanya. 2 fanya/-wa sawa. integration n. integrity n 1 uaminifu; uadilifu; msimamo. 2 uzima, ukamilifu.

integument n (formal) kifuniko, ngozi, ganda.

intellect n 1 akili; uwezo wa kufikiri;

bongo. 2 (collective sing or in pl) watu wenye akili. ~ual adj 1 -a akili, -enye akili ~ ual development ukuzi wa akili 2. -somi, -enye kupendelea taaluma. n msomi. intelligence n 1 akili intelligence test jaribio la kupima akili. intelligence quotient n kiwango cha akili. 2 habari, taarifa intelligence service/agency shirika la ujasusi/ upelelezi. intelligent adj -enye akili. intelligently adv. intelligentsia n (usu collective sing the intelligentsia) wamaizi, wasomi.

intemperate adj (formal) (of a person or his behaviour) -sio na kadiri; -sio na simile; -a kupita kiasi; -siojitawala ~ habits (esp) ulevi wa kupita kiasi. ~ly adv. intemperance n.

intend vt 1 ~ (for) kusudia, nuia, azimu, dhamiria this was ~ed for us hii ilikusudiwa sisi what do you ~ to do? unakusudia kufanya nini? 2 ~ (by) (old use) maanisha what do you ~ by this word? unamaanisha nini? ~ed n mchumba (wa kike).

intense adj 1 (of qualities) -a nguvu, -kali sana ~ heat joto kali sana. 2 (of feelings etc) kali sana (of persons) -enye jaziba/mhemko. ~ly adv sana.

intensify vt,vi ongeza, zidisha (nguvu n.k.); ongezeka, zidi. intensification n. intensifier n. intensity n mkazo; nguvu, ukali. intensive adj 1 makini; shadidi intensive agriculture

intent

kilimo shadidi. intensive care n uangalizi makini wa wagonjwa intensive care unit kitengo cha wagonjwa mahututi. 2 (gram) -a nguvu; -a kutia mkazo.

intent adj 1 -enye dhamira/shauku, makini. 2 ~ on/upon something/ doing something (of persons) -a kuazimia/kudhamiria. n 1 (chiefly leg) azimio, dhamira criminal ~ dhamira ya jinai with good ~ kwa dhamiri njema. do something with ~ fanya kitu kwa kudhamiria 2 (pl) to all ~s and purposes kwa kila hali. ~ion n nia, kusudi, dhamira for the ~ion of kwa kusudi la, kwa nia ya. ~ioned adj -enye nia well ~ioned -enye nia njema. ~ional adj -a makusudi. ~ionally adv kwa kudhamiria.

inter1 vt (formal) zika.

inter2 (prep) baina, kati ya; miongoni mwa.

interact vi athiriana, ingiliana, tendana. ~ion n. ~ive adj.

interalia adv (Lat) pamoja na mambo mengine.

interbreed vt,vi zalisha kwa kuchanganya damu (baina ya makabila, jamii n.k.), hulutiana.

intercalary adj (of a day or month) -a

siku iliyoongezwa (29 Feb); (of a year) -a mwaka mrefu.

intercede vi ~ (with somebody) (for somebody) ombea; tetea; sihi. intercession n kusihi; sala ya kuombea.

intercept vt 1 kamata, zuia njiani, ingilia kati. 2 (math) kutana. ~ion n. ~or n ndege ya kuzuia (adui).

interchange vt 1 (of two persons etc.)

badilishana (mashauri n.k.) we ~d books tulibadilishana vitabu. 2 (each of two things) badili ~ the position of two objects badili nafasi za vitu viwili. ~able adj -enye kubadi-lishana. n 1 badiliko; badilisho. 2 (also) ~ station stesheni ya kubadilisha njia ya kusafiri. 3 mahali pa kuingilia baraste (bila kuvuka

interest

barabara nyingine).

intercollegiate adj baina ya vyuo ~

games michezo baina ya vyuo.

intercommunicate vi wasiliana, pashana habari. intercommunication n.

intercom n (colloq) mawasiliano ya

ndani.

intercommunion n ibada ya pamoja

(ya madhehebu mbalimbali) ya meza ya Bwana.

intercontinental adj kati ya mabara.

intercourse n 1 (social) maingiliano, ushirikiano, kubadilishana (mawazo, n.k.); (comm) biashara; kubadilishana vitu. 2 (sexual) ~kujamiiana see coitus.

interdenominational adj baina ya madhehebu, -a kuhusu madhehebu mbalimbali.

interdepend vi tegemeana, husiana. ~ent adj -a kutegemeana. ~ence n. interdict vt (formal) kataza, piga marufuku, zuia (kwa amri ya serikali; (rel) tenga. n (esp RC) ilani: amri ya Kanisa ya kutenga watu, ibada zake. ~ion n.

interdisciplinary adj -enye kuhusu maeneo ya taaluma zaidi ya moja, -enye kuingiliana.

interest n 1 moyo wa kupenda kujua/ kujifunza jambo/kitu fulani, shauku he has a considerable ~ in world news anapenda sana habari za ulimwengu he listened with great ~ alisikiliza kwa shauku kubwa. 2 mvuto, raghba a novel of great ~ riwaya ya kuvutia sana. 3 upendeleo, kitu mtu anachopenda. 4 his main ~is fashion hasa anapenda mitindo; (often pl.) faida, manufaa, maslahi public ~ manufaa ya umma it is to your ~ to build a house kujenga nyumba ni kwa faida/manufaa yako. 5 ushirika, hisa have an ~ in a company -wa na ushirika/hisa katika kampuni fulani sell one's ~ in the company uza hisa katika kampuni fulani. 6 riba the society charges five per cent ~ on a loan chama

interface

hutoza riba ya asilimia tano kwenye mkopo lend at ~ kopesha kwa riba. with ~ (fig) kwa nguvu/kiasi kikubwa zaidi return somebody's hospitality with ~ lipa ukarimu wa mtu kwa kiwango kikubwa zaidi. 7 (often pl) kikundi cha watu wenye kazi/biashara n.k. ya aina moja the industrial ~s wenye viwanda vya biashara kwa pamoja the shipping ~s maslahi ya kampuni za meli kwa pamoja. vt ~ somebody in (something) tia moyo wa kupenda, vutia, tamanisha. ~ed adj ~ (in) 1 -a kupenda, -a kupendelea, -a kupendezewa. 2 -liovutika, -liovutiwa, -lioshawishika/shabikia. ~ing adj -a kupendeza. ~ingly adv. interface n 1 eneo linalomilikiwa na sehemu mbili. 2 (fig) eneo/ kipengee kinachojitokeza katika nyanja mbalimbali.

interfere vi 1 ~ (in something/with) (of persons) jiingiza, jitia kati, jidukiza, ingilia. 2 ~ (with) (of persons) chezea, haribu do not ~ with this machine usichezee mashine hii. 3 ~ with, (of events, circumstances etc) zuia, ingilia, pinza, katiza. ~nce n.

intergovernmental adj -enye kuhusu serikali mbalimbali; -a kati ya serikali mbalimbali.

interim n muda, wakaa. in the ~ kwa wakati huu; katika muda/kipindi fulani cha kati, -a muda ~ order amri ya muda ~ constitution katiba ya muda.

interior adj 1 -a ndani. 2 -a bara, si -a pwani. 3 -a nchini, si -a kigeni. the ~ n 1 upande wa ndani, ndani. 2 bara. 3 Ministry of the I~ Wizara ya Mambo ya Ndani.

interject vt chachawiza, hanikiza. ~ion n kihisishi: neno la kuonyesha mshangao (k.m. ee! loo! ati! kumbe! haya! hebu! weye!).

interlace vt, vi ~ (with) fumana, ingiana, sokotana. ~ment n.

interlard vt ~ with (formal)

intermix

changanya (hasa lugha na maneno ya kigeni), tia kati, ingiza kati.

interleave vt ~ (with) changanya kurasa tupu na zilizoandikwa kitabuni.

interleaf n gombo.

interlink vt,vi ungana; unganisha; fungana.

intelock vt,vi unganisha; fungamana,

ungana.

interlocutor n 1 mshiriki katika mazungumzo/majadiliano. interlocution n mazungumzo. ~y adj 1 -a mazungumzo. 2 (law) -a muda ~y order (decree) amri ya muda ~ y proceeding katikati ya shauri.

interloper n mdukizi.

interlude n 1 pumziko kati ya matukio/ vipindi viwili. 2 pumziko kati ya maonyesho mawili ya mchezo; muziki unaopigwa wakati huu. 3 nafasi kati ya sehemu za nyimbo za dini/zaburi.

intermarry vt ~ (with) (of tribes, races etc) oana kimseto, changanya damu. intermarriage n ndoa ya mseto.

intermeddle vt jitia kati, jishughulisha na (hasa mambo ya watu wengine), ingilia.

intermediary n 1 mwamuzi; mshenga; msuluhishi. 2 kitu cha kati adj ~ (between) -a kishenga; suluhishi kati. intermediate adj -a kati, -a baina ya n 1 mwamuzi; wasta. 2 kitu cha kati. intermediately adv.

interment n maziko; kuzika.

interminable adj pasipo mwisho, -a

kufululiza; -a kuchosha; -a kuchusha (kutokana na urefu). interminably adv milele, daima dawama.

intermingle vt,vi ~ (with), changanya, changamanisha, changanyikana; seta.

intermission n kituo; pumziko without ~ bila kituo/pumziko.

intermittent adj -a vipindi, -a kwenda na kurudi, si -a kufululiza. ~ly adv.

intermix vt,vi see mix changanya. ~

ture mchanganyiko.

intern

intern1 vt funga, zuia. ~ment n. ~ee n mfungwa.

intern2 n (US also interne) (US) daktari mkufunzi (anayemaliza mafunzo kwa kukaa hospitalini chini ya uangalizi wa daktari) (GB houseman). ~ship n

internal adj -a ndani ~ injury maumivu ya ndani. ~ combustion n 1 mwako wa ndani. 2 -a nchi yenyewe ~ affairs mambo ya ndani ya nchi. 3 -a asili, -a moyoni. ~ly adv.

international adj -a mataifa, -a kati/

baina ya mataifa; -a kimataifa ~ court of justice mahakama ya mataifa ~ conferences mikutano ya kimataifa ~ competitions mashindano ya kimataifa. ~ money order n hawala ya fedha ya kimataifa. the 1st/2nd/3rd ~ n vyama vitatu vya Kisoshalisti vya kimataifa vilivyoundwa mwaka 1864, 1889 na 1919. ~ism n umataifa, nadharia inayotetea maslahi ya kimataifa. ~ist n mtu anayetetea/unga mkono umataifa. ~ize vt fanya -a kimataifa, fanya mali ya mataifa. ~ization n. ~ly adv. ~e n. the ~e n wimbo wa kimapinduzi wa kijamaa.

interne n see intern2

internecine adj (usu of war) -enye kuleta madhara pande zote.

internee n see intern1

internet n intaneti mtandao wa mawasiliano ya kimataifa wa ki kompyuta .

interpellate vt kata kauli (waziri); katiza kwa kuuliza swali (kutaka maelezo). interpellation n 1 swali, ulizo. 2 kukatiza mtu kwa maswali.

interpersonal adj -a/-nayofanywa kati ya watu wawili.

interphone n (US) see intercom.

interplanetary adj -a baina ya sayari. interplay n uhusiano, mwingiliano.

Interpol n (International Police Commission) Shirika la Polisi la Kimataifa.

interpolate vt 1 toma maneno, tia

interrupt

maneno (yasiyokuwamo katika kitabu, hati, maandiko) the book has been ~d kitabu kimetomwa maneno yasiyokuwamo kilipoandikwa. 2 (maths) jaza nambari zihusuzo. interpolation n.

interpose vt,vi 1 weka kizuizi, pinga

(k.m. kura ya turufu). 2 ingilia kati, jitia kati; chachawiza. 3 ~ (oneself) between; ~ in -wa kati ya, -wa kiungo kati ya ~ between disputants suluhisha ugomvi; amua. interpositon n.

interpret vt 1 (translate) fasiri. 2

(explain) eleza, fafanua. 3 (consider) dhani/fikiria (kuwa maana yake). 4 (of dreams) agua. ~ation n fasiri; maelezo; ufafanuzi interpretation of statutes fasiri/ufafanuzi wa sheria, fasiri ya sheria interpretation of maps ufafanuzi wa ramani. ~er n 1 mkalimani. 2 mwaguzi.

interracial adj -a kati ya; -a kuhusu

watu wa mataifa/asili tofauti.

interregnum n kipindi ambacho mtawala mpya hajachaguliwa kushika nafasi ya mtawala wa zamani; pumziko, muda kati ya matukio mawili.

interrelate vt,vi husisha; husiana, shirikiana. interrelation n ~ of/ between uhusiano (wa pande zote/ baina ya). interrelationship n.

interrogate vt hoji, saili, dodosa.

interogator n mhojaji. interrogation n 1 masaili. interrogation point n alama ya kuuliza. 2 kuhoji, kuuliza, kusaili. 3 kutahini kwa mazungumzo. interrogative adj 1 -a kuuliza. 2 (gram) -a kuuliza interrogative pronouns (eg. who, which) viwakilishi vya kuuliza (k.m. nani, kipi). interrogatively adv. interrogatory adj -a kuuliza order of interrogatories amri ya maulizo.

interrupt vt,vi 1 dakiza, chachawiza. 2 ingilia, katiza; pinga. ~er n mtu/ kitu kinachopinga/katiza/chachawiza. ~ion n madakizo, katizo, zuio,

intersect

pingamizi there were many interruptions vilikuweko vipingamizi vingi.

intersect vt,vi 1 gawa kwa kukata/

pitisha/laza kimkingamo. 2 (of lines) kingamana, katana. ~ion n 1 kukatana, mkingamano. 2 (maths) ungano, nukta (mistari inapokingamana/kutana).

intersperse vt 1 ~ among/between

changanya, tawanya 2. ~ with changanyika. interspersion n mchanganyo.

interstate adj -a kati ya nchi na nchi ~ pact mkataba kati ya majimbo/ nchi.

interstellar adj baina ya nyota ~ space anga baina ya nyota.

interstice n ufa, mwanya; kipenyo, kitundu.

intertribal adj baina ya makabila ~ war vita baina ya makabila.

intertwine vt,vi pota, sokota; potana, sokotana.

interval n 1 muda/wakati baina ya

matukio mawili (hasa maonyesho ya mchezo) at ~s kwa vipindi at short ~s mara kwa mara, kwa vipindi vifupi. 2 nafasi baina ya vitu/vituo viwili coconut trees planted at ~s of ten meters minazi iliyopandwa kwa nafasi ya mita kumi. 3 (music) tofauti ya sauti baina ya noti mbili.

intervene vi 1 (of events, circumstances) ingilia kati. 2 ~ (in) (of persons) jitia kati; ingilia. 3 (of time) -ja, (-wa) kati ya. intervention n 1 kuingilia, kujitia kati. 2 (armed) uvamizi.

interview n mahojiano, masaili. vt hoji,

saili, dodosa. ~er n mhojaji. ~ee n mhojiwa, msailiwa.

interweave vt,vi ~ (with) fuma; fumana; sokota; sokotana.

interwind vt,vi sokota; sokotana,

zongomeza.

intestate adj -sioacha wasia.

intestine n matumbo small ~ chango, uchengelele large ~ utumbo mpana. intestinal adj -a matumbo.

intra -

intimate1 adj 1 -a ndani, -a moyo, -a moyoni.2 -a siri ~ friend msiri, mwandani. be/get on ~ terms (with) somebody -wa rafiki/ mwandani wa. 3 (thorough, complete) kamili, -a -ote; -a undani ~ knowledge kujua sana. n msiri, rafiki mwema, mwandani. intimacy n 1 urafiki wa karibu sana; (euphem) ngono, kujamiiana. 2 (pl) vitendo vya kimapenzi (k.m. kukumbatiana, kupigana busu n.k.). ~ly adv.

intimate2 vt ~ something (to somebody); (to somebody) that, arifu, tangaza, eleza; onyesha wazi wazi. intimation n.

intimidate vi ~ (into) tisha, ogofya.

intimidation n.

into prep 1 (indicating motion/direction to a point within) katika, kwenye, ndani ya come ~ the house ingia ndani ya nyumba. 2 (indicating change of condition/result) -ni; kuwa; kwa she `ll get ~ trouble ataingia matatani the rain changed ~ snow mvua iligeuka kuwa theluji be ~ something (mod use, colloq) jiingiza, zamia. 3 (maths) kwa 4 ~ 24 (= 24 divide by 4) goes 6 24 kwa 4 huwa 6.

intolerable adj -siovumilika, -siostahamilika it is an ~ situation hali hii haivumiliki. intolerably adv. intolerant adj. intolerant (of) -siovumilivu, -siostahamili. intolerantly adv. intolerance n.

intonation n lafudhi; kiimbo. intone vt ingiza kiimbo, tia kiimbo (sema kwa sauti ya kuimba).

in toto adv (Lat) kwa jumla.

intoxicate vt 1 levya, lewesha, lewa he is ~d amelewa. 2 rusha akili, tia jazba, shindwa kujitawala. intoxicating adj. intoxication n. intoxicant n 1 kileo, kilevi adj -a ulevi.

intra - pref forming adj -a ndani ya,

katika ~cellular -a ndani ya seli ~cranial -a ndani ya fuvu la kichwa. ~ molecular adj (physics)

intractable

-a ndani ya molekyula ~mural -a ndani ya (kanisa, chuo n.k.) ~muscular -a ndani ya musuli ~cuterine (med) -a katika uzazi. ~uterine device n (IUD) kitanzi, kidude cha kuzuia mimba. ~venous adj -a katika mishipa.

intractable adj siodhibitiwa kwa

urahisi; gumu kushughulikia/tawala.

intransigent adj -siotaka/kubali mapatano/maafikiano; -enye msimamo usiobadilika. intransigence n.

intransitive adj -sio kikomo. ~verb n kitenzi kisichoelekezi. ~ly adv.

intrench vt see entrench.

intrepid adj -jasiri, shujaa, hodari,

jabari. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

intricate adj tatanishi, -enye kutatiza, -enye kutatanisha. ~ly adv. intricacy n.

intrigue vi,vt ~(with somebody) (against somebody) -la njama; vutia sana. n 1 kula njama, kigwena. 2 mapenzi ya kuibana. ~r n.

intrinsic adj (of value, quality) -a asili, halisi ~ value of a coin thamani ya madini ndani ya sarafu. ~ally adv.

introduce vt 1 wasilisha. 2 ~ into/to anzisha, anza, leta. 3 ~ somebody (to somebody) tambulisha, (make acquainted) julisha. 4 ~ (into), ingiza, penyeza. introduction n 1 utambulisho, ufahamisho letter of introduction barua ya utambulisho. 2 kutambulisha (watu). 3 utangulizi. 4 (of a textbook) kitabu cha msingi (wa somo fulani). introductory adj 1 -a mwanzo; -a kuanzisha. 2 -a utambulisho.

introspect vt jipima, jichungua, jifikiria (kupata hali halisi ya mawazo, hisia n.k.). ~ion n. ~ive adj.

introvert vt (mind/thought) geuza ndani, elekeza ndani, peleka ndani. n mndani. introversion n.

intrude vi,vt ~ (oneself) on/upon somebody; ~ (oneself/something) into something dukiza, ingia ~ on

invalid

somebody's privacy ingilia faragha ya mwingine ~ into other people's affairs ingilia/jidukiza katika mambo ya wengine; leta/ingiza pasipo adabu (kwa jeuri au ufidhuli), jipenyeza, jidukiza. ~r n. intrusion n intrusion (on/upon/into) 1 kujipenyeza, kujidukiza, kuingilia. 2 dukizo. intrusive adj.

intrust vt see entrust.

intuit vt,vi hisi, jua, ng'amua (kwa

maono juu ya kitu). intuition n 1 (power of) kipaji/uwezo wa kuelewa/ kuhisi kitu haraka (bila kufikiria sana). 2 welewa, ujuzi (usiohitaji kufikiri/wala ushahidi) intuition as to the character of a person ujuzi (maono) juu ya tabia ya mtu (bila kuwa na sababu thabiti) have an intuition of something hisi. intuitive adj -enye kuweza kuhisi. intuitively adv.

inundate vt ~ (with) gharikisha, funikiza maji, furika katika; (fig) (fill up) jaza, zidi, eneza, songa be ~d with requests -wa/lemewa na maombi mengi. inundation n.

inure;enure vt,vi ~ oneself/somebody to zoeza; zoea; lemaza ~d to -zoevu wa.

invade vt vamia; shambulia; ingilia ~ a state vamia nchi ~ somebody's privacy ingilia faragha ya mwingine ~ somebody's rights ingilia haki ya mtu. ~r n. invasion n 1 uvamizi, shambulio. 2 (encroachment) kuingilia. 3 (leg) ~ of somebody's rights kuingilia haki ya mtu. 4 (med) kuingia kwa maradhi. invasive adj -a kuingilia (kivita), -a uvamizi; -nayoelekea kusambaa.

invalid1 adj batili, -liotanguka; -a bure declare ~ futa (cheti, hati n.k.). ~ate vt fanya batili, batilisha, tangua. ~ation n. ~ity n.

invalid2 adj 1 -gonjwa, -sio na nguvu, -siojiweza. 2 -nayofaa kwa wagonjwa ~ chair kiti cha kiwete. vi,vt tendea kama asiyejiweza ~ somebody home achisha mtu (hasa

invaluable

askari) kazi kwa ugonjwa n.k.

invaluable adj ~ (to) -a thamani sana, -a tunu, -siokadirika kwa kuwa na thamani sana (kwa kuwa na manufaa n.k.).

invariable adj -siobadilika, -siogeuka, sawasawa. invariably adv sikuzote, kila wakati.

invective n shutuma; matusi. ~ language n lugha chafu.

inveigh vi ~ against somebody/ something sema kwa hasira, shutumu, kemea, shambulia kwa maneno.

inveigle vt ~ somebody into (doing) something vuta kwa werevu (hila n.k.), laghai; shawishi, ghilibu. ~ment n.

invent vt 1 buni, vumbua. 2 tunga,

unda. ~ive adj. ~or n. ~ion n 1 uvumbuzi, ubunifu (something ~ed) bidaa. 2 (untruth) uwongo, hila. 3 (~iveness) akili ya kuvumbua/kubuni n.k.; werevu.

inventory n 1 orodha, hesabu; (ya vitu/ bidhaa).

invert vt pindua, geuza. ~ed commas n alama za mtajo. inversion n. inverse adj 1. -a kinyume, mbalimbali, -a kupinduka, pindu. 2 (math) inverse matrix solokinyume/pindu inverse property tabia ya kinyume n kinyume; (math) inverse of relation kinyume cha uhusiano. inversely adv.

invertebrate adj 1 -sio na uti wa mgongo. 2 (fig) (of person) legelege. n (bio) mnyama asiye na uti wa mgongo, msouti wa mgongo

invest vt 1 ~ (in) wekeza, tega uchumi ~ money tega fedha (uchumi). 2 ~ in (colloq) nunua (kitu cha manufaa). 3 ~ with -pa, vika, pamba ~ with authority -pa madaraka. 4 (besiege) zunguka, zingira, fanya mazingira. ~ment n kitega uchumi. ~or n. ~iture n usimikaji/uingizaji; kuweka/kukabidhisha/kuingiza (katika kazi cheo, daraja, n.k.).

investigate vt 1 chungua, chunguza,

involve

peleleza ~ a murder chunguza mauaji. 2 tafuta habari ya, hoji, hakiki. investigator n. investigation n.

inveterate adj (esp. of habits, feelings) -a zamani; -a nguvu; -zoevu, -liojijenga an ~ thief/drunkard etc mwizi/mlevi kupindukia/mzoefu/ aliyekubuhu.

invidious adj chochezi, -nayoleta chuki. ~ly adv.

invigilate vi simamia (wanafunzi wanaofanya) mtihani. invigilator n. invigilation n.

invigorate vt tia nguvu/uzima,

imarisha, tia moyo.

invincible adj -sioshindika,

-sioshindikana (kwa sababu ya kuwa na nguvu nyingi). invincibly adv. invincibility n.

inviolate adj -a wakfu; -siodhurika;

-siokiukwa. inviolable adj -siokiukwa; -siodhurika; wakfu; -a heshima.

invisible adj -sioonekana become ~

toweka; tokomea. ~ exports/ imports n fedha inayopatikana kutokana na huduma, riba ya mtaji, utalii n.k.. ~ mending n mshono uliofichika. ~ ink n wino ambao mwandiko hauonekani mpaka karatasi ipashwe moto. invisibility n. invisibly adv.

invite vi 1 (guests) karibisha; alika. 2 (attract) vuta, shawishi. 3 ita, taka, omba. n (colloq) aliko. inviting adj invitingly adv. invitation n.

invoice vt tengeneza ankara/bili. n ankara; bili.

invoke vt 1 omba kwa Mungu/sheria

n.k. 2 ~ something on/upon omba; sihi. 3 (by magic) ita. invocation n.

involuntary adj -siokusudiwa, pasipo

kutaka; bila kujua. involuntarily adv.

involute adj -enye sehemu nyingi, -liotata, -liosokotwa kuzunguka; (kwa jani) kunjwa kwa ndani pembeni. involution n.

involve vt 1 ~ (in) husisha; ingiza

invulnerable

matatani I 'm not ~d in this matter sihusiki, simo katika shauri hili. 2 -wa sababu ya, sababisha; maanisha. 3 ~d adj tata, -gumu. be/ become/ get ~d in something/with somebody husika kwenye kitu fulani na mtu fulani. ~ment n.

invulnerable adj -siodhurika be ~ -todhurika. invulnerability n.

inward adj -a ndani; -a moyoni. ~s adv ndani, rohoni. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

inwrought adj -liopambwa kwa urembo.

iodine n aidini: madini ya joto.

ion n (phys) ioni. ~ize vi,vt badilika

kuwa ioni. ~ization n uionishaji. ~sphere n tabakaioni.

iota n herufi ya Kigriki; (fig) chembe,

kiasi kidogo sana not an ~ of truth in the statement maneno haya si kweli hata kidogo.

IOU n = I owe you naahidi kulipa

(deni), hati ya kukiri deni, hakiri deni.

ipse dixit (Lat) ni kauli halisi yake.

Iran n Uajemi. ~ian n Mwajemi, mwenyeji wa nchi ya Uajemi adj -a Uajemi; -a Kiajemi.

irascible adj (formal) -a hamaki, -epesi kukasirika. irascibility n.

irate adj (formal) -a hasira, furufuru,

-a harara.

ire n (poet or formal) hasira, ghadhabu, ufurufuru. ~ful adj.

iridescent adj -enye rangi kama upinde wa mvua, -a rangi upindemvua. iridescence n.

iridium n (ir) (chem) iridiamu.

iris n 1 mboni. 2 airisi: aina ya mmea

-maua wa majani ya umbo la upanga.

Irish adj 1 -a Ireland. ~ potatoes n mbatata, viazi mviringo ~ stew supu ya nyama ya kondoo. n lugha ya Kiairishi. 2 the I~ n Waairishi, watu wa Ireland.

irk vt udhi, kera, sumbua it ~s me to (do something) nakerwa (kufanya). ~some adj -a kuudhi, -a kero, sumbufu.

irrational

iron n 1 chuma as hard as ~ -gumu sana; -a kama chuma. rule with a rod of ~/with an ~hand tawala kwa ukali. a man of ~ mtu mgumu; mtu asiye na huruma, mkatili. an ~ fist in a velvet glove ukatili uliofichika. strike while the ~ is hot udongo upate uli maji; samaki mkunje angali mbichi. I~ Age n (prehistoric) Enzi ya Chuma. ~ curtain n (fig) pazia la chuma, mpaka baina ya nchi zisizobadilishana habari wala biashara. ~ lung n mashine ya kuvutia hewa. ~ rations n akiba ya chakula cha dharura. 2 (esp in compounds) vifaa vya chuma. (flat) ~ n pasi fire ~s n koleo; kingoe chenye kichwa cha chuma; chombo cha kutilia chapa. have too many ~s in the fire -wa na mambo mengi ya kufanya kwa wakati mmoja. (pl) ~s n pingu, minyororo 3. (compounds) ~-clad adj -liolindwa kwa chuma. ~-foundry n kiwanda cha (kukalibu) chuma. ~-grey adj, n rangi ya chuma. ~-monger n mfanyabiashara wa bidhaa za chuma. ~-mongery n biashara ya vyombo vya chuma. ~-mould n doa la kutu/wino. ~-side n askari mpanda farasi wa karne ya 17; (fig) mtu mbishi; mkaidi. ~-ware n vyombo vya chuma. ~-work n kifaa kilichotengenezwa kwa chuma k.v. reli. ~-works n (usu with sing v) kiwanda cha chuma. vt,vi piga pasi ~ out ondoa kwa kupiga pasi k.v. mikunjo; (fig) ondoa, suluhisha k.v. ugomvi. ~ing-board n ubao wa kupigia pasi.

irony n 1 kejeli; kinaya. 2 jambo la

kinyume. ironic; ironical adj -a kejeli, -a kinaya. ironically adv.

irradiate vt (formal) 1 angaza, mulika, (fig) toa mwanga (juu ya jambo), dokeza. 2 tia nuru; ng'arisha, -wa angavu (kwa furaha).

irrational adj 1 bila mantiki/akili. 2

bila sababu; (math) -siowiana, witiri

irreconcilable

~ numbers namba witiri/zisizowiana. ~ly adv.

irreconcilable adj (formal) (of persons) -sioweza kupatanishwa; (of ideas, actions) -siopatana.

irrecoverable adj (formal) -siopatikana tena; -siorekebishika; -siolipika ~ losses hasara isiyolipika.

irredeemable adj (of paper currency) 1 -siobadilishika kwa sarafu (of government annuities) -siodaika. 2 -siorudishika, -siookoleka.

irredentist n (In politics) mtu anayedai kuunganishwa kwa nchi zenye asili moja/kitamaduni n.k.

irreducible adj ~ (to) (formal) 1 -isiopunguka; -siopunguzika, -sioweza kupunguzwa. 2 -siorekebishika.

irrefutable adj -siokanikana, -siokanushika; kweli, dhahiri.

irregular adj 1 -si -a kawaida; -siofuata kanuni ~ attendance mahudhurio ya wasiwasi, kutohudhuria mara kwa mara. ~ troops n askari wasio wanajeshi, askari wa mgambo. 2 -siolingana; -siokuwa na taratibu. 3 (gram) -siofuata kanuni za kunyambulika, -siotabirika. n (usu pl) mwanamgambo. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

irrelevant adj ~ (to) -siopasa,

-siohusu. irrelevance; irrelevancy n.

irreligious adj -sioshika dini; -a kupinga dini.

irremediable adj -siorekebishika; -sioponyeka.

irremissible adj -siosameheka.

irremovable adj -sioondosheka, imara, madhubuti.

irreparable adj (of injury, loss etc)

-siorekebishika; -siotengenezeka.

irreplaceable adj -siofidika ~ loss hasara isiyofidika

irrepressible adj -siozuilika, -siotulizika; -siodhibitika.

irreproachable adj -siolaumika, -sio

na hatia, -sio na kosa.

irresistible adj -siokatalika,

-siozuilika; -siokanika.

irresolute adj -a kusitasita, -sio

island

shupavu, -sio na uamuzi. irresolution n.

irrespective adj ~ (of) bila kujali; bila

kuangalia/zingatia.

irresponsible adj 1 -siowajibika, -siopaswa. 2 (unreliable) -sioaminika; -siotumainiwa. irresponsibility n utovu wa nidhamu/uaminifu, kutowajibika.

irresponsive adj -nyamavu, baridi. be ~ -tojibu, kaa kimya.

irretentive adj -sahaulifu have an ~

memory kuwa msahaulifu.

irretrievable adj -siopatikana tena; -siotengenezeka.

irreverent adj -sioheshimu vitu vitakatifu, safihi (wa vitu vitakatifu). ~ly adv.

irreversible adj -siogeuka; -siotangulika; -siobadilika; (math) -siogeuzika.

irrevocable adj -a makataa; -siotenguka; -siobadilika.

irrigate vt 1 mwagilia, nywesha. 2 jenga mabwawa/mifereji kwa ajili ya umwagiliaji. 3 osha kidonda (jeraha n.k. kwa maji yanayotiririka). irrigation n umwagiliaji, (attrib) an irrigation project mradi wa umwagiliaji.

irritate vt 1 kasirisha; sumbua; kera,

udhi. 2 washa; choma. irritation n. irritable adj -enye kuudhika upesi; -enye harara. irritably adv. irritability n. irritant adj -a kuwasha; -a kusumbua, -a kukera. n kitu kinachowasha/sumbua.

irruption n kuingia kwa ghafla na nguvu; kudukiza.

isinglass n utandogundi (unaotengenezwa na vibofu hewa vya samaki).

Islam n Uislamu; Waislamu wote; nchi zote za Kiislamu. I~ic adj -a Kiislamu.

island n kisiwa, kitu kifananacho na

kisiwa (kwa kuwa peke yake au kuzungukwa na kitu kingine) traffic ~ kizingwa barabara: mahali katikati ya barabara pa kutenga

isle

magari. ~er n mzaliwa/mkazi wa kisiwani.

isle n (not much used in prose, except in proper names) 1 kisiwa the Zanzibar ~s Visiwa vya Zanzibar. 2 kijisiwa kidogo.

ism n itikadi/nadharia maalumu.

isn't see be1

isobar n isobaa: mstarikani (sawa) unaochorwa kwenye ramani kuunganisha au kuonyesha sehemu zenye msukumo wa hewa wa kiasi kimoja.

isolate vt ~ (from) tenga. isolation n. isolation (from) kukaa upweke, upekee; kutenga isolation hospital/ward hospitali/wadi ya wagonjwa wa kuambukiza. isolationism n (in international affairs) siasa ya kujitenga (kutojihusisha na mambo ya nchi nyingine). isolationist n mtu aungaye mkono siasa ya kujitenga.

isosceles adj (of a triangle) -a pembe/pande pacha. ~ triangle n pande/pembetatu pacha.

isotherm n hali joto sawa: mstari wa ramani unaounganisha mahali penye kadiri ile ile ya joto.

isotope n isotopu: atomi yenye uzito

tofauti na atomi nyingine.

Israel n Uyahudi.

issue vt, vi 1 ~ (out/forth) (from) -ja, toka. 2 ~ (something to somebody); ~ (somebody with something) toa, gawa (kwa ajili ya matumizi). 3 ~ (to) chapisha, toa stempu/noti mpya. n 1 kutoka; kitokacho. 2 kutoa. 3 toleo. 4 suala, hoja join/take ~ with somebody (on/about something) jadili/toa hoja (juu ya jambo); bishana. the point/matter at ~ suala linalojadiliwa. 5 matokeo. 6 (leg) mtoto, dhuria.

isthmus n shingo ya nchi (iunganishayo mabara mawili.

it pron 1 (used of lifeless things, or animals; when sex is unknown or unimportant) hiki, hicho; huyo; huyu; hii, huu ~ is a book hiki ni kitabu. 2

italic

(used to refer to group of words which follow infinitive phrases) ~ iseasy to learn Kiswahili ni rahisi kujifunza Kiswahili; (construction with for) ~ was hard for her to live on beer brewing ilikuwa vigumu kwake kuishi kwa kupika pombe; (gerundial phrase) ~ is no use trying to win me back haitasaidia kujaribu kurudisha roho yangu; a clause: does ~ matter what you do next? ina tofauti yoyote kuwa utafanya nini baadaye? 3 (used to refer backwards or forwards to identify somebody or something except when the identity of the person is known) ~ is the milkman ni muuza maziwa. 4 (used as a formal or meaningless word to supply a subject) dealing with weather, atmospheric condition etc kuna ~ is hot kuna joto; (for time) ni ~ is 18th of January ni tarehe 18 ya Januari; (for distance) ~ is five kilometres to Kileleni ni kilometa tano hadi Kileleni; (vaguely for the general situation or for something that is understood from context) you've had ~ utakiona. 5 (used to bring into prominence one part of a sentence) ~ was his second book which made him famous ni kitabu chake cha pili kilichomfanya mashuhuri (the object of a verb) ~ is the pocket dictionary that I want ni kamusi ya mfukoni niitakayo (the object of a prep) ~ was Jimmy I gave the book to ni Jimmy niliyempa kitabu (an adverbal adjunct) ~ was on Monday that I saw him ilikuwa Jumatatu nilipomwona ~s (poss) adj -ake the dog wagged ~ s tail mbwa alitikisa mkia wake. ~ self reflex pron -enyewe. by ~self -enyewe the machine works by ~self mashine inajiendesha yenyewe, peke yake.

italic adj (of printed letters) -a italiki,

-a mlazo. n (pl) herufi mlazo/za italiki. ~ize vt piga chapa kwa herufi mlazo/za italiki.

itch

itch n (with def or indef art but rarely pl) 1 mwasho I have an ~ kitu kinaniwasha; nawashwa. 2 (usu with the indef art or a poss adj) shauku; hamu, uchu. vi 1 washa my hand ~es kiganja changu kinawasha. 2 ~ for (colloq) -wa na hamu. have an ~ing palm -wa na hamu ya kupata fedha/utajiri. ~y adj.

item n 1 kitu kimoja (agh. katika orodha). 2 aya; maelezo; kipengee ~ of news kipengee cha habari adv pia, aidha (used to introduce successive articles in a list) ~ three kitu cha tatu. ~ize vt andika/toa kitu kimojakimoja; orodhesha; chambua.

iterate vt kariri, rudiarudia, sisitiza.

iteration n.

itinerary n 1 mpango/utaratibu wa

safari; njia ya safari. 2 shajara ya safari adj -a safari. itinerant adj -a kuzungukazunguka, -a kutembea- tembea, -a kuvinjari. itinerate vi vinjari, zungukazunguka, tembeatembea. itineration n.

izzard

it'll it will. it's it is/it has.

I've I have

ivory n meno/pembe ya ndovu; (attrib) rangi ya pembe ya ndovu. ~ tower n mahali palipojitenga/ pasipofanana na hali halisi ya maisha.

ivy n mwefeu: aina ya mmea unaotambaa wenye majani yenye ncha tano. ivied adj -liofunikwa na mwefeu.

izzard n (arch) herufi z.

 

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INSTITUTE OF KISWAHILI RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P. O. Box 35110, DAR-ES-SALAAM, TANZANIA.

ęTaasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI) 2000 Second Edition 2000
ISBN 9976 911 29 7
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